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2001, W. E.

Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Chapter 8 - Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids


For a beam in bending, we are often interested in determining the
transverse displacement along the beam as shown below.
y
x

u y ( x)
u y ( x) displacement in y direction

To do that, we would start with Conservation of Linear


Momentum. Unfortunately, COLM is in terms of stress, .
Consequently, we must have some way to relate stress to
deformation. We will need additional equations as follows:
Constitutive relations - relate stress to strain
Kinematic relations - relate strain to displacement (gradients)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

In the study of the motion of a solid or fluid, we will find it


necessary to describe the kinematic behavior of a continuum
body by defining expressions called strains in terms of the
gradients of displacement components. In the example below, we
consider an elastic bar of length L. If the bar is subjected by an
axial force F, it will stretch
an amount as shown in
figure b). The quantity /L
L
is a measure of the change
a) undeformed
in length relative to the
original length and is
F
F
defined to be the axial
strain for the bar.
L+
b) stretched (deformed)

2001, W. E. Haisler

In figure d), a shear load is applied that


is parallel to the top surface as shown.
The angle measures the amount the
original right angle in figure c) has
changed from a right angle, and the
angle is related to the shear strain.
What causes strain?

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

o
90

c) undeformed

Mechanical loads (forces,


pressures, etc.)
Temperature change (thermal
expansion)
d) sheared (deformed)
Moisture absorption
** Stress (relationship between stress and strain is the
constitutive relationship)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

In this chapter we will mathematically formalize these simple


ideas to develop expressions for strains in terms of displacement
components. We will consider two approaches:
1) mathematically precise approach and
2) a simpler geometrical approach.

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Deformations in solids are characterized by displacements


of points and by elongations and rotations of line segments
in the solid.
z

Initial State of Body


u(r+dr)

Q
P

dr
u(r)

Deformed State
Q*
dr*
P*

r*

y
r =position vector of point P (initial)
r* =position vector of point P* (deformed)
u(r) =displacement vector of point P
dr = vector line segment between P and Q

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Note the following geometry quantities:


P moves to P*,
Q moves to Q*,
line segment P-Q deforms (stretches/rotates) to P*-Q*:
r
r
r*
rr r

= position vector of point P (initial state)


= position vector of point P (in deformed state)
u (r ) = displacement vector of point P (from initial to
deformed state)
r
dr
= vector line segment between P and Q (initial state)
r
dr * = vector line segment between P and Q (deformed
r r r state)
u (r dr ) = displacement vector of point Q (from initial to
deformed state)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

From geometry of the vectors, we can write two equations:


displacement vector of point P: ur (rr ) rr* rr
and
r r r r r r
r* or drr* drr ur (rr drr ) ur (rr )
dr u (r dr ) u (r ) dr
The last two terms represent the change (gradient) in
r
r
u
displacement with respect to position r , i.e.,
r r r r r
r
r rr
u (r dr ) u (r ) du dr (u )
ux x uy x uz x

u ux y uy y uz y

z
u

y
z
x

displacement gradient
matrix (3x3). Note: not
symmetric!

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Definition of strain. Strain is a measure of the deformation


and rotationr of line
segments.
Consider
two
material
r
dr
dr
elements 1 & 2 , which undergo deformations that will
r*
r*
bring them into new locations dr1 & dr2 ; respectively.
z

Initial State of Body


dr
1
dr
2
u(r)
r

Deformed State
dr*
1
dr*2

r*
y

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Previously, we obtained for a line segment drr*:


r*
r r r r r r
r
r
r r rr
dr dr u (r dr ) u (r ) dr du dr dr (u )
We will obtain identical expressions for the two line
r*
r*
segments dr1 and dr2 defined in the figure above:
r*
r
r rr
dr dr dr (u )
1
1
1

and

rr
r*
r
r
dr dr dr (u )
2
2
2

Consider the dot product of these two vectors (a scaler result!)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

10

rr
r* r*
r
r rr
r
r
dr dr [dr dr (u )] [dr dr (u )]
1
2
1
1
2
2
rr
r r
r
r
dr dr dr [dr (u )]

1 r 2r r 1 r 2 r
rr
rr
r
[dr (u )] dr [dr (u )] [dr (u )]

1
2
1
2
rr
rrT
rr
rrT
r r
r
r
=dr dr dr [(u ) (u ) (u ) (u ) ] dr
1r 2
1
2
rrT
r
Recall that (u ) is a 3x3 matrix. The T in (u ) means
rr
that the matrix (u ) is transposed. The underlined term is
r
r
r* r*
r r
r
r
defined as 2E so that dr1 dr2 dr1 dr2 dr1 (2 E ) dr2
and
r
rr
rrT
rr
rrT
E 1 2[(u ) (u ) (u ) (u ) ] Finite Strain Tensor
Note that the expression for the finite strain tensor

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

11

r
rr
rrT
rr
rrT
E 1 2[(u ) (u ) (u ) (u ) ]

contains two distinctive terms:


rr
rrT
1 [(u ) (u ) ]
2

linear in displacement gradients

rr
rrT
1 [(u ) (u ) ] quadratic in displacement
2
gradients

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

12

Infinitesimal Strain Tensor


If the higher order terms are neglected from the finite strain
tensor [E] (i.e., keep only linear displacement gradient
terms), we obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor, []:
rr
rrT
r
1 2[(u ) (u ) ]

where [] is a 3x3 matrix given by:

2001, W. E. Haisler

xx
xy
xz

yx yy yz



zx
zy
zz

u
u
1
y
x

(
x)
x
2 x y

u
1 ux u y
y
(

)
x
y
2 y

u
1
1
y uz
( x z)
(

)
2 z
x
2 z
y

13

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

1 uz ux
(

)
2 x z

u
1 uz
y
(

)
2 y
z

z
z

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Note: Both [E] and [] are symmetric matrices.

14

2001, W. E. Haisler

15

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

A 2-D geometrical look at xx (defined to be the change in


length of a line segment dx which is originally oriented in
the x direction) and undergoes displacements u x and uy:
y

Q*
dx*
P*

P
x

ux(x)

uy(x+dx)
u (x)
y

dx

u (x+dx)
x
Q
(x+dx)

2001, W. E. Haisler

16

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

dx * dx
xx
= (change in length)/(original length) .
dx
2
2

dx* dx u x ( x dx) u x ( x) u y ( x dx) u y ( x)

u
u
dx(1
) dx(
)
x
x
u
u
u
u
dx 1

dx 1 2

x
x
x
x

ux
dx dx
x

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

uy
dx
x

2 1/ 2

1/ 2

u y

Note: 1 a 1 (1/ 2)a (for small a). Thus, the last result is
approximately:

2 1/ 2

2001, W. E. Haisler

17

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

1
x
dx* dx 1 x
x 2 x

1
y


2 x

The strain now becomes

1
x
dx 1 x
x 2 x

dx * dx
xx

dx

dx

1
y
dx

2 x

2001, W. E. Haisler

18

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

After canceling the dx terms, the finite strain term becomes

u x 1 u x
xx

x 2 x

1 u y

2 x

finite strain

For small gradients, we assume that the squared terms are


small compared to the un-squared terms and we obtain the
linear, or small strain expression:

ux
xx
x

small strain

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

19

Shear strain (rotation of line segments):

Note that

dux
y

dy

dy*

dx*
du
y

dy

dx

dx
x

1 u y ux

) . Geometrically, each of the two terms is an


xy = (
2 x y
angle as shown at the left. xy is called a shear strain and
geometrically is 1/2 (average) of the angular rotation of line

2001, W. E. Haisler

20

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

segments dx & dy which originally form a right angle. In


contrast, the engineering shear strain xy is defined as the sum

y ux

of these two angles, ie, xy = 2 xy =


.
x y

The definition of the engineering shear strain xy from a graphical


viewpoint is an approximation (similar to the square root
approximation made in xx ). From the geometry above,

r
r
r r
dx * dy* cos * dx * dy * . Define xy to be the sum of the
u
y ux

angular rotations, ie, xy =


. (engineering shear strain)
x y

y ux
cos * cos( / 2 ) sin

2
xy
xy x y
xy
xy

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

As in the square root approximation made for xx (for the


geometrical interpretation of strain), an assumption of small
rotations has been made in defining the shear strain xy .

21

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

22

Some examples

u(x)
Consider a bar of lenght L,
fixed at the left end, and
with a force P applied at the
L
right end. The bar stretches
u
x
L
an amount uL at the right
end. If the engineering
strain in the x direction is defined to be (change in length)/
(original length), then xx = uL/L.

We could also find the expresssion for u(x) and apply the
mathematical definition of xx . We have two boundary
conditions on u(x): u(0)=0 and u(L)= uL. Assume
u ( x) C1 C2 x where C1 and C2 are constants. Applying B.C.s

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

23

gives C1 = 0 and C2 = uL/L so that u(x) = (uL/L) x. Thus the strain

ux
is given by xx
= (uL/L).
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

24

Example: At the point "A" shown on the wheel, the displacement


field has been determined to be as
Point A
follows (using the finite element
method):
u x ( x, y ) (0.38 x 2 1.31xy 0.045 y 2
2.22 x 8.41 y )104 in
u y ( x, y ) ( 0.25 x 2 1.62 xy 1.65 y 2
+3.44 x 7.03 y )104 in
u z ( x, y ) 0
Determine the strains at point "A" which is located at x=4in,
y=5in.

2001, W. E. Haisler

25

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

u x ( x, y ) (0.38 x 2 1.31xy 0.045 y 2


2.22 x 8.41 y )104 in
u y ( x, y ) ( 0.25 x 2 1.62 xy 1.65 y 2
+3.44 x 7.03 y )104 in
xx

yy

xy

xz

u x
x

u y
y

(0.76 x 1.31 y 2.22)104 in / in


x 4", y 5"

7.37 x104 in / in
x 4", y 5"

2.01x104 in / in
x 4", y 5"

1 u x u y

2 y
x
yz zz 0

3.27 x104 in / in , Note: xy 2 xy


x 4", y 5"

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

26

Now, do again, but consider finite strain.


Comparing the two results, is it OK to assume small strains for
this problem?

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

27

Some Thought Exercises


Suppose we have an 8x8 square area outlined on a larger chunk of
planar material (like a plate). Suppose the plate is loaded in the x-y
plane so that the square is displaced and deformed to a rectangle as
shown below [new x-y coordinates starting at lower left corner and
going CCW are: (8,4), (20,4),
(20,12) and (8,12)]. Picture shows
deformed and undeformed
area. What are your guesses for
undeformed
the strains? There is stretching in
the x direction, so xx 0 . There
is no stretching in the y direction,
so yy 0 . All right angles
deformed
remain right angles, hence there is
no shear strain and xy 0 .

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

28

We can actually solve for the displacements and strains since we


know the initial and final positions of the 4 corner points.
Assume that the displacements are given by (a 2-D curve fit):
u x ( x, y ) C1 C2 x C3 y C4 xy
u y ( x, y ) C5 C6 x C7 y C8 xy
Four constants are chosen because we know information at 4
points. Now apply know conditions for the four corner points:
u x (0,0) 8 0 C1 C2 (0) C3 (0) C4 (0)(0)
u x (8,0) 20 8 C1 C2 (8) C3 (0) C4 (8)(0)
u x (8,8) 20 8 C1 C2 (8) C3 (8) C4 (8)(8)
u x (0,8) 8 0 C1 C2 (0) C3 (8) C4 (0)(8)
u y (0,0) 4 0 C5 C6 (0) C7 (0) C8 (0)(0)
u y (8,0) 4 0 C5 C6 (8) C7 (0) C8 (8)(0)
u y (8,8) 12 8 C5 C6 (8) C7 (8) C8 (8)(8)
u y (0,8) 12 8 C5 C6 (0) C7 (8) C8 (0)(8)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

29

In each of the above, the displacement at a point is set equal to


the final position initial position of that point. Solve for
the constants and substitute back into u x and u y to obtain:
u x ( x, y ) 8 0.5 x 0 y 0 xy 8 0.5 x
u y ( x, y ) 4 0 x 0 y 0 xy 4
Last equation says that displacement of all points in y direction (
u y ) is a constant, which is consistent with the picture of
deformed and undeformed area. Now calculate the strains:
u x
0.5 in / in (a positive value indicates stretching)
x
u y

0
(no stretching in y direction)
y
1 u x u y

0 0 0 (no shear strain)


2 y
x

xx

yy

xy

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

30

Suppose we have an 8x8 square area outlined on a larger chunk


of planar material (like a plate). Suppose the plate is loaded in
the x-y plane so that the square is displaced and deformed to a
parallelogram as shown below [new x-y coordinates starting at
lower left corner and going CCW are: (8,4), (16,4), (19,12) and
(11,12)]. Picture shows
deformed and undeformed
area. What are your guesses for
the strains? There is no
stretching in the x direction, so
undeformed
deformed
xx 0 . There is no stretching in
the y direction, so yy 0 .
However, original right angles
are no longer right angles, hence
there is some shear strain and
xy 0 .

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

31

Suppose we have an 8x8 square area outlined on a larger chunk


of planar material (like a plate). Suppose the plate is loaded in
the x-y plane so that the square is displaced and deformed to a
quadrilateral as shown below [new x-y coordinates starting at
lower left corner and going
CCW are: (9,4), (16.8,6),
(17.5, 14.5) and (10.8,12.5)].
Picture shows deformed and
undeformed area. What are
your guesses for the strains? It
appears that there is shortening
or stretching in the x and y
direction; hence, xx 0 and
yy 0 . Original right angles
are no longer right angles,
hence there is some shear strain and xy 0 .

2001, W. E. Haisler

32

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

Note on Tensor Stress & Strain Transformation


For 2-D, Cauchy's formula provided the following relation:
r
r rr
t( n) n

(3.31)
r
The component of t( n ) in the

direction of the unit outward


r
normal n of a surface (or in x'
xx
direction is:
r
r
n x ' x ' t( n) n

t (n )
n

xy
yx
yy

r
t( n)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

33

Substitute Cauchy's formula into the above, and write in


both vector and matrix notation: r
r
r
n x'x' n n
[ n] [ ] [ n]
(1x 2) (2 x 2) (2 x1)

The expression n [n][ ][n] gives the component of stress,


r
n , in the direction of the unit normal n (or in the direction of
the x'-axis which makes an angle CCW from the x-axis).
Lets do both the vector and matrix operations to show that
they are the same. First, Cauchy's formula is

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

34

r
r
rr
rr
rr
rr
r
r rr
t( n) n (cos i sin j ) xx ii yx ji xy ij yy jj
r
r
( xx cos xy sin )i ( yx cos yy sin ) j
r
r
( xx cos xy sin )i ( xy cos yy sin ) j
Note yx xy . Now do the remaining vector operation for
n to obtain:

r
r
n x ' x ' t( n) n

r
( xx cos xy sin )i
r
r
r cos i sin j
( xy cos yy sin ) j

xx cos2 2 xy sin cos yy sin 2


If we do this in matrix notion we obtain:

2001, W. E. Haisler

35

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

xx xy cos
n [n][ ][ n] cos sin

sin

yy
yx
cos 2 2 sin cos
xx

xy

(5.3)
2
sin
yy

The above is called the stress transformation equation (see


eq. 5.3 in the notes). The stress transformation transforms
stresses from an (x,y) coordinate system to an (x',y') system
where x' is rotated by an angle CCW from the x-axis.
We can similarly show that the strain transformation is
given by:
r r r
n x' x' n n
[n] [ ] [n]
(1x 2) (2 x 2) (2 x1)

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

36

The quantity n is the component of strain in the direction


r
of a unit normal n . n is often called the unit elongation
r in
r
the n direction (just as xx is the unit elongation in the i or
x-coordinate direction).
Notes:
1. Both [ ] and [ ] are second order tensors.
2. All second order tensors follow the same transformation
form in transforming from (x,y,z) to another orthogonal
coordinate system (x',y',z'), i.e.,
r r r
n x'x' n n

and

[n][ ][n]

2001, W. E. Haisler

37

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

r r r
n x'x' n n

[n][ ][ n]

3. The same transformation applies to


moments of inertia of a cross-section
A (which is also a second order
tensor):
I xx y dA , I xy xydA, I yy x dA
A
A
A
2

With respect to the x'-y' coordinate


system at some angle , we have:
I x ' x ' ( y ') 2 dA
A

y
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

Chapter 8: Stress, Strain and Deformation in Solids

38

Can also get I x ' x ' by applying the coordinate transformation


r
to the x-y moments of inertia written as a matrix: ( n is unit
vector in x' direction):
I xx
[I ]
I yx

I xy

I yy

, then I n I x ' x ' [n][ I ][n]