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Sedimentology & Stratigraphic Analysis

Recognition and Interpretation of Reservoir Types


Prediction of Reservoir Geometry and Continuity
Understanding of Controls on Reservoir Quality
Reservoir Quality Prediction
Minimize Reservoir Risk

DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS INTERPRETATION

SEISMIC FACIES INTERPRETATION

LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC HIERARCHY
Basic unit of lithostratigraphic division of rocks is the
formation. Formations may be divided into
member and assembled into group
Formation should be a body of material which can
be identified by its lithological characteristics and by
its stratigraphic position. It must be mappable at the
surface or traceable in the subsurface

LINGKUNGAN PENGENDAPAN (LP)


Adalah keadaan (a natural geo-graphic entity) yang komplek,
yang disebabkan adanya interaksi antara faktor2 kimia, fisika &
biologi dimana sedimen di endapkan (terakumulasi) & keadaan
tsb dapat dibedakan dengan keadaan yang lain. (Krumbein)
Karena adanya perbedaan, maka masing2 LP dapat untuk
mengidentifikasi media pengendapan, proses (energi fisik)
pergerakan material yang tersedimenkan
BERDASARKAN ASPEK2 f, k & b SECARA KLASIK, ADA 3 KELOMPOK
LINGKUNGAN UTAMA YI:

1. Lingkungan Continental (lithoral), dng sub lingkungannya adlh lingk


terrestrial (terdiri: endp gurun/ dessert, endapan glacial/ salju) & lingk
aqueous (terdiri: endpn fluvial, paluda, lacustrin, & endpn gua /cave)
2. Lingkungan Transisi, dng sub lingkungannya adlh lingk deltaic, eustarine, lagoonal, litoral /intertidel
3. Lingkungan Laut (marine), dng sub lingkungannya adlh lingk terumbu
karang (reef), neritic, bathyal, dan abysal

SILISICLASTIK DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS

TERRESTRIAL

CONTINENTAL
AQUEOUS

TRANSITIONAL

MARINE

Desert
Glacial
Fluvial
Paluda
Lacustrin
Cave
Deltaic
Eustarine
Lagoonal
Litoral (intertidal)
Reef
Neritic
Bathyal
Abysal

INTERAKSI ANTARA UNSUR2 k, f & b DIMANA


SEDIMEN DI ENDAPKAN, al:

Material sedimen. Spt; apakah jenis & komposisi


batuan sumbernya
Kondisi pembatasan (boundary condition). Spt; apakah
diendapkan jauh/ dekat dari batuan sumber?, apakah
peran interaksi yang dominan antara fisik/ mekanis/
kimiawi.?
Enersi (Mekanis). Spt; apakah mempunyai kondisi
tenang-lambat/ keruh-cepat?, enersi rendah/ tinggi?
Kimia-fisika. Spt a). Apakah diendapkan pd lingkungan
pH & Eh tertentu, atau b) Mempunyai kadar garam
(salinitas), & konsentrasi kelarutan karbonat tertentu,
atau c) kondisi dengan temperatur tertentu.
Adanya Aktifitas biologi spt: a) struktur pertumbuhan, b)
adanya cangkang, c) Material organik (C-H), atau d)
adanya struktur galian (burrow).

SEDIMENTARY FACIES

Produk/ hasil pengendapan yg di endapkan scr unik di


suatu LP disebut fasies sedimentasi

Fasies sedimen adalah tubuh batuan sedimen yang


dapat didefinisikan, serta dapat dibedakan dari tubuh
batuan sedimen yang lain dari segi geometri, dan ciri
litologi (fisika, kimia, & biologi) yang sangat khas
Fasies: merupakan suatu tubuh batuan yang memiliki
kombinasi karakteristik yang khas, dilihat dari litologi,
struktur sedimen & struktur biologi, memperlihatkan
aspek fasies yang berbeda dari tubuh batuan yg ada di
bawah, di atasnya & sekelilingnya (Boggs,1987)
Fasies umumnya dikelompokan kedalam asosiasi fasies,
dimana fasies2 tsb berhubungan scr genetik shg asosiasi
fasies ini memiliki arti LP (Walker & James, 1922)

Fasies adalah suatu satuan untuk menunjukan sekumpulan


sifat paleontologis & litologi dari suatu satuan batuan (Steno
1669, Gresely 1938)
Jumlah total dari atribut2 berskala kecil ini membentuk
satuan batuan tertentu yang berbeda, yang bila digabungkan
disebut fasies
Fasies Model adalah suatu alat interpretasi yang digunakan
untuk menerangkan asosiasi fasies.
Proses pemodelan fasies adalah fungsi penerangan dengan
mengkaitkan observasi pd proses2 modern & endapan2
purba menjadi suatu sintesa yang koheren
Keberadaan FM harus:

Dpt digunakan dlm berbagai cara yg berbeda,


Hrs menggabungkan banyak data menjadi suatu bentuk yg bersifat umum,
mengenai proses2sedimentasi
Hrs menjadi stimulan untuk penelitian selanjutnya & berlaku sbg peramal pd
situasi geologis yang baru,
Hrs membantu memberikan pandangan dlm interpretasi sat sed yg dinamis.

FACIES ANALYSIS

Facies (from Latin, facia, meaning face or appearance) is lithological, structural, & organic aspects detectable in the field (de Raaf, 1965)
Rocks or strata which can be characterized by aspects of their
appearance (lithology, grain size, sedimentary structures, color,
composition, biogenic content)
It can subdivided into:
Lithofacies (physical & chemical) lithological characteristics of a formation:
sandstone fasies, shale facies
Biofacies (biological macro/micro-fossil content characteristics of formation:,
shelly facies, crinoidal facies, graptolitic facies, etc
Ichno facies (trace fossils),
Also linked with depositional environments-genetic interpretation: shallow
marine facies, fluvial facies, deltaic facies, reef facies, lagoonal facies, etc
(Walker & James)
Electro facies, Seismic fasies etc

Facies associations constitute several facies that occur in combination, & typically represent one depositional environment (note that
very few individual facies are diagnostic for one specific setting!)

MAJOR FACTOR DEFINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES


GRAIN SIZE

BIOTURBATION

LITHOLOGICAL INDICATOR

BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR

FOSSILS

FACIES

MINENAROLGI

BEDDING

STRATIFICATION
HIDRODYNAMIC INDICATOR

A FEW QUICK DEFINITIONS


LITHOFACIES: A rock unit deposited by a unique set of
depositional processes
Example: laminated medium-grained quartz sandstone

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT: A geomorphic feature where


sediment accumulates:
Examples: shoreface, point bar
FACIES MODEL:
NORM for Comparison
GUIDE for Future Work
PREDICTOR in other successions
BASIS for Environmental Interpretations
Examples: Meandering stream
Clastic shoreline

FACIES ANALYSIS
Facies analysis is the interpretation of strata in terms of
depositional environments (or depositional systems),
commonly based on a wide variety of observations
Facies models are schematic, three-dimensional
representations of specific depositional environments that
serve as norms for interpretation and prediction
Facies models are static in the sense that they focus
heavily on autogenic processes and deposits, following
Walthers Law
Modern processes must constitute the basis for
interpreting ancient products (uniformitarianism works in
many cases, but not always)

TIPE DASAR SIKLUS


PADA SEDIMEN KLASTIK
1. Penambahan energi transport ke arah atas (diekspresikan
pengkasaran & penebalan lapisan ke arah atas).
2. Penurunan enersi transport, mengekspresikan penghalusan &
penipisan lap ke arah atas
3. Siklus bisa dihasilkan dr proses2 alam di dlm LP (autocyclic)
atau disebabkan oleh kontrol dr luar (allocyclic) LP.

Tipe mekanisme autocyclic, spt: meandering, avulsion dr river


channel.
Tipe mekanisme allocyclic, tectonic movement, climatic
variation.
Mekanisme Autocyclic & allocyclic, penting artinya dlm
pembentukan paket stratigrafi: parasikuen.

FallSEA LEVELRise

High SEDIMENT INFLUXLow


SlowSUBSIDENCEFast

SEDIMENTATION

TRANSGRESSIVE

RETROGRADATION

AGRADATION

PROGRADATION

FACIES INDIKATOR
Electro Facies

Sedimentary Facies

Depositional Environment Facies


GENESA & PERKEMBANGAN FACIS MODEL
DIEKSPRESIKAN PADA SIKUEN VERTIKAL
Vertical sikuen dpt diinterpretasikan dr data geophysical, log
sumur. Profil vertikal nampak sbg bentuk yg berbeda GR/SP.

Bentuk profil berdasarkan log adalah


Upward fining cycles nampak sbg bell shaped log pattern ()
Upward coarsening cycles nampak sbg funnel shaped log
pattern ()
Amalgamated fining & coarsening-up unit sbg symmetrical
Unit dengan tanpa vertical trend porositas atau kandungan
lempung nampak sebagai cylindrical log pattern.()

Geological & Petrophysical Data


Used to Define Flow Units
Core

Lithofacies

Core
Plugs

Petrophysical Data
Pore
Types

f vs k

Gamma Ray Flow


Log
Units

Capillary
Pressure

150 GAPI

5
4
3

LOG PATTERN LOG FACIES FACIES of SEDIMENTARY


CYLINDRICAL
SHAPE

Clean, no trend
CLEAN, NO TREND
0 GAPI 150

Aeolian,

AEOLIAN, BRAIDED FLUVIAL,


Braided
Fluvial,
CARBONATE
SHELF,REEF,
SUBMARINE CANYON FAN

Carbonate Shelf,
Reef,
Sub-Marine
Canyon Fan

FUNNEL SHAPE

BELL SHAPE

SYMMETRICAL
SHAPE

Abrupt top C-U

Abrupt base F-U

Rounded base & top

A B RUP T TOP
C -U

GAPI 150

Creavasse Splay,
CREAVASSE SPLAY,
DISTRIBUTARY
Distributary
Mouth
Bar
MOUTH
BAR,
CLASTIC
STRAND
P
ALAIN,
BARRIER
ISLAND,
Clastic
Strand Plain,
SHALLOW MARINE
SHEET
Barrier
Island,
SANDSTONE,
CARBONATE SHOALING UPWARD
SEQUENCE,
ShallowSUBMARINE
MarineFAN
Sheet
LOBE
Sandstone,
Carbonate Shoaling
Upward Sequence,
Sub Marine Fan Lobe

A B RUP T B A S E
F -U

GAPI

150

Fluvial
Point
Bar POINT
FLUVIAL
POINT
BAR, TIDAL
BAR,
DEEPPoint
SEA CHANNEL,
Tidal
Bar,
SOME TRANSGRESSIVE SHELF
Deep Sea Channel
SANDS

ROUNDE D B A S E
& TOP

GAPI

150

IRREGULAR
SHAPE
Mixed cleand &
shally,
no Ctrend
M IX E D
LE A ND

&
S H A L LY, N O T R E N

GAPI

150

Sandy
Off-shore
Bar, Fluvial
SANDY OFFSHORE
BAR SOME
FLUVIAL
FLOODPLAIN
Flood
Plain
TRANSGRESSIVE
SHELF SANDS,
CARBONATE SLOPE CLA
Some
Transgressive
Slope
AMALGAMATEF C-U & F-U UNITS Carbonat
SLOPE,CANYON
Shelf Sands,
Clastic,
Some Transgressive Amalgamated C-U &
Slope Canyon
Shelf Sands
F- U unit

Stratigraphic Architecture &Depositional Environments from


Log Motifs & Stacking Patterns
BASIC LOG MOTIF & POSSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS
0

SPIKY

150 GAPI 0

Coastal Plain,
Continental Slope

COARSENINGUPWARD 150 GAPI

Prograding Shorelines:
Deltas
Strandplains

FININGUPWARD

150 GAPI

Channel/ Valley Fill:

Fluvial,
Eustarin,
Turbidite

BLOKY

150 GAPI

Channel/Valley Fill:
Aggradational
shorelines

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF WELL LOGS:


BASIC STACKING PATTERNS
Stacking pattern refer to the vertical & lateral arrangement of beds, bedset, Parasequence,
parasequences sets, sequences, & sequences sets. These figures ilustrate The Basic Parasequence Stacking Types & their use in Sequence Stratrigraphic Analysis on simulates GR Logs
AGGRADATIONAL

PROGRADATIONAL

(Regressive, Seaward-Stepping
0

150 GAPI

Thicker, less shally upward


Sediment source moving
closer (regrssion)
Typical of HIGHSTAND
SYSTEMS TRACT

150 GAPI

Similar thickness,
shaliness
Sediment source
maintained nearby
Typical of LOWSATND
SYSTEMS TRACT

RETROGRADATIONAL

(Backstepping,Transgressive,
Landward-Stepping
0

150 GAPI

Upward thinning, shalier


Sediment source moving away
(transgression)
Typical of TRANSGRESSIVE
SYSTEMS TRACT

Channel Sands

Bar, Regressive
Barrier Islands

Sub-marine Channel,
Braided Stream,
Tidal Sands Ridge

Deltaic Couplet:
Distributary Channel
Incised into Delta
Front Bar

Vertical variations in grain size to be used in the diagnosis of


depositional environment
Fining-upward (F-U), with a scoured base
Coarsening-upward (C-U) profiles
Blocky profiles whereby grain size remains relatively constant
Sands originating in different sub-environments commonly coalesce to
form a single vertical grain-size profile
No single environment has a unique grain-size profile
Similar profiles may be produced by different environments

Therefore, profiles should be interpreted with as much supplementary data as


possible.

EXXONS SEQUENCE BOUNDARY (SB) vs


GALLOWAYS GENETIC STRATIGRAPHY (GS)

Exxons sequence boundary (SB)vs Galloways genetic stratigraphy(GS)


FS

SB
EXXON
rd
3 Order SB
SB

Alluvial

Nearshore

MFS

GALLOWAY.GSS

FS
FS

MFS
RU- Reservoir Unit
Neritic/shelf
GU- Genetic Unit

FS

RU

GU
SB
FS

GU
Parasequence

GU

RU
LB
FS

EXXONS SEQUENCE BOUNDARY (SB) vs


GALLOWAYS GENETIC STRATIGRAPHY (GS)
MFS-3

SB-3
MFS-2

SB-2

MFS-1
SB-1

DE

US

LS

REGRESSION

PM
PL
PS
F
F/B
US
LS

PL =Paralic Lagoon

AP = Alluvial Plain

PM = Paralic Marsh

D = Delta Plain

PS = Paralic Swamp

B = Beach

F = Fluvial

US = Upper-Shoreface
LS = Lower-Shoreface

DE = Depositional Environment

SB
REGRESSION

TS

TRANGRESSION

P or
DP

REGRESSION

AP

INTERPRETATION 2

PALEOWATER
DEPTH

REGRESSION

INTERPRETATION I

MULTIPLE WORKING
HYPOTHESES

Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Well Logs:


Interpretations
Stacking Patterns
Stratigraphic Architecture
and of
Depositional
Environments from Log Motifs and Stacking Patterns

Idealized parasequence stacking patterns of a complete


depositional sequence in a shelfal position.

Maximum Flooding
Surface
"Transgressive" Surface

Highstand:
Progradational
Transgressive:
Retrogradational
Lowstand:
Aggradational

Sequence Boundary
Highstand:
Progradational

Changes in this arrangement can be used for sequence stratigraphic


interpretation and correlation.
TST

Sequence
Boundary

Incised LST/TST
Valley

TST

HST Maximum Flooding


Surface

TST
TST
LST

Highstand is missing,

Flooding Surface/
Sequence Boundary

LST

Lowstand is missing,

SUMMARY

Sequence Stratrigraphy: an integrated framework for


Petroleum Systems Analysis & Predictive models for prospect
generation

Sequences are controlled by a complex interaction of


tectonism, eustasy, sediment supple & climate

Several approaches exist, differing mainly in terms of principal


bounding surfaces, one or another may be best for a particular
basin or setting

From Practices standpoint, we recommend using the most


reasonable & practical approach

LOWSTAND
LOWSTAND SHELF-MARGIN
SHELF-MARGIN DELTA
DELTA DEPOSITIONAL
DEPOSITIONAL MODEL
MODEL
Incised
Fluvial
System
Emergent Coastal Plain
Coeval
Delta Plain

Distributary
Channels
D Distributary
Mouth Bars
C

A
Shelf Phase
Delta
Underlying
Sequence

Lowstand
Shoreline

F
B
E

Sequence Boundary
Growth faulting,
slumping, sliding
Mass-transport
gravity flows

Mass-transport
Gravity Flows

Rotational
slumps

A
C Distributary Channel
D Distributary Mouth Bar
Incised
Valley Fill

E Upper slope / Delta Front Gravity flow dep


B Shelf Margin Delta

F Outer shelf / Upper slope Distal deltaic dep