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Lecture

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Egon-Christian von Glasner

Tire Mechanics

Contents

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.4.
6.5.

Fundamentals
Requirements and evaluation criteria
Safety aspects
Cost effectiveness
Comfort
Adhesion performance
Influence of surface pressure
Forces acting on tires
Tires on dry road surfaces
Free rolling wheel subjected to slip angle
Straight ahead rolling wheel while accelerating and decelerating
Combination of slip angle and slip
Tires on wet road surface
Tires on wintry/icy road surfaces

0226 / 1103

Tire Design Fundamentals


Running surface
Shoulder
Belt
Intermediate ply
Carcass

Sidewall
Bead
reinforcement
Bead core

Interior
insulating layer
Bead

0229 /0903

The Tire - A Compromise (1)


Requirements

Tire Design Measures

Good damping characteristics Large volume

Trend
Limited high speed capacity
Increased substructure loading

Excellent ride comfort

Low inflation pressure


Obtuse cord angle

Reduced service life


Increased heat-up
Less sufficient cornering stability

Low rolling resistance

Increased inflation pressure


Acute cord angle
Belt type

Moderate springing characteristics


Bad road surface contact
Minimal service life

Minimal heat up

Thin sidewall
Mixture with marginal damping

Marginal sidewall stiffness


Marginal adhesion on wet roads

Transversely situated tread lugs


Fine profile
Flat, broad running surface

Marginal smoothness
Marginal service life
Increased running noise

Higher inflation pressure


Acute cord angle

Marginal ride comfort


Marginal springing characteristics

Longitudinally orientated profile


Low height/width ratio
Broadened rim width

Increased shoulder loading

Excellent adhesion on wet


road surface
Good cornering stability

0227 / 0802

The Tire - A Compromise (2)


Requirements
Maximum service life
Operational safety at high
speed

Rolling noise reduction

Driveability in winter

Off-road
capacity

Tire Design Measures

Trend

Increasing stiffness of running surface Limited high speed capacity


Uniform surface pressure distribution Increased heat-up
Marginal ride comfort
High-strength cord types
Flat spots after prolonged standstill
Thin sidewalls
Marginal ride comfort
Acute cord angle
Heat resistant mixture
Circumferential-rib tread, no fine tread
No lateral cutting
Running surface mixture with high
damping

Marginal adhesion when wet,


snow and ice
Increased rolling resistance

Massive bar winter tread profile


Spikes

Increased riding noise


Decreased service life
Limited high speed capacity

Big volume
Low inflation pressure
Massive bar tread profile
Adaptable carcass

Increased heat-up
Limited high speed capacity

0228 / 0903

System Wheel/Tire - Evaluation Criteria

Primary criteria
Safety
Economy
Maximum attainable comfort for
driver and load

0230 / 0903

System Wheel/Tire - Tire Characteristics Influencing Safety

Safety criteria
Mechanical strength
Tire force fit
Adhesion on dry, wet and icy road
surfaces, when decelerating and
accelerating
0231 / 0903

System Wheel/Tire - Tire Characteristics


Influencing Economy
Economic criteria

Service life
Rolling resistance
Dimension and weights
Tire/chain compatibility
0232 / 0903

Influence of Inflation Pressure and Load on


the Service Life of a Tire
%

100
90

Service life
Laufleistung

Laufleistung

80

74

74
70

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100
100

110

120

130

140
%

150

Prozentsatz
Percentage
Prozen tsatz
des Lu ftdru cks
der Beladu n g
of inflation
pressure
of load
0233 / 0903

Results from test vehicles 1996-2002


(mean values)

Increased fuel consumption

Influence of Inflation Pressure on Fuel


Consumption of Commercial Vehicles

Reduction of inflation pressure


Vans and light trucks (<7,5 t)

Heavy trucks (>7,5 t)


0234 / 0903

System Wheel/Tire - Tire Characteristics


Influencing Ride Comfort

Comfort criteria

Springing behavior
Response- and re-aligning behavior
Uniformity and running noise
Ease of assembly

0235 / 0903

Radial Spring Stiffness of a Commercial Vehicle Tire


Tire:

Spring stiffness

Slip angle
0373 / 0802

Adhesion between Tire and Road Surface - Scope of Testing

Influence of surface pressure

Forces acting on a tire

Tire on dry road surface

Free rolling wheel under slip

Straight-ahead rolling wheel while


accelerating and decelerating

- Combination of slip angle and slip


- Tire on wet road surface
- Tire on wintry/icy road surface
0236 /0903

Tire Test Truck

Measuring axle

0237 / 0903

Tire Test Stand

0238 / 0903

300

Coefficient of Adhesion in Dependence of Surface Pressure

Coefficient of adhesion k

Passenger
cars

Commercial
vehicles

0,5

Dry road surface

100

200

N/cm2 2
N/cm

300

Surface pressure pm
0239 / 0903

Forces Acting on Tires


Dimension Unit

rdyn
B

R
v0

B
Q

B
f
M
M
n

kN
mm
Nm
Nm
mm

pi
Q
R
rdyn
S
v0

bar
kN
kN
mm
kN
km/h

Term
braking force
tire rebound force
re-alignment torque
camber torque
distance between resulting
force and vertical axis
tire inflation
resulting force
wheel load
dynamic tire radius
lateral force
road speed
slip angle
angle of resulting force Q
camber angle

0240 / 0903

Tire Characteristics According to Gough


Caster

Lateral force

Wheel load R

Slip angle

Dry road surface

Re-aligning torque
0241 / 0903

Lateral Force/Slip Angle Characteristics

Lateral force

11 R 22.5
Inflation pressure = 7,75 bar
Speed = 40 km/h
Wheel load R = 40 kN
Dry road surface

Slip angle
0374/ 0903

Influence of Camber Angle on Lateral Forces


Camber angle
Wheel load

Lateral force

Dry road surface

Slip angle

0375/ 0903

Influence of Tread Conditions on Lateral Forces

Lateral force

Tread condition

Dry road surface

Slip angle

0376/ 0903

Braking Force/Slip Characteristics


40

Michelin
XZA

Braking force B

kN

Wheel load R = 40 kN
30

11 R 22.5
pi = 7,75 bar
v0 = 60 km/h
Dry road surface

20

10

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

Slip

0,5

0392/ 0903

Influence of Tire Inflation Pressure on Lateral


and Braking Forces
Tire inflation pressure pi

Dry road surface

Wheel load

Slip angle

Braking force

Lateral force

Tire inflation pressure pi

Wheel load R

Dry road surface

Slip
0377/ 0903

Influence of Camber Angle on Braking


Forces
Braking
BremskraftB
Bremskraft
force

T endenz
Tendency
0
0
5
5

Camber angle
increases

Sturzwinkel nim m t zu

10

Schlupf
Slip

0378/ 0903

Influence of Slip Angle when Braking


40
kN

Braking force B

30

20

Slip angle increases

Michelin XZA
10

11 R 22.5
pi = 7,75 bar
R = 40 kN
v0 = 60 km/h
dry road surface

0
0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

Slip
0379/ 0903

The Principle of Cooperation between Circumferential


Forces, Lateral Forces, Slip Angle and Slip
Lateral force

Braking force

Driving force
Slip

Slip angle

Braking force
0253 /0903

Measured Tire Characteristics


Michelin
XZA
Lateral force S

11 R 22.5

Slip angle

pi = 7,75 bar
R = 40 kN
v0 = 60 km/h
dry road surface

Braking force B
0380/ 0903

Envelope Curves for Maximum Possible Adhesion of a


Tire with Wheel Load as Parameter
Wheel load
R = 40 kN

Michelin
XZA
11 R 22.5

Lateral force S

pi = 7,75 bar
v0 = 60 km/h
dry road surface

Braking force B
0381/ 0903

Contact Area of a Tire on a Wet Road Surface

Direction of travel

Contact area for a dry


road surface
Contact area for
a wet
road surface

Water wedge
0255 / 0903

Slip
(Slip angle)

Water depth increases

Braking force

Water depth increases

Water depth increases

Braking force

Braking force (Lateral force)

Influence of Water Depth on


Braking Force/Lateral Force - Characteristics

Speed

Tread depth

0256 / 0802

Dependence of Adhesion Limits from Water Depth


Lateral force
Dry road
surface

Water depth
(mm) increases

0.5
1,0
1,5

Braking force B

Driving force A
0393 / 0903

Aquaplaning Performance of Tires


made by Different Manufacturers
B
E
F

Tire sizes:

Dimensionen:
175 R 14

Kraftschlubeiwert

Coefficient of adhesion k

0,5

185 R 14
185
R 14

175 R 14

215 R 14

0,4

215 R 14

205 R 14
205
R 14
B

300 %
300

0,3

300%%
300

0,2

E
D

E
E

0,1

Products A, B, C, D, E, F of certain tire manufacturers


0

Test Conditions:
Water
Speed
100km/h,
Wheel load 2kN
Produkte
A, B, C,
D, depth
E, F 2mm,
bestim
m ter
Reifenhersteller
0258 / 0903

Influence of Ice Temperature on Lateral Force Capacities

-4

- 2

-2

- 1
- 0

-1

S eLateral
i t e n k r a f tforce

- 4

Lateral
S
S e i t e n k rforce
a ft

Ice Eisoberflchentemperatur
surface
temperature
nimmt zuincreases

Road speedGeschwindigkeit
increases
nimmt zu

(fallend )
Eisoberflchentemperatur
Ice surface temperature
Schrglaufwinkel

Slip angle a
0259 / 0903