paper

© All Rights Reserved

8 tayangan

paper

© All Rights Reserved

- Finite Element Analysis of Circular Concrete Filled Tube Connections
- 11 energy methods
- Column Base Connections Baniotopoulos Cc
- MEEM 2150 MTU Vable Mechanics of Materials Solutions CH1
- Engineering Properties of Structural Steel
- Tests on Rocks
- Flat Slab Design _ Engineering Dissertations
- Wu-Performance of LS-DYNA Concrete Constitutive Models
- COST_4643
- Reinforced Earth
- 1.2 Strength of Materials
- 2 Axial Loading
- solid mechanics syllabus ME223
- DOEAL-SG-100_AppM_09-30-05_final
- Noonan 1972
- 1.2 Strength of Materials
- Calculated Stress in CAESAR II Software by Using Failure Theory
- Numercial Evaluation of Strength and Deformability of Fractured Rocks
- reinforced concrete
- 2 Axial Loading

Anda di halaman 1dari 12

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Review

constructed in deep overburden

Xiang Yu a, Xianjing Kong a,b,, Degao Zou a,b, Yang Zhou a,b, Zhiqiang Hu a,b

a

b

The State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 8 December 2014

Received in revised form 29 May 2015

Accepted 31 May 2015

Available online 25 June 2015

Keywords:

Asphalt concrete core dam

Deep overburden

Concrete cut-off wall

Plastic-damage model

Damage degree

a b s t r a c t

Asphalt concrete core dams (ACCDs) are becoming more widely used worldwide. ACCDs with concrete

cut-off walls (for controlling foundation seepage) have been constructed in deep overburden. It is important to assess dam safety by analysing the stress and deformation behaviour of the concrete cut-off wall.

In this study, a 3D nite element (FE) procedure was developed to simulate the dam construction and

water impounding processes of an ACCD. Rockll/gravel materials were described using a Duncan

Chang model, and the interface between the concrete cut-off wall and the foundation gravel was

modelled using interfacial elements that follow a tangential hyperbolic stressstrain model. The linear

elastic and plastic-damage models were employed to model the concrete cut-off wall. The

stress-deformation behaviour and the damage distribution of the concrete cut-off wall were numerically

simulated and analysed. The results indicate that the plastic-damage model was more reliable than the

elastic model in describing the mechanical behaviour of the concrete cut-off wall. The plastic-damage

model can be used to evaluate the safety of concrete cut-off walls constructed in deep overburden.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Constitutive model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.

Plastic-damage model for concrete material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.

Hyperbolic model for interface material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.

DuncanChang model for rockfill/gravel material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dam FE model and material parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.

Basic information about the dam case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.

FE mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.

Material parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.

Deformation behaviour of the concrete cut-off wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.

Elastic analysis results of the concrete cut-off wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.

Plastic-damage analyses of the concrete cut-off wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4.

Constructing the cut-off wall with plastic concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Corresponding author at: School of Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

E-mail address: kongxj@dlut.edu.cn (X. Kong).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2015.05.015

0266-352X/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

463

463

463

464

464

465

465

465

465

467

467

467

469

471

471

472

472

463

1. Introduction

In the past half-century, over one hundred asphalt concrete

core dams (ACCDs) have been built worldwide due to the

advanced waterproof and deformation-adaptive behaviour [1].

As evidenced by past studies [26], China is experienced in the

construction of ACCDs. A few ACCDs are over 100 m in height,

such as the Maoping Xi Dam [7] and the Yele Dam [8]. The

Quxue dam (on the Shuoqu River, Sichuan Province), which is

currently in the design stage, will be approximately 170 m tall

[9]. However, the rapid development of dams in China has

resulted in ACCDs being built on overburden. Table 1 lists

ACCDs that have been built on overburden in China [1012].

Because of this, foundation seepage control is an important issue

to address in ACCD construction.

A concrete cut-off wall is a popular and effective way to control

foundation seepage and is an indispensable component of an

impervious system. However, it is important to assess dam safety

by properly analysing the stress and deformation behaviour of

the concrete cut-off wall. Past studies have adopted linear elastic

models to describe the stressstrain relationship of concrete

cut-off walls [1317]. However, many testing results have indicated that concrete exhibits nonlinear behaviour, such as

multi-axial strength and strain-softening properties [1820],

which cannot be characterized by linear elastic models.

Moreover, a concrete cut-off wall built in deep overburden presents a complex 3D stress state due to the forces of the dam body,

the retained water and the foundation pressures. An advanced

model is required to accurately describe these variable features.

The nonlinear behaviour of concrete at the macroscopic level is

dependent on the formation of micro-cracks. Consequently, it is

important to simulate crack initiation and propagation in the analysis of concrete structures [21]. Hillerborg [22] proposed a theoretical crack model in which fracture energy [2325] was rst

introduced. The crack was assumed to form as the stress reached

sufcient strength. The fracture energy was applied to control

the propagation of the crack. A crack band model presented by

Banzant and Oh [26] modelled the fracture as a blunt smeared

crack band. The fracture energy, uniaxial strength and width of

the crack band were adopted to characterize the fracture properties. Lubliner et al. [27] presented a plastic-damage model (i.e.,

the Barcelona model) with consistent and physically relevant constitutive relations originating from plasticity theory and a scalar

damage variable based on the fracture energy used to represent

damage states. Lee and Fenves [28] proposed a modied

Barcelona model (i.e., the Lee-Fenves model) in which

multiple-hardening variables were applied to account for the different damage states. They also derived a return-mapping

Table 1

Basic information of ACCDs built on overburden.

Dam name

Basin location

Dam

height

(m)

Maximum overburden

thickness (m)

Yele

Province

Dadu River, Sichuan

Province

Tashkurghan River,

Xinjiang Province

Lasalle River, Tibetan

Province

Nenjiang River.

Mongolia province

Dadu River, Sichuan

Province

125.5

400

70.0

70

78.0

148

72.0

200

41.5

40

95.5

130

Longtoushi

Xiabandi

Pangduo

Nierji

Huangjinping

[29]. In recent years, the Lee-Fenves model has been widely used

in the FE damage analysis of concrete dams [3033]. This model

was also employed by Dakoulas [34] to study the state of concrete

slabs of concrete-faced rockll dams.

The water tightness of the concrete cut-off wall is important

with respect to the safety of dams built on deep overburden. A

realistic modelling of the nonlinear material behaviour is essential.

In this study, a linear elastic model and the Lee-Fenves model were

employed for the thorough analysis of a concrete cut-off wall on

the deep overburden of an ACCD. The dam/foundation deformation

and the contact conditions of the impervious structure were

numerically simulated. A 3D FE program, GEODYNA, developed

by Zou [35] and used in many studies [3640], was also adopted

for the multi-stage static analysis of ACCD construction and water

impounding. The constitutive models presented in Section 2

were incorporated into GEODYNA, and the performance of the

Lee-Fenves model and this program were validated. The

stress-deformation behaviour and the distribution of damage for

the concrete cut-off wall were analysed based on the numerical

simulations.

2. Constitutive model

2.1. Plastic-damage model for concrete material

The Lee-Fenves model was used to simulate the

damage-cracking of a concrete cut-off wall. The main components

of this model are introduced here; a full description can be found in

[21,28].

According to the theory of plasticity, the total strain e can be

decomposed into two parts:

e ee ep

where ee and ep are the elastic and the plastic components, respectively. Then, the stressstrain relationship can be written as

r 1 Dr 1 DE0 : e ep

where r

and D is a scalar degradation damage variable that represents

decreased elastic stiffness.

Lubliner [27] assumed that the total stress strength can be

described by the plastic strain, and the relationship is presented as

r@ ep f @0 1 a@ expb@ ep a@ exp2b@ ep

state variable, @ = t indicates uniaxial tension state, and the state of

uniaxial compression is @ = c.

The damage variable j@ represents the damage states and is

dened as

j@

1

g@

Z

0

ep

r@ ep dep ; g @

r@ ep dep

a micro-crack. The damage variable can also be derived from the

ratio of the fracture energy G@ [22] to the characteristic length l@

(i.e., g@ = G@/l@) [41].

Two additional damage parameters are dened to independently represent the tensile and compressive behaviours and are

only functions of j:

D@ j@ 1

p d@ =b@

1

1 a@ /@ j@

;

a@

/@ j@ 1 a@ 2 a@ j@

464

and closing behaviour of the crack. The degradation damage variable D in Eq. (2) can be expressed by

D 1 1 Dc jc 1 sDt jt

by

; j

Fr

p

1

^ max i cj

aI1 3J 2 bjhr

1a

^

max is the maximum

where a and b are dimensionless parameters, r

principal stress, I1 and J2 are stress invariants, c is the cohesion

strength, and hi denotes the Macaulay bracket function. The

DruckerPrager yield function and Mises yield function can be

obtained by setting b = 0 and a = b = 0, respectively. Fig. 1 shows

the relationship between the yield functions.The normality plastic

ow rule is applied as

p

2J 2 ap I1

and ap is a parameter of dilatancy.

in GEODYNA. To validate the performance of this advanced model

and the FE program, existing uniaxial and biaxial loading experiments [19] were simulated. As shown in Fig. 2, the simulated

results were compared with the reported results from the corresponding experiments. The numerical results from the simulations

generally agreed with the experimental data. The plastic-damage

model was able to accurately describe the stressstrain behaviour

of concrete under different stress states. The simulated results

showed that the plastic-damage constitutive model was successfully incorporated into the analysis and was adequate for the

plastic-damage analysis of concrete.

2.2. Hyperbolic model for interface material

Generally, the contact element should be set to simulate the

contact behaviour between two materials with distinctly different

deformation properties. In this study, the Goodman contact

element [42] was applied between two materials with distinct

behaviour (concrete cut-off wall and foundation gravel) to examine

the contact behaviour, especially slipping. The relationship

between the force and displacement of the contact element was

reported in [37,38]. Although many models have been developed

to express the stressstrain relationship of contact elements

[4348], the hyperbolic model proposed by Clough and Duncan

[43] was adopted for the Goodman contact element. The stiffness

in the tangential of the contact element can be expressed by a

few parameters obtained from shear tests. The detailed expressions of stiffness in different directions and the description of the

employed parameters of the hyperbolic model were reported in

[37,38].

2.3. DuncanChang model for rockll/gravel material

Although a general plastic model [4952] would be better to

simulate the behaviour of rockll/gravel, the lack of available testing data would be a disadvantage. The hyperbolic model proposed

by Duncan and Chang [53] has been used extensively in the study

of embankment dams to establish the pre-seismic stressstrain

state, and the numerical results were consistent with the in situ

measurements [54]. The model accounts for the loading/unloading

stress path and the hyperbolic dependency of the elastic moduli on

the current stress state. The involved parameters can be readily

determined from well-studied triaxial data despite the dilatancy

and the plasticity not being well-expressed. In this study, the

DuncanChang model was employed to describe the behaviour of

dam materials and foundation gravel. In addition, although the

40

-3.0

35

-2.5

+ 1

Stress 1 (MPa)

Stress 1 (MPa)

30

25

+ 2

20

15

1/2

10

1/1 (Experimental)

1/0 (Experimental)

Numerical

5

0

-2.0

1/ 2

-1.5

-1/-1 (Experimental)

-1/ 0 (Experimental)

Numerical

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

Strain 1 (mm/m)

Strain 1 (mm/m)

Fig. 2. Numerical solution of uniaxial and biaxial loading compared with experimental result.

-0.4

-0.5

the asphalt concrete core located in the centre of the dam is quite

small compared with the dam body. Thus, the deformation of the

core will be controlled by the dam body, and the creep of the core

may hardly have an effect on the concrete cut-off wall. Thus, the

asphalt concrete core was also studied using the DuncanChang

model [5557].

3. Dam FE model and material parameters

3.1. Basic information about the dam case

In the feasibility study stage of a water control project used for

power generation, irrigation, and water storage, an ACCD with a

maximum height of 56 m was designed to act as the

water-retaining structure. The elevation of the dam crest was

2136 m, and the dam crest was 330 m in length and 10 m in width.

Both the upstream and downstream dam slopes were 1/1.8 (vertical

to horizontal). A 2 m wide road was set on the downstream slope at

the elevation level (EL) of 2115 m. The dam was also designed to be

built on a deep gravel overburden. To control foundation leakage, a

concrete cut-off wall was selected as the vertical anti-seepage measure. The wall was designed with a thickness of 1 m and a maximum

depth of 87 m with 1 m inserted into the bedrock. The geological

cross section of the river valley and the typical cross-section of the

dam are shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively.

3.2. FE mesh

After a slight simplication (which did not affect the general

shape) to the slope of the valley shown in Fig. 3, a 3D FE mesh

465

230,220 elements, and 4730 elements were used to model the

concrete cut-off wall. Spatial 8-node isoparametric elements were

used to simulate the material mesh. To more accurately capture

the behaviour of the concrete cut-off wall, two layers of mesh

elements were used to model the wall thickness, and the Wilson

nonconforming element [58,59] was employed to reveal the

bending behaviour more precisely. As shown in Fig. 6, the dam

construction and water impounding stages were step-by-step

and were simulated with 16 steps and 13 steps, respectively. The

layer thickness was not greater than 5 m. Water was impounded

from ELs of 2080 m to 2130 m after dam construction was completed. The water pressure was simulated as surface forces and

was applied to the impervious system, as shown in Fig. 7, demonstrating the FE mesh of the entire impervious system. The dam was

xed in the x, y and z directions of the bottom boundary. The

boundary condition of the maximum cross-section was indicated

in Fig. 6.

3.3. Material parameters

According to the design information, the rst three parameters

listed in Table 2 were used to perform a linear elastic analysis of

the concrete cut-off wall. To describe the plastic-damage behaviour of the concrete, certain parameters employed by this study

were determined based on earlier studies. Based on Ref. [31],

2.5 MPa tensile strength and 325 N/m tensile fracture energy were

adopted. The maximum compressive strength was set as 10 times

the tensile strength. The compression fracture energy was set to

100 times the tensile value according to previous studies

[21,27,31,60,61]. The characteristic length lr was computed from

Fig. 4. Maximum cross section of dam (r: Bedrock; s: Overburden; t: Concrete Cut-off Wall; u: Dam Rockll; v: Transition Layer; w: Asphalt Concrete Core.).

466

Interface

Cut-off Wall

Core

Water

Pressure

Plinth

Water

Pressure

2-2

Table 2

Parameters for concrete cut-off wall.

qsat (kg/m3)

E (GPa)

ft0 (MPa)

Gt (N/m)

fc0 (MPa)

fb0 (MPa)

Gc (N/m)

2400

30

0.17

2.50

325

16.0

18.4

32,500

Table 2 lists the parameters for the FE analysis of the concrete

cut-off wall.

Slurry is typically used to stabilize trenches during the construction of concrete cut-off walls. Thus, a thin layer of slurry, generally 23 cm, was designed between the concrete cut-off wall and

the foundation [62]. Fu and Zhang [63] conducted direct shear tests

to study the contact behaviour between concrete and gravel with a

3-cm-thick slurry; the results of the study are listed in Table 3. In

addition, the asphalt concrete core is soft compared to the transition layer. This contact behaviour was experimentally studied by

Zhang and Rao using a simple shear apparatus [64]. The parameters for the hyperbolic model were determined and are listed in

Table 3.

Table 3

Parameters for interfaces.

Location

k1

u ()

Rf

C (kPa)

Core Dam

757

2022

0.86

0.63

11.7

32.4

0.89

0.83

10.5

19.5

concrete are provided in Table 4. Respectively, cs and cd represent

the submerged and dry unit weights. If the element was submerged, cs was used in the FE analysis; otherwise, cd was applied.

The foundation gravel was always set under water, and the asphalt

467

Table 4

Parameters for rockll/gravel and asphalt concrete.

Material

cs (KN/m3)

cd (KN/m3)

u0 ()

Du ()

C (kPa)

Rf

Kb

Dam Rockll

Transition Layer

Overburden Gravel

Asphalt Concrete

13.0

12.0

11.0

21.4

21.1

25.4

51.7

50.6

43.5

27.3

9.1

7.2

3.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

140

810

910

850

303

0.25

0.31

0.48

0.24

0.65

0.63

0.93

0.81

265

396

280

719

0.20

0.34

0.15

0.59

Table 5

Parameters for plinth.

Material

q (kg/m3)

E (GPa)

Plinth

2400

28

0.17

submerged as the water level increased.

A plinth, usually constructed as a connecting structure between

the concrete cut-off wall and the asphalt concrete core, is a part of

the impervious system. In this study, the plinth was considered

linearly elastic, and its parameters are listed in Table 5.

pointed to the central region of the valley due to the special shape

of the wall and the restrictive effect of the surrounding bedrock.

Moreover, the deformation at the tip of the wall was seriously

restricted so that this section was in an unfavourable stress state.

With the rise of the water level, the vertical settlement of the

wall gradually decreased due to the buoyancy of water acting on

the upstream shell material. The horizontal displacement

increased with the upstream water pressure. The deformed shape

of the wall at the impounding completed stage is shown in

Fig. 9b. The deformation mode was different from the construction

stage. Horizontal deformation and bending near the bedrock were

immediately apparent. Sections in the downstream side of the wall

with signicant bending were in a tensile stress state.

The analyses of the different stages are presented in this

section. End of construction stage indicates that the dam was

constructed to the crest, and Impounding completed stage

implies that water was impounded to the normal water level.

C.EL and I.EL represent the elevation levels of the dam construction and water impounding, respectively. The tensile stress

was set as negative.

4.1. Deformation behaviour of the concrete cut-off wall

Fig. 8a and b presents the deformations at various locations of

the concrete cut-off wall at different stages. As the dam was constructed layer-by-layer, the wall deformations were indicated by

vertical settlement (due to the successively increased dam weight).

The water and soil pressures acting on the upstream and downstream sides of the wall were identical so that the horizontal displacement was small. Figs. 9a and 10 illustrate the deformed

shape and deformation vector of the wall, respectively, at the

stress in the concrete cut-off wall using a linear elastic model.

Although the wall thickness was divided into two layers, the stress

states in both layers were nearly the same during dam construction (based on the deformation behaviour). Consequently, the FE

results of the upstream layer are only presented for the construction stage. Large portions of the wall were in compression stress

states, and the minor principal stress increased as the dam lled.

However, as the maximum tensile stress increased, the affected

area at the tip of the wall also increased. At the end of construction

stage, the maximum tension stress was over 10.0 MPa at the tip of

the upper part, which exceeded the tension strength 2.5 MPa. The

large tensile stress, which appears to be unrealistic, was caused by

the restricted deformation and high elastic modulus of the wall.

As plotted in Fig. 12, different stress states were observed in the

two layers of the wall during the water impounding stage. As the

water level rose, the maximum tensile stress and the tensile area

C.EL.2105m

C.EL.2136m

I.EL. 2115m

I.EL. 2130m

-0.02

2080

-0.04

Vertical Direction/Y(m)

Horizontal Displacement/m

Vertical Settlement/m

0.00

-0.06

-0.08

0.20

0.16

0.12

2060

2040

2020

C.EL.2105m

C.EL.2136m

I.EL. 2115m

I.EL. 2130m

0.08

2000

0.04

0.00

-0.04

1980

50

100

150

200

250

Axial Direction/Z(m)

300

0.00

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

Vertical Settlement/m

-0.08

Horizontal Displacement/m

468

(m)

(m)

2080

Y/m

2070

2060

2050

200

220

240

260

280

Z/m

Fig. 10. Deformation vector of the concrete cut-off wall at the end of construction stage.

1.2

0.8

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-10.0

C.EL.2105 m

1.3

0.8

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-10.0

C.EL.2136 m

Fig. 11. Minor principal stress contour of elastic analysis for dam construction (Unit: MPa).

decreased at the tip of the upper region on the upstream side of the

wall due to the uplifting action of water. Meanwhile, the tension

region expanded on the downstream side with serious bending

due to the increased water pressure and the restraint of the

bedrock.

As indicated by the deformation behaviour of the wall, the

development of bending was noticeable during impounding. To

more accurately capture the bending behaviour of the wall, the

nonconforming element presented by Wilson [58] was employed

to represent the wall. The minor principal stress of the downstream side at two different water levels is shown in Fig. 13.

Despite minimal change in the stress distribution rule, expansion

in the tension range of the wall was observed based on a comparison with the result acquired using normal isoparametric elements.

Moreover, the tensile stress increased in the original tensile zone.

The wall exhibited more exibility due to the adoption of the

nite element shear locking and are theoretically more precise.

Therefore, the Wilson element was adopted in the following

analysis.

The spatial distribution of the internal forces of the wall at the

impounding completed stage is illustrated in Fig. 14. The direction

and degree of bending can be determined from this gure. As

shown in Fig. 14a, there was a relatively larger moment, and the

axial force was tensile near the bank. The upstream side next to

the bedrock and downstream side where the axial force was almost

zero were in a tensile state at the top of the wall. As indicated in

Fig. 14b, the bending at the central portion of the wall reached a

maximum near the base, where the axial force was the largest.

The compressive stress induced by the axial force was larger than

the tensile stress caused by bending. Therefore, the base of the wall

was in a compression stress state.

469

1.4

1.0

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-9.0

I.EL.2115

1.5

1.0

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-9.0

I.EL.2130 m

1.4

1.0

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-9.0

I.EL.2115

1.5

1.0

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-9.0

I.EL.2130 m

Fig. 12. Minor principal stress contours of elastic analysis for water impounding (Unit: MPa).

1.4

1.0

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-9.0

I.EL.2115 m

1.5

1.0

0.0

-2.5

-5.0

-9.0

I.EL.2130m

4.00

Wall

2.00

2080

z

+M

0.00

-2.00

Vertical Direction/Y(m)

Fig. 13. Minor principal stress contours of concrete cut-off wall representing with nonconforming element (Unit: MPa).

-4.00

2.00

1.00

x

0.00

Wall

-1.00

+ FN

-2.00

2.00

Wall

1.00

+ FS

0.00

2060

+FS

+FN

+M

Y

2040

Wall

Wall

Wall

2020

2000

-1.00

-2.00

1980

50

100

150

200

250

300

Axial Direction/Z(m)

-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 0

Moment/106Nm

Axial Force/107N

5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Shear Force/106N

Fig. 14. Internal force at typical locations of concrete cut-off wall at the impounding completed stage.

Fig. 15 presents the minor principal stress obtained from the

plastic-damage analyses of different stages. In contrast to the

results of the linear elastic analysis, the tensile area of the wall signicantly decreased, and the maximum tension stress rarely

exceeded 2.0 MPa. Based on the yield criterion when the peak

strength was reached, the plastic-damage model was able to

describe the nonlinear behaviour of concrete and to account for

the evolution of damage and the stress release and redistribution.

Figs. 16 and 17 illustrate the tensile damage (denoted by damage variable rt) in the concrete cut-off wall during the construction

stages. During dam construction, the damage was localized at the

tip of the upper part of the wall due to special deformation and

developed with increasing water levels in the bending zone, and

the damage observed on the downstream side was more serious

than on the upstream side, which was consistent with the bending

direction. There was zero or only slight damage (rt less than 0.1)

over large portions of the wall. On the downstream side, the

maximum tensile damage reached 0.75 at the tip due to the tensile

stress caused by relatively small deformations. The tensile damage

reached 0.71 at a few positions of the downstream side, which

also exhibited serious bending and small compression. The

localized damaged zone also demonstrated the ability of this

plastic-damage model to accurately represent strain softening. In

addition, the distribution of the damage did not follow the patterns

of the tensile region obtained by linear elastic analysis because the

470

1.2

0.8

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

C.EL.2105 m

1.3

0.8

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

C.EL.2136 m

1.4

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

I.EL.2115 m

1.4

1.0

0.5

0.0

-1.0

-2.0

I.EL.2130 m

Fig. 15. Minor principal stress contours of plastic-damage analysis (Unit: MPa).

0.70

0.55

0.40

0.20

0.10

C.EL.2105 m

0.70

0.55

0.40

0.20

0.10

C.EL.2136 m

Fig. 16. Evolution of tensile damage variable (rt) during dam construction.

0.70

0.55

0.40

0.20

0.10

I.EL.2115 m

0.70

0.55

0.40

0.20

0.10

I.EL.2130 m

0.70

0.55

0.40

0.20

0.10

I.EL.2115 m

0.70

0.55

0.40

0.20

0.10

I.EL.2130 m

Fig. 17. Evolution of tensile damage variable (rt) during water impounding.

24.0

22.0

20.0

16.0

10.0

4.0

C.EL.2136 m

24.0

22.0

20.0

16.0

10.0

4.0

C.EL.2136 m

Fig. 18. Maximum principal stress at the end of construction stage (Unit: MPa).

stress space and the stress presented in this paper was the average

stress of the Gauss points.

compression damage at the end of construction stage are shown

in Figs. 18 and 19. The stress of the wall rarely exceeded the

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.02

0.01

C.EL.2136 m

Fig. 19. Compression damage variable (rc) at the end of construction stage.

analysis. Furthermore, the stress distribution obtained by the

plastic-damage analysis was minimally changed, even though the

stress in some portions of the wall exceeded the initial yield

strength (i.e., 16 MPa) because of the multi-axial strength and high

fracture energy under compression for normal concrete. The

results indicate that compression stress has little effect on the

safety of the wall.

Crack propagation may be a result of serious tensile damage. To

improve the anti-seepage properties of the concrete cut-off wall,

local reinforcement measures should be considered in the design

stage. Replacing normal concrete with bre-reinforced [65,66] or

steel-reinforced [67] concrete could be effective.

4.4. Constructing the cut-off wall with plastic concrete

Cut-off walls in deep overburden constructed with plastic

concrete have been successfully used in many dam engineering

projects [68]. However, few applications of plastic concrete in deep

overburden can be found in China, and plastic concrete cut-off

walls have been most commonly used in cofferdam and embankment projects where the foundation and dam body have little

impact on the wall. An elastic analysis was conducted by replacing

the construction material of the cut-off wall with plastic concrete.

The material properties of the plastic concrete used for this analysis are as follows [69,70]: elastic modulus, E = 1.5 GPa; Poissons

ratio, v = 0.25; and density, q = 2200 kg/m3. The compression

strength was assumed to be 5 MPa, and the tensile strength was

set to 10% of the compression strength.

The principal stress of the plastic concrete wall at different

stages is shown in Fig. 20. The area under tension decreased substantially, and tensile stress only appeared at the top of the wall

near the bedrock due to the lower elastic modulus. The maximum

1.5

1.0

0.0

-0.5

-1.5

-3.5

I.EL.2130 m

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

5.0

2.0

C.EL.2136 m

Fig. 20. Principal stress of plastic concrete cut-off wall (Unit: MPa).

471

However, the plastic concrete had relatively low compression

strength. Thus, the principal stress in large portions of the wall

exceeded the strength. The ratio of the maximum compressive

stress to the strength was approximately 3.0, which may induce

compression damage. If plastic concrete is adopted to construct

the cut-off wall in this project, the material parameter should be

carefully designed, and its 3D stress state behaviour should be

studied. The building plans and methods may differ from those

used for normal concrete to decrease the relatively large compressive stress.

5. Conclusions

In this study, the linear elastic and plastic-damage analyses of a

concrete cut-off wall with a height of 87 m in deep overburden of

an ACCD were performed using GEODYNA, a 3D FE program. A

plastic-damage model proposed by Lee-Fenves was used to conduct the plastic-damage analysis. The existing monotonic uniaxial

and biaxial loading tests of concrete were simulated, and the predicted results were compared with experimental data from the literature. Furthermore, the stress, deformation and damage

behaviour of the concrete cut-off wall during dam construction

and water impounding were investigated.

The deformation modes of the concrete cut-off wall were distinct at different construction stages. During dam construction,

the settlement at the centre was obvious. The deformation at the

tip of the upper part of the wall was signicantly restricted, which

may give rise to an unfavourable stress state. As the water level

rose, the horizontal displacement signicantly increased, and serious bending occurred in the downstream side near the bedrock

where high tensile stresses were observed.

The stress distribution from the linear elastic analysis can be

explained by the deformation mode and the distribution of internal

forces at the different stages; nonconforming element should be

adopted to capture the behaviour of the wall in the deep overburden more precisely. However, the linear elastic model is not able to

reasonably express the nonlinear behaviour of concrete; thus, the

obtained tensile stress of a few regions exceeded the tensile

strength. It is not accurate to rely on the linear elastic analysis

results to assess the safety of the concrete cut-off wall.

The tensile area in the concrete cut-off wall was signicantly

reduced, and the maximum tensile stress rarely exceeded

2.0 MPa, as computed by the plastic-damage model. Furthermore,

the damage distribution indicated that most portions of the wall

exhibited no damage or only slight tensile damage. The tensile

damage that did occur was mainly concentrated at the restricted

upper tip of the wall and at the bending locations on the downstream side near the bedrock. The result also indicated that the

compression stress would have little effect on the safety of the

wall. To improve the anti-seepage capability of the wall, particular

engineering measures should be practiced at these positions. The

plastic-damage model reasonably predicated the nonlinear properties of concrete in a 3D stress space, including strain softening,

stress redistribution and damage accumulation. The numerical

results of the concrete cut-off wall using the plastic-damage model

were more reasonable and useful for design and construction.

The reinforcement cage was not considered in this study, and

the use of remedial measures to prevent damage requires further

research. Moreover, safety evaluations of concrete cut-off walls

utilizing plastic-damage analyses would be more meaningful if

the relationship between the damage variables and concrete

permeability was addressed. Furthermore, more efforts should be

devoted to investigate the nonlinear damage behaviour of plastic

concrete under different stress states.

472

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of

China (Nos. 51138001, 51279025, 91215301) and the Program for

New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-12-0083).

These nancial supports are gratefully acknowledged.

References

[1] Wang WB, Heg K. The asphalt core embankment dam: a very competitive

alternative. In: Jia JS et al., editors. Modern rockll dams-2009; the 1st

international symposium on rockll dams. Chengdu: China Water & Power

Press; 2009. p. 627.

[2] Heg K. Asphaltic concrete cores for embankment dams-experience and

practice. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway: StikkaTrykk; 1993. ISBN

82-546-0163-1.

[3] Miao QS. Analysis of prototype observation results of several asphalt concrete

core rockll dams. Large Dam and Safety 1994;28:5366 [in Chinese].

[4] Heg K. Earthquake resistance of asphalt core embankment dams. Norwegian

Geotechnical Institute (NGI) 2005.

[5] Hao JT. Important topics in development of asphalt concrete technology in

China. J Hydraul Eng 2008;39(10):12139 [in Chinese].

[6] ICOLD. Bituminous cores for ll dams state-of-the-art. International

Commission on Large Dams, Bulletin 42. Paris; 1992.

[7] Zhu S, Cao GJ, Zhang CR, Zhou LJ. Verication of rockll dam safety according to

back analysis of monitoring data. J Hydraul Eng 2004;11:1248 [in Chinese].

[8] Wang WB, Heg K, Zhang YB. Design and performance of the Yele asphalt-core

rockll dam. Can Geotech J 2010;47:136581.

[9] Wu H, Deng G, Ji H, Wang JW. High asphalt concrete core rockll dam built in

narrow asymmetric valley. International Conference on Dam Technology and

Long-Term Performance. ZhengZhou, HeNan; 2011 [in Chinese].

[10] Chen CL, Hu ZQ, Xie DY, Feng ZY. Research on dynamic characteristic of sand

lens for the foundation of Xiabandi key water control project. Earthquake Eng

Eng Vibr 2006;26(5):26470 [in Chinese].

[11] Xu YB, Wang BW, Li K. Analysis of wrong-estimate thickness of deep

overburden for Pangduo dam foundation. Water Resour Hydropower

Northeast China 2011;11:534 [in Chinese].

[12] Dang LC, Fang GD. The practice and development of dam with

overburden. Beijing: China Water Power Press; 2009 [in Chinese].

[13] Li NH, Mi ZK, Li GY, Shen ZJ. Numerical analysis of stress deformation

behaviour of concrete diaphragm wall in supper-deep overburdened layer of

Yele Hydropower Station. Hydro-Sci Eng 2004;1:1823 [in Chinese].

[14] Pan Y, He YL, Zhou XX, Cao XX. Analysis of effect of canyon terrain on stress

and displacement of cutoff wall in dam foundation with deep overburden.

Rock Soil Mech 2013;34(7):202370 [in Chinese].

[15] Gao LS, Yu QH. Stressstrain analysis for high earth-rockll dam and its

foundation cutoff. Chin J Geotech Eng 1983;5(2):7387 [in Chinese].

[16] Li NH, Mi ZK, Sun DW. Study on affecting factors of stress-deformation of

diaphragm walls for concrete face rockll dams built on thick alluvium

deposit. Chin J Geotech Eng 2007;29(1):2631 [in Chinese].

[17] Ding YH, Zhang QG, Zhang BY. FEM analysis of stress-deformation

characteristics of cut-off walls in high core rockll dam. J Hydroelectr Eng

2013;32(3):1627 [in Chinese].

[18] Karsan ID, Jirsa JO. Behaviour of concrete under compressive loading. J Struct

Div 1969;95(12):253563.

[19] Kupfer H, Hilsdorf HK, Rusch H. Behaviour of concrete under biaxial stresses.

ACI J 1969;66(8):65666.

[20] Gopalaratnam VS, Shah SP. Softening response of plain concrete in direct

tension. ACI J 1985;82(3):31023.

[21] Lee J, Fenves GL. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete

structures. J Eng Mech, ASCE 1998;124(8):892900.

[22] Hillerborg A, Modeer M, Petersson PE. Analysis of crack formation and crack

growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and nite elements.

Cement Concr Res 1976;6:77382.

[23] Petersson P. Comments on the method of determining the fracture energy of

concrete by means of three-point bend tests on notched beams. Lund Institute

of Technology-Division of Building Materials 1982.

[24] Bazant ZP. Concrete fracture models: testing and practice. Eng Fract Mech

2002;69:165205.

[25] Bazant ZP, Becq-Giraudon E. Statistical prediction of fracture parameters of

concrete and implications for choice of testing standard. Cement Concr Res

2002;32(4):52956.

[26] Bazant ZP, Oh BH. Crack band theory for fracture of concrete. Mater Struct

1983;16:15577.

[27] Lubliner J, Oliver J, Oller S, Onate E. A plastic-damage model for concrete. Int J

Solid Struct 1989;25(3):299326.

[28] Lee J. Theory and implementation of plastic-damage model for concrete

structures under cyclic and dynamic loading. Ph.D Thesis, Berkeley: University

of California; 1996.

[29] Lee J, Fenves GL. A return-mapping algorithm for plastic-damage models: 3_D

and plane stress formulation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2001;50:487506.

[30] Lee J, Fenves GL. A plastic-damage concrete model for earthquake analysis of

dams. Earthquake Eng Struct Dynam 1998;27:93756.

[31] Pan JW, Zhang C, Wang J, Xu Y. Seismic damage-cracking analysis of arch dams

using different earthquake input mechanisms. Sci China Ser E: Technol Sci

2009;52(2):51829.

[32] Guo SS, Chen H, Li DY, Ma HF. Study of element-size effect on dynamic plasticdamage analysis of concrete. J Hydroelectr Eng 2011;30(6):526 [in Chinese].

[33] Zhang SR, Wang GH, Pang BH, Du CB. Inuence of strong motion duration on

accumulated damage of concrete gravity dam. J Hydroelectr Eng

2013;32(2):2017 [in Chinese].

[34] Dakoulas P. Nonlinear seismic response of tall concrete-faced rockll dams in

narrow canyons. Soil Dynam Earthquake Eng 2012;34(1):1124.

[35] Zou DG, Kong XJ, Xu B. User manual for geotechnical dynamic nonlinear

analysis. Dalian: Institute of Earthquake Engineering, Dalian University of

Technology; 2005 [in Chinese].

[36] Kong XJ, Zhou Y, Zou DG, Xu B, Yu L. Numerical analysis of dislocations of the

face slabs of the Zipingpu Concrete faced rockll dam during the Wenchuan

earthquake. Earthquake Eng Eng Vibr 2011;10(4):5819.

[37] Xu B, Zou DG, Liu HB. Three-dimensional simulation of the construction

process of the Zipingpu concrete face rockll dam based on a generalized

plasticity model. Comput Geotech 2012;43:14354.

[38] Zou DG, Xu B, Kong XJ, Liu HB, Zhou Y. Numerical simulation of the seismic

response of the Zipingpu concrete face rockll dam during the Wenchuan

earthquake based on a generalized plasticity model. Comput Geotech

2013;49:11122.

[39] Zou DG, Zhou Y, Ling HI, Kong XJ, Xu B. Dislocation of face-slabs of Zipingpu

concrete face rockll dam during Wenchuan earthquake. J Earthquake

Tsunami 2012;6(2):117.

[40] Xu B, Zhou Y, Zou DG. Numerical simulation on slabs dislocation of Zipingpu

concrete faced rockll dam during the Wenchuan earthquake based on a

generalized plasticity model. Sci World J 2014;7(1):15.

[41] Oliver J. A consistent characteristic length of smeared cracking models. Int J

Numer Method Eng 1989;28:46174.

[42] Goodman RE, Taylor RL, Brekke TL. A model for the mechanics of jointed rock. J

Soil Mech Found Div, ASCE 1968;94(SM3):63759.

[43] Clough GW, Duncan JM. Finite element analysis of retaining wall behaviour. J

Soil Mech Found Eng 1971;97(12):165772.

[44] Desai CS, Drumm EC, Zaman MM. Cyclic testing and modelling of interfaces. J

Geotech Eng 1985;111(6):793815.

[45] Liu HB, Song EX, Ling HI. Constitutive modelling of soilstructure interface

through the concept of critical state soil mechanics. Mech Res Commun

2006;33:51531.

[46] Liu HB, Ling HI. Constitutive description of interface behaviour including cyclic

loading and particle breakage within the framework of critical state soil

mechanics. Int J Numer Anal Method Geomech 2008;32:1495514.

[47] Zhang G, Zhang JM. Unied modelling of monotonic and cyclic behaviour of

interface between structure and gravelly soil. Soil Found 2008;48(2):23145.

[48] Liu JM, Zou DG, Kong XJ. A three-dimensional state-dependent model of soilstructure interface for monotonic and cyclic loadings. Comput Geotech

2014;61:16677.

[49] Pastor M, Zienkiewicz OC, Chan AHC. Generalized plasticity and the modelling

of soil behaviour. Int J Numer Anal Method Geomech 1990;14(3):15190.

[50] Ling HI, Liu HB. Pressure-level dependancy and densication behaviour of sand

through a generalized plasticity model. J Eng Mech 2003;129(8):85160.

[51] Liu HB. Unied sand modelling using associated or non-associated ow rule.

Mech Res Commun 2013;50:6370.

[52] Liu HB, Zou DG, Liu JM. Constitutive modelling of dense gravelly soils

subjected to cyclic loading. Int J Numer Anal Method Geomech

2014;38(14):150318.

[53] Duncan JM, Chang C-Y. Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soil. J Soil

Mech Found Div, ASCE 1970;96(SM5):162953.

[54] Ozkuzukiran S, Ozkan MY, Ozyazicioglu M, Yildiz GS. Settlement behaviour of

a concrete faced rock-ll dam. Geotech Geol Eng 2006;24:166578.

[55] Wang WB, Zhang YB, Zhu Y, Zhao YH. Finite element analysis of asphalt

concrete core rock-debris dam. J Hydroelectr Eng 2010;29(4):1738 [in

Chinese].

[56] Moayed RZ, Nazari M, Kamalzare M. Static stressstrain analyses of

embankment dam with asphalt core. J Appl Sci 2011;11(1):12531.

[57] Tschernutter P. Inuence of soft rockll material as dam embankment with

central bituminous concrete membrane. Front Architecture Civ Eng China

2011;5(1):6370.

[58] Wilson EL, Taylor RL, Doherty WP, Ghaboussi J. Incompatible displacement

models. In: Fenves SJ et al., editors. Numerical and computer methods in

structural mechanics. Academic Press; 1973.

[59] Taylor RL, Beresford PJ, Wilson EL. A nonconforming-element for stress

analysis. Int J Numer Method Eng 1976;10:12119.

[60] Cheng H, Zhang LJ. Study of damage and cracking in high arch dam subjected

to strong earthquake. J Hydroelectr Eng 2011;30(6):1437 [in Chinese].

[61] Omidi O, Lot V. Finite element analysis of concrete structures using plasticdamage model in 3-D implementation. Int J Civ Eng 2010;8(3):187203.

[62] Li QY, Cheng ZL. Analysis of the behaviour of stage II cofferdam of TGP. Chin J

Geotech Eng 2005;27(4):4103 [in Chinese].

[63] Fu H, Zhang Wi. Experimental study on the contact behaviour between dam

concrete cutoff wall and the slurry. The First Chinese Rock Mechanics and

Engineering Symposium, Kunming, China; 2006. p. 4857 [in Chinese].

[64] Zhang ZJ, Rao XB, Gong BW, Ding HS. Experimental study on mechanical

behaviors of interface between asphalt concrete and aggregate. J Yantze River

Sci Res Inst 2006;23(2):3841 [in Chinese].

[65] Merta I, Tschegg EK. Fracture energy of natural bre reinforced concrete.

Construct Build Mater 2013;40:9917.

[66] Ciancio D, Mazzotti C, Buratti N. Evaluation of bre-reinforced concrete

fracture energy through tests on notched round determinate panels with

different diameters. Construct Build Mater 2014;52:8695.

[67] Arici Y. Investigation of the cracking of CFRD face plates. Comput Geotech

2011;38(7):90617.

[68] Wang QY, Sun WG, Xiong H. Plastic concrete anti-seepage wall. Beijing: China

Water Power Press; 2008 [in Chinese].

473

concrete cutoff wall in Karkheh Dam using 3-D seepage analysis and actual

measurement. J Appl Sci 2009;9(4):72430.

[70] Ghazavi M, Safarzadeh Z, Hashemolhoseini H. Response of plastic concrete cutoff walls in earth dams to seismic loading using nite element methods; 13th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering; Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2004

(2961).

- Finite Element Analysis of Circular Concrete Filled Tube ConnectionsDiunggah olehMaha Hassan
- 11 energy methodsDiunggah olehtigin
- Column Base Connections Baniotopoulos CcDiunggah olehmutlu_seçer
- MEEM 2150 MTU Vable Mechanics of Materials Solutions CH1Diunggah olehsquall814
- Engineering Properties of Structural SteelDiunggah olehbogartjose_ray
- Tests on RocksDiunggah olehdeadromeo
- Flat Slab Design _ Engineering DissertationsDiunggah olehBobby Lupango
- Wu-Performance of LS-DYNA Concrete Constitutive ModelsDiunggah olehaktc
- COST_4643Diunggah olehalexrem2000
- Reinforced EarthDiunggah olehPradeepLokhande
- 1.2 Strength of MaterialsDiunggah olehAlok Anand
- 2 Axial LoadingDiunggah olehMehmet Emin Dalfesoglu
- solid mechanics syllabus ME223Diunggah olehMulu Girmay
- DOEAL-SG-100_AppM_09-30-05_finalDiunggah olehnewavatar
- Noonan 1972Diunggah olehCésar Eduardo Asqui Córdova
- 1.2 Strength of MaterialsDiunggah olehNorisk Nanung
- Calculated Stress in CAESAR II Software by Using Failure TheoryDiunggah olehHùng Mạnh Nguyễn
- Numercial Evaluation of Strength and Deformability of Fractured RocksDiunggah olehtamlb0507
- reinforced concreteDiunggah olehSushitaBethSenobago
- 2 Axial LoadingDiunggah olehPrasanth Kumar
- Energy Analysis and Criteria for Structural Failure of RocksDiunggah olehPablo
- Interfacial properties of modeled recycled aggregate concrete modified by carbonation.pdfDiunggah olehsoulmateforeverforu
- Mechanical Engineering Design L1 - Ch1-Mechanical_propertiesDiunggah olehBilal Tayyab
- Tk-02 Cone Roof - Roof & Bottom SolutionDiunggah olehpescanova3
- 2 Axial LoadingDiunggah olehBaski Dukkanim
- FE Analysis on Burst Pressure of Steel Pipes With Corrosion DefectsDiunggah olehmechmohan26
- Prilog Proucavanju Jednoosne Otpornosti Na Pritisak i Parametara Deformabilnosti Stena u Funkciji Odnosa H-d 2 EN1Diunggah olehIgnjatović Dragan
- Dhan ShekarDiunggah olehPiyush Tiwari
- Chap 10 1 Bond & AnchorageDiunggah olehErnest Navarro
- Whitney Notched StrengthDiunggah olehredmod79

- IS-875-Part1 -Dead loads for designDiunggah olehlokesh2325
- Simplified Notes of Calculate Wind & Snow Loads Based on CYS EC1Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- Seismic Design of Rft FramsDiunggah olehahmed adel
- W06Diunggah olehs_chandnani
- Academic Word ListDiunggah olehMadina Sharipova
- GT IELTS Writing Task 1 (Part 1)Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- IS-1893_1-2002Diunggah olehkumardbg
- 13920-2016Diunggah olehShakeel Waseem
- finite element method - 1511.06571Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- CDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- BDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- ADiunggah olehGrantHerman
- 9512134 GRE VocabularyDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- Academic Vocabulary 2Diunggah olehBengkel Bahasa Course
- job_438 British Council IELTS Online Application.pdfDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- [l.g. Alexander] LongmanDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- 110825110355_6min_english_shopping.pdfDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- express_english_flowers.pdfDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- 6 Minute English TheatreDiunggah olehRogerio Libarino
- GT IELTS Writing Task 1 (Part 2)Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- finite element- 1601.02361Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- Finite element- 1601.02942Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- Finite element- 1508.02136Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- Finite element-1508.02138Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- finite element-Gfemgl Hexes Fracture Accepted-Diunggah olehGrantHerman
- 1506.06099 finite elementDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- FEM CrystalPlasticityDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- finite elementDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- 1-s2.0-S0924013615301436-mainDiunggah olehGrantHerman
- seismic reinforcement 6Diunggah olehGrantHerman

- 08 - Newtons Laws Practice WorksheetDiunggah olehShiella Mae Baltazar Bulauitan
- Simulation of ns2Diunggah olehManoj Kumar G
- Matveev Mechanics and Theory of RelativityDiunggah olehegmont7
- Unit 1, Lesson 1, Human Resource ManagementDiunggah olehRatnadeep Kar
- 9709_s15_ms_12Diunggah olehAndrian M Yusuf
- Banknotes of IranDiunggah olehAnonymous P2UV33z
- (English Language Book Society Student Editions) J. Uren BSc PhD MIHE, W. F. Price BSc MSc ARICS MIHE (Auth.)-Surveying for Engineers-Macmillan Education UK (1985)Diunggah olehপ্রিয়দীপ প্রিয়ম
- 1126751 bDiunggah olehAnonymous OhAy5G
- 01-Beginning Vibration AnalysisDiunggah olehRoberto Carlos
- SSPC PA2-2004 Measurement of Dry Coating Thickness with Magnetic Gages.pdfDiunggah olehbountymani
- Quantum view of Harmonic OscillatorDiunggah olehAhmed Haider
- KISI Ujian Semester Ganjil ADiunggah olehvinapohan
- Worm Level Control. Neural NetworksDiunggah olehPablo Olaso
- math lessonDiunggah olehapi-259726587
- A Resource-Allocation Perspective for Marketing Analytics.pdfDiunggah olehshantanu yadav
- gfgf.docxDiunggah olehAnonymous i8DCw1C5Q
- CryptoGraphy Exam PaperDiunggah olehSaifouridzal Jamil
- Class 9 Maths Olympiad Logical Reasoning Previous Years Papers With SolutionsDiunggah olehkj
- Where Were the Stoics in the Late Middle AgesDiunggah olehPaloma Hernández-Rubio
- Memory ModelDiunggah olehmgcse4866
- The Peronnet - Thibault Mathematical Model Applied to the Record Power Profile in CyclingDiunggah olehRonald George
- Bloxer_manu.pdfDiunggah olehDian Rizqa
- Lecture No7 Pipeline SystemsDiunggah olehMuhammadUsman
- Pcad AsciiDiunggah olehmamanca1
- Adaptation and Hybridization in Computational IntelligenceDiunggah olehGustavo P R
- Data Structures - CS301 Fall 2003 Mid Term Paper Session 3Diunggah olehChangder Narayan
- First+Exam+NotesDiunggah olehJomar Paul Berba Romero
- Database ManagementDiunggah olehPrestigious Ali
- Internal Table OperationsDiunggah olehRasika Jayawardana
- 13thRootsDiunggah olehJavier