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API STANDARD 2000

Table C-1-0perating Characteristics of Venting Devices


Type of Venting Device
Characteristic

Direct Acting

Pilot Operated

Seat Tightness

Leakage rate increases with increasing pres- Leakage rate decreases with increasing pressure. Typically, no leakage above 30% of set.
sure. Leakage may begin at 75% of set.
A small amount of leakage at pilot may begin
at 90% of set.

Capacity/Overpressure (Refer to Figure C-5)

Rated capacity normally obtained at 200%


of set, for pressure or vacuum.

Rated capacity obtained at 110% of set for


pressure or vacuum.

Set Pressure Range- Typical

Pressure-Weight Loaded
1/20zJin2 to 16 ozJin2

Pressure2" WC to 15.0 psig


(5 mbarg to 1.034 barg)

(0.865" WC to 27.7" WC)


(2 mbarg to 69 mbarg)
Pressure-Spring Loaded
1.0 psig to 15.0 psig
(69 mbarg to 1.034 barg)

Vacuum-2" WC to -14.7 psig


(-5 mbarg to -1.013 barg)

Vacuum - Weight Loaded


1/20zJin2 to -10 ozJin2
-0.865" WC to -17.3" WC)
(-2 mbarg to -43 mbarg)
Vacuum-Spring Loaded
-10 ozJin2 to -7 psig
(-43 mbarg to 0.48 barg)
Typical Blowdown

In areas with strict fugitive emissions regulations, open


vents may not be acceptable and vent device selection must
consider maximum leakage requirements during periods of
normal tank operation.

C.2.4

VENTING DEVICE SIZES AND SET


PRESSURES

Direct-acting vent valves are typically available in sizes


from 2 inches (50 mm) to 12 inches (300 mm); however, vent
valves in a stacked configuration (see Figure C-4) are available in sizes up to 24 inches (600 mm). The size of a vent
valve is based on the venting device's tank connection.
Typical set pressure ranges for weight-loaded vent valves
are up to 16 ounces per square inch pressure (69 mbarg) and
up to 10 ounces per square inch vacuum (-43 mbarg). Springloaded vent valves must generally be used for pressure or vacuum settings that exceed these values because the supporting
structure and space for the added weights is not available.
Verification of the set pressure of a venting device after it
has been installed on a storage tank can be accomplished by
increasing the tank pressure or vacuum. To change the set
pressure, weights must be added or removed from the pallet, a
new pallet must be used, or the spring must be adjusted (if a
spring-loaded vent valve is being used).

0% t07%

C.3

Pilot-Operated Vent Valves

C.3.1

DESCRIPTION

Pilot-operated vent valves are available to provide pressure


relief, vacuum relief, or a combination of pressure and vacuum relief. Some vent valves may be equipped with flanged
outlets when pressure relief vapors must be piped away.
Unlike side-by-side direct-acting vent valves, pilot-operated
vent valves relieve pressure or vacuum through the same
opening to atmosphere (see Figure C-6).

C.3.2

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

A pilot-operated vent valve for pressure relief uses tank


pressure, not weights or a spring, to keep the vent valve seat
closed. The main seat is held closed by tank pressure acting
on a large area diaphragm. This tank pressure covers an area
greater than the seat sealing area, so the net pressure force is
always in a direction to keep the seat closed. The volume
above the diaphragm is called the dome. Should the diaphragm fail, the dome pressure will decrease, and the vent
valve will open.
The pilot is a small control valve that continuously senses
tank pressure. When the tank pressure increases to set pressure, the pilot actuates to reduce the pressure in the dome volume, the force holding the seat closed is reduced, and the seat