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ty and spin dozens of new innovation3 for entrepreneurs, it repre'. ..
most difficult business models for which to provide any intellectual
, :.... . ,
ion. Steve llPscomb .has. emerged as one of the most aggressive and
:. i ..:' .:::-:!:.:


innovative entreprneurs among those trying to

compete in this media market. His World poker
Tour, broadcast on the cable television Travel
Channel, became an instant hit show in 2003, as
evidenced by its audience size or television rating points. With this success, however.
new competitors evolved, making the strategy of protecting his investment even more

Steve Lipscomb grew up in Nashville, Tennessee, and came from a long line of
': Baptst ministers. His first entrepreneurial effort, after becoming an attorney, was to
launch an attorney referral venture. However. even after early entrepreneurial success, his career made some dramatic changes, primarily because of discrimination




issues experienced by his mother after she had chosen to enter the Baptist Church
seminary. His anger over this experience led him to make a documentarv film so that

the world would be made more aware of some of these discriminatory issues. He
then sold his attorney referral business. taught himself filmmaking, and proceeded
to make Battle of the Minds, which won acclaim and numerous awards after aopearing on PBS television. This success resulted in a friendship with producer Norman
Lear and a

film project to provide audiences with

an jnside look at the World Series

.. ....i:::-' AlthoughpokerwasnotaforeignconcepttoLipscomb,havingonceentereda
$100 satellite tournament, he felt that ESPN's televising of the World Series of poker
. *"t poorly presented. After his film project, Lipscomb had the strong vision that not
'.i only could poker be made to be more interesting but that it would be possible to create a major league of poker that would allow for entrepreneurial expansion into
merchandise, foreion
lirpncinn Internet
lnfaraf competition,
nmna*irinn and
.t other
!'.,-i^^-- opportuniforeign licensing,
^+k^- business
-'--.":-'.'.:;:iL::.', tiestipq Wth
\A/+h fho
+^t^.,:-:^r:----:the he lp of
^-i licensing experience, Lipscomb
^+ two friends with television and


.-,', ':'




a league of pokerplayerswho could entertournaments astheypleased






for prize money rased from sponsors. His business model was to establish a league
of poker players similar to golf's PGA Tour. Thus, anyone with $10,000 could enter
one of the World Poker Tour events with a chance to win a large prize of $1 million
or more.
Lipscomb's strategy was to produce a show before getting television to buy it. With
the support of Lakes Entertainment, a developer of casino gaming, and an investment
of $3.5 million, the World Poker Tour and WPT Enterprises were born, including a listing on the NASDAQ (WPTE). With this investment Lipscomb subsequently had to gve
up 70 percent control of his business, but he was able to retain 16.5 percent for himself.

Armed with this infusion of venture capital Lipscomb hit the road to try to persuade the
many popular casinos to support these poker tournaments. His format included two
unique concepts to make the televising of poker more interesting to the viewer. One

of these was a small camera under the table that allowed the viewers to see the two
cards that were dealt face down. Viewers could then play along with the tournament
players. In addition, he added unique graphics that presented on-screen icons of each

player's cards. Odds of winning were included at each stage of the betting process,
making this programming unique and more interesting to thetelevision audience.
Lipscomb regarded these unique additions as intellectual property. but this has
created controversy with some of the competition- ESPN has duplicated Lipscomb's
camera and graphics in its presentation of another league, the World Series of Poker
Circuit. Lipscomb argues that the camera and graphics are proprietary with applications for patents pending. Without any resolution to the intellectual property issue,
Lipscomb hs embarked on an aggressive strategy to buld the image of WPTE. More

tournaments, more casinos. new products, higher stakes, international growth and
syndication, and the recent contract with Fox Sports Network (FSN) are all intended
to increase visibility and profitabilty to the company. Fox Sports Network is a much
better fit for WPT than the Travel Channel or Game Show Network. Audiences will be
higher; exposure will be greater, and FSN plans to include WPT in the Monday sports
block of programming. In addition to the new network, WPTE now owns and operates
WPT China, a multimedia company based in Beijing specializing in television production of the WPT China National Traktor Poker Tour. Traktor Poker is a national card
game in China, and this 1O-year exclusive deal is expected to add substantial income

not only from the tour but also from licensing and other partnerships with Chinese
Now in its seventh season, the company continues to struggle financially with losses of
about $9.7 million in 2O07 compared to positive profits of $7.8 million in 2006. Sales in
2007 compared to the previous year were also down from $29.3 million to $2'1.7 million,
Higher costs and less exposure with the existing networkwere major contributing
factors to this decline. Lipscomb is confident that the business outlook is favorable
now that the new network is in place and other international deals are complete. Even
though the intellectual property issues previously discussed may not be resolved very
soon, if at all, Lipscomb will continue to explore new opportunities through innovation
and creativity that will enhance sales and profitability.l





intellectual properlJ

Any patents, trademaks,

copyrights, or trade
secfets held by the




Lawyers, like many other professionals, are specialists not
areas of the law. The entrepreneur does not usually have the
dle possible risks associated with the many difhcult laws
attorney is in a better position to understand all possible circu
to any legal action.




Locked doors and a security system protect your
equipment. inventory, and payroll. But what protects
's most valuable possessions? Intellec-


laws can protect your trade


product design, provided you take

the proper steps. Chicago attorney Kara E. F- Cenar of
Welsh & Katz, an intellectual property firm, contends
that businesses should start thinking about these issues earlier than most do. "Small businesses tend io
delay securing intellectul property protection .be:
cause of the expense," Cenar says- "They tend notto

the value of intellectual property until a competitor infringes." But a business that hasn't applied for
cgpyrights Or patents and actively defended them
will likely have trouble making its case in court.
One reason many business owners don,t protect

their intellectual property is that they don,t recognize the value of the intangibles they own. Cenar ad-

to take their business plans to

an experienced intellettual property attorney and
discuss how to deal with these issues. Spending
money up front for legal help can save a great deal
later by giving you strong copyright or trademark
rights, which can deter competitors from infringing

dress protection wouldn't

help much. because the

company planned a ariety of styles. But copyrights

are available for sculptural art, and they're inexpbnsive and easy to obtain. The company chose fo register copyrights and defend them vigorously. Cenar's
firm has fended off numerous knockoffs.
That's the next step: monitoring the marketplace
for knockoffs and.trademark infringement, and taking increasingly firm steps to enforce you rights.
Efforts typically begin with a letter of warning and
could end with a court-ordered cease-and-desist:order
or even an award of damages. "lf you don:t:take the
time to enforce [your trademark], it becomes a very
weak mark," Cenar says. "But a strong mark deiers infringement, wins lawsuits and gets people to settle
early." 5leep on your rights, and you'll lose them. Be
proactive. and you'll protect them-and save money
in the long run.

vises business owners

and avoid litgation later.

Once you've figured out what's worth protecting.
you have to decide how to protect t. That isn,t always obvious. Traditionally, patents prohibit others
from copying new devices and processes, while copyrights do the same for creative endeavors such as
books. music. and software. In many cases, though,
the categories overlap. Likewise, trademark law now
extends to such distinctive elements as a product,s
color and shape. Trade dress law concerns how the
product is packaged and advertised. you mght be
able to choose what kind of protection to seek.
For instance, one of Welsh & Katz's clients is Ty Inc.,
maker of plush toys. Before launching the Beanie
Baby line, Cenar explains, the owners brought in business and marketing plans to discuss intellectual property issues. The plan was for a limited number of toys
in a variety of styles, and no advertising except wordof-mouth. Getting a patent on a plush toy might have
been impossible and would have taken several years,
too long for easily copied toys. Trademark and trade


An inventor with a newly invented technology comes
to you for advice on the following matters:

In running this new venture, I need to invest all

available resources in producing the products and
attracting customers. How important is it for me
to divert money from those efforts to protect my

intellectual property?

2. I have sufficient


to obtan intellectual

property protection, but how effective is that

protection without a large stock of resources to
invest in going after those who infringe on my
rights? lf I do not have the resources to defend a
patent, is it worth obtaininq one in the first

3. Are there circumstances when it is better for

me not to be an innovator but rather produce
"knockoffs" of others' innovations? What do I
need to watch out for when imitating the products of others?
Source: Reprinted with pernrissiol ofEntrepreneur Media, Inc. "You
Have to Get Tough withTransgressors If You Want to ProtectYour
[ntellectual Property." by Steven C. Bahls and Jane Easter Bahls,
Janua r1 100-1. E n t t e p rr ne u r magazi ne: u wrv.entrepreneuncom.





services' The lawyer then will have a vested interest in the business
and will likely provide
more personalized services- However, in making such a major decision,
the entreireneur
must consider any possible loss of control of the business.


The form of organization as well as franchise agreements are
discussed in Chapters 9 and
14 and will not be addressed in detail here- Since there are
many options that an entrepreneur can choose in setting up an organization (see Chapter
S), it wilie necessary to

understand all the advantages and disadvantages of each regarding

such issues as liability, taxes,
continuity, transferability ofinterest, costs ofsetting up, and attractiveness
Irgal advice for these agreements is necessary to ensure that the most appropriate
have been made.

pdrrf Grants holder
protection from others
making, using or selllng
a simila idea

A patent is a contract between the government and an inventor- In exchange

tbr disclosure
of the invention, the government grants the inventor exclusivity regardingihe

invention for
specified amount of time. At the end of this time, the governmeni puutnes
the invention
and it becomes part of the public domain. As parr of the public domain,
howeveg there is
the assumption that the disclosure will stimulate ideas and perhaps
even the development
of an even better product that could replace the original.
- Basically, the patent gives the owners a negative right because it prevents anyone else
from making, using' or selling the defined invention. Moreover, even if
an inventor has
been granted a patent, in the process ofproducing or marketing
the invention he or she may
hnd that it infringes on the patent rights of others. The inventor should
recognize the distinction between utility and design patents and some of the differences
in international
patents that are discussed later in this chapter.


utility patenls- when speaking about patents, most people are referring to utility
patents. A utility patent has a term of 20 years, beginning
on the date o1filing with the
Patent and rrademark ofrrce (pro). Any invention requiring
FDA approval has also
been amended to extend the term of the patent by the amount
of time tut", the FDA
to review the invention. Initial hling fees for a utility patent for a small
entity can vary
from $82 online ro $165 by mail. Additional f'ees exist depending on the
number of
claims made in the patent application.
A utility patent basically grants the owner protection from anyone else making, using,

and./or selling the identihed invention and generally reflects protection

of new, usetI,
and unobvious processes such as film developing, machines such as photocopiers,

compositions of matter such as chemical compounds or mixtures of ingredients,

and articles
of manufacture such as the toothpaste pump


Desgn patents. Covering new, original, ornamental, and unobvious

designs for articles
ofmanufacture, a design patent reflects the appearance ofan object. These patents
granted for a l4-year term and, like the utility patent, provide
the inventor with a
negative right excluding others from making, using, or sefling an aticle
having the
ornamental appearance given in the drawings included in the patent.
The initial filing
fee for each design application for a small entity is I 10. There
are also issuance fbes,
depending on the size of the item. These fees are much lower than
for a utility patent.
Traditionally, design patents were thought to be useless because it was

so easy to
design around the patent. Howeve there is renewed interest in these patents.




are shoe companies such as Reebok and Nike that have become more interested


obtaining design patents as a means of proecting thei omamental designs. These types
of patents are also valuable for businesses that need to protect molded plasc parts,
extrusions, and prodrrct and container configurations.

Plant patels. These are issued under the same provisions as utility patents and are for
new varieties of plants. These patents represent a limited area of interest, and thus very

few of these types of patents ae issued.

Patents are issued by the PTO. In addition to patents, this of[rce administers other programs and many online services for the entrepreneur, such as software for hling patents and
forms for trademarks and copyrights, discussed later in this chapter. Although the Disclosure Document Program ended in 2ffi7, it has been replaced by the Provisional Patent

Application Program.
A patent reform bill was introduced to Congress in2OO7, but with changes made independently by both the House and Senate there has not been any compromise. President
Obama has indicated a desie to move on patent reform, and there will likely be changes in
the near future. The most important part of the reform bill is the "first to file" system used
in most other countries. What this means is that regardless of the date of the invention, it is
the fnst one to file who will be granted the patent.3

lnternationaI Patents
With the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, the GeneralAgreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GA[T), more global free trade has been encouraged. However, although
internalional trade has increased at the rate of about 6 percent per year since GAIT was
created in 1948, until recently there still was a need for an international paent law to protect firms from imitations and knockoffs. Another mechanism also was needed to provide
firms some protection in global markets.a
In response, the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)-with over 1) participants-was
established to facilitate paent filings in multiple countries in one ofhce rather than filing in
each separate country. Administered by the World lntellectual Property Organization (MPO)
in Geneva, Switzerland, it provides a preliminary search that assesses whether the hling hrm

will face any possible infringements in any countrr.s The company can then decide whether
with the required filing of the patent in each country. It has a 3O-month time frame
to file for these in-country patents. Even though the PCT allows for simultaneous frling of a
patent in all member countries, there may be significant differences in patent laws in each of
these countries. For example, patent laws in the United States allow computer softwae to receive both patent and copyright protection. On the other hand, in the European Union, patent
protection is not always extended to software, although recent court judgments in the U.K.
may change this as well.6
to proceed

The Provisionat Apptication

prorisional palent
application Theinitiat
application to the U.S.
Patent and Trademark

Offrce providing evidence

of first to market

It is recommended that the entrepreneur first file a provisional patent application to establish a date of conception of the invention. This provisional application replaces the
disclosure document that was previously accepted by the PTO. The disclosure document
was more loosely defined in its requirements and often led to issues when more than one
person claimed the patent rights. In addition, the new provisional application is consistent with European procedures and can be critical when there is a foreign company




ication gives the entrepreneur who

ept of first to file. As stated previ_
are somewhat more complete than


jl,Til:'#*f t#";i"*Tilt:lil',T.:l

necessry to understand the invention. upon receipt of

tie information, the
wilt hle the application on behalf of the inventor. The actual
filing of the patent in


its final form
ment is filed.

must occur no later than 12 months after the provisional disclosure

doculying for the patent it is advisable to retain a patent attorney to conth1 attomey completes the search, a deciiion can be
made as to

The Patent Application

The patent application must contain a complete history
and description of the invention as
well as claims for its usefulness. The actual form can be downloaded
from the patent and
Trademark ofhce web site. In general, the application
will be divided into the followine


Introduction This section should contain the background and

advantages ofthe
invention and the nature of problems that it overcomes. It
should clearly scate how
the invention differs from existing offerings.
Descption of invention. Next the application should contain
a brief description


the drawings that accompany it. These drawings mustcomply

wi pro requirements.
Following this would be a detailed description of the invention,
which may incrude
engineering specifications, materials, components, and so
on, that are vital to the
actual making of the invention.


Claims' This is probably the most difhcult section of the application

to prepare since
claims are the criteria by which any infringements will
be determined. They serve to
specify what the entrepreneur is trying to patent. Essential
parts of the invention should
be described in broad tems so as to prevent others from
getting around the paent. At the
same time, the claims must not be so general that they
hide the invention's uniqueness
and advantages. This balance is diffrcult and should be
discussed and debated with the
patent attorney.

In ddition to the preceding sections, the application should contain

a declaration
or oath that is signed by the inventor or inventors. your attorney
will supply this form. The
completed application is then ready to be sent to the PTO,
at which time itre status of the
invention becomes patent pending. This status is important
to the entrepreneur because it
now provides complete conhdential protection until the application
is approved. At that
time, the patent is published and thus becomes accessible
to the pubric f#rerriew.
A carefully written patent should provide protection and pievent competitors
working around it. Howeve once granted, it is also an invitation
to sue or be sued if there
is any infringement.
The fees for filing an application will vary, depending on
the patent search and on craims
made in the application. Attomey fees ae also a factor in
completing the patent application.
Applicants may also file online using the EFS web service p.oula"a
ty the pro. This
online service enables applicnts to file their application without
the need for special software, resulting in faster application processing.




Source: Adapted frcm H- D.

Coleron md

J. D. Vmdenberg, "How to Fotlow the Leader," /nc (July 1988), pp-


Patent Infringement
To this point, we have discussed the importance of and the procedures for filing a patent. It
is also important for the entrepreneur to be sensitive about whether he or she is infringing
on someone else's patent- The fact that someone else already has a patent does not mean
the end of any illusions of starting a business. Many businesses, inventions, or innovations
are the result of improvements on, or modihcations of, existing products. Copying and
improving on a product may be perfectly legal (no patent infringement) and actually good

business strategy. If it is impossible to copy and improve the product to avoid patent
infringement, the entrepreneur may try to license the product from the patent holder.
Figure 6.1 illustrates the steps that an entrepreneur should follow as he or she considers
marketing a product that may infringe on an existing patent. The entrepreneur can now
make use of the Internet to identify Web sites and services that can assist in the search
process. Ifthere is an existing patent that might involve infringement by the entrepreneur'
licensing may be considered. If there is any doubt as to this issue, the entrepreneur should
hire a patent attorney to ensure that there will not be any possibility of patent infringement.
Table 6.1 provides a simple checklist that should be followed by an entrepreneur to minimize any patent risks.


With the growth of Internet

use and softwae development has emerged the use

of business

method patents. For example, owns a business method patent for the singlecticking feature used by a buyer on its Web site to order products. A few years ago eBay was




B~ SlIre 1:0 properly rnark'all prducts grjntd a 'patento Not having products marked
c-Quld,resylt in lSs i>r C1arnages t;' a paten1 suii '
tGnsder1i~ensn~ yqur patel1ts.Thls_~n '~nt:iai1c t he-investmeflt)n a patentQY cre.aui1g

PPPQrturities and ca 11 jntrease long1erm (e.venue.

sued by Toro Woolston and his company MercExchange c1aiming a violation of a patent he
owned that covered many fundamental aspect of eBay's operations, such as the buying and
seUing of products through a reverse auction process. claims that it holds a
patent related to jls service where a buyer can submit a price bid for a particular service.
Expedia was forced to pay royalties to Priceline,com after being sued for patentinfringemenl
by Many Ilrms lhat hold these Iypes of patents have used lhem to assauIt cornpetitors and subsequenlly provide a teady Slream of income from royaltie or Iicensing fee .7
Given the increase in the assaulLs and because oC the growlh of digital technologies such
as lile lnternet, computer software, and telecommunications. concerns have evolved regarding lhese business method patents, Examp les of lhe focu.<i of these concems are lax trategies, the determination o" insurance rates, or how comm clies are plLfchased througb a
third party. These busine s practice patents are now being threatened by a recent court ruljng lbat derued a paten! for a process of hedging risks in commodity trading. Tbe Federal
Circuir Court denied the patent because it did not meel the machine or transformaton le t.
This simply means thal any busines method or practice musl be lied to a machine sucb as
a computer. Thus, a mental process of calculations for hedging ri sks in commodity lrading
did not inelude a machine or computer and therefore was not granted a patent 8


NOl art tart-ups wiII have a product or concept that is patentable. [n this case the eotreprenew' shou.ld understand the competitive environrnent see Chapte!' 7 and 8) t a certain any

advantages lbat may exist or to identify a unique po itionjng trategy (see Chapter 8). With
a unique marketing plan, the entrepreneur may find Lhal slriking early in the market provides a signilicam advantage over any competitors. Maintain iog this differemial advantagc
wiU be a chaUenge bUl represents an important means of achieving long-term succcss .

distinguishing word,
name, or sy mbol used to
identify a product


A trademark may be a word, symbol, desigo, or sorne combination of such, or it could

be a slogan or even a particular sound that identifies the source or sponsorship of certain
goods or services. Unlike the patent, a trademark can last indefinitely, as long as the mark

The niche p~tent-licensing b\,JSiness of Acacia "e~?~q, . :t M~a a puyo ~eve~l!rs_ in the third,'()~.2~O,
(AGG) is baring fruit-and it has proved to be quite" he n-otes, increased 44.6% from ayear earlier,.exc.eedlucra~ive. TItans like Apple (AAPL), Verizon (VZ), Sie- i~g .~~a!ysts' e~pi~fion~~~ On. a sequenti~.I qu.~~er~
mel')s (SO, and Dell Ine. (DELL) ha\(e opted to license to-quarter basis, rey:e~u~s)umped. ~3%, iro!!, t~e.$7 .1
. cettain patents held by Acacia. For.Acacia, tl'!at makes million Acacia repott-ed in the secQnd quar'ter/ notes
the business all the more rewarding.
What's tiny Acacia's business strategy? It teams
O'Neill expects Acacia to becom.e profi~abl~: ii!.
up with small, little-known tech companiesand takes 2009, with estimated earnings of 11 ~ a share' on pro.
licenses on their patented technologies. Acada then jected revenues of $67.9 million. In 2008, Ac~ca i~ es
goes afier companies it believes have infringed those timated by analysts to have posted a loss !>f 46t a
patents. Fortunately for Acada, it has settled quite share on sales of $44 million.
a number of such patent violations out of court. And
If, as CEO Ryan predicts, more prominent .compathose companies that settle infringement claims usu- nies sign agreements t~ settle patent infringemerits,
ally end up paying fees.
Acacia's top and bottom Iines would leap,a.longwth
The latest company toocpme to 1errrts with Acacia its stock price.
is giant computer maker Dell, which entered into a
Acacia CEO Ryan \on't say which companies he
settlement that included a licensing agreement cov- expects will sign patent licensing agreements, but he
ering a patent relating to network multifunction prin- is confident more big tech players will end up signing
ter technology.
agreements th is year. Expect some surprises. *
In 2008, Apple signed two tech Iicenses with Acacia,
and Verizon Wireless took a license on a process that
synchronizes IP addresses between wireless network
devices, says Acacia Chairman and CEO Paul Ryan. He ADVICE TO AN ENTREPRENEUR
figures that with the more than 100 patents Acacia
now holds, many other companies are likely to end A friend of yours has read the above article and wants
to know if he could benefit from some of the patents
up signing licensing deals with Acacia.
So far, Acacia has been on a rapid growth path, he owns, just as Acacia was able to do. How would
according to both CEO Ryan and analysts. In 2008, you advise him to proceed to learn if any of his patents
says Ryan, Acacia was No. 42 on Deloitte Technol- are being used by other companies? He also wants to
ogy's list of the 500 fastest-growing tech outfits in know if Acacia may be interested in any of his patents
the U.S. He says Acacia expects revenue growth to and what he could do to find out.
come from 45 patent licensing programs that have
already begun generating revenues, including those
*Source: Reprinted from February 2,2009 issue of BusinessWeek by
signed in 2009.
special permission, copyright 2009 by The McGrawHill Compa
Acacia's "growth prospects remain strong," says nies, lnc., from "Acacia Research Finds Ways to Make Patents Pay,"
analyst Sean O'Neill of Singular Research, who rates by Gene Marcial,




continues to perform its indicated function. For all registrations filed after November 16,
1989, the trademark is given an illitial IO-year registratio D with 10-year renewable terms.
In the fifth to sixth year, the registrant is requi red to file an aftidavit with the PTO indicating that the mark is currently in commercial use. lf no aftidavit is filed, the registraton is
canceled. Between the ninth and tenth year after registration, and every 10 years thereafter,
the owner must file an application for renewal of the trademark. Otherwise, the registration
is canceled. (There is a six-month grace period.)
Trademark law allows the filing of a trademark solely on the intent to use the trademark
in interstate or foreign commerce. The filing date then becomes the first date use of the
mark. This does not imply that the entrepreneur cannot file after the mark has already been
in use. If this is the case, the entrepreneur may file a sworn statement that the mark is in
commercial use, listing the date of first use. A properly worded dec\aration is inc\uded in
the PTO application form o
It is al so possible to file for a trademark if you intend to use this mark in the future. You
are allowed to file in good faith along with a sworn statement in the application that there
is intent to use the trademark. Actual use of the trademark must accur before the PTO will
register the mark. 9
The protection awarded is dependent on the character of the mark itself. There are four
categories of trademarks: (1) coined marks denote no relationship between the mark and
the goods or services (e.g., Mercedes, Kodak) and afford the possibility of expansion to a
wide range of products; (2) an arbitrary mark is one that has another meaning in our language (e.g., Apple) and is applied to a product or service; (3) a suggestive mark is used to
suggest certain features, qualities, ingredients, or characteristics of a product or service
(e.g., Halo shampoo). It differs from an arbitrary mark in that it tends to suggest sorne
describable attribute of the product or service. Finally, (4) a descriptive mark must have
become distinctive over a significant period of time and gained consumer recognition before it can be registered. The mark then is considered to have secondary meaning; that is, it
is descriptive of a particular product or service (e.g., Rubberoid as applied to roofing materials that contain rubber. LO
Registering a trademark can offer significant advantages or benefits to the entrepreneur.
Table 6.2 summarizes some of these benefits.

Registering the Trademark

As indicated earlier, the PTO is responsible for the federal registration of trademarks. To
file an applicaton, the entrepreneur must complete a simple form that can be downloaded

-.h proyides notlce t e-..:eryone t l;lat you nave eKclusive rights to the usaof th~ rnark
.. tlir.oughou(-t'he territoria l lif)'lits 01. t~e 4~jted St ates,

. '. 'It.e,htitl!fs ,you t9 s.ue in federal .court for tradem~rk ,i!1fr!ng~me

rcvery of prof~?damag~s, ardcQ.~.

It,est~bii5fi~ in.c~fttestabl~ rghts rgrdi{lg,ttJe com~ercial U5 ~t:thi;i l)la(k.

l o(






It estabhshes fue right to deposit reglstratioii with ~ustoms to prevent importation .qf
;og{>ods.Wi~h sml'ar marK.

... -1" Jise. the notice ofiegistr.iion ().
'It..p rovides a basisJor fil ingy ademarl( .appli<!atl9n in for~ig~ c~\JIit.fies.




and either submitted by mail or filed electronically using the Trademark Electronic Application System (TEAS) available on the PTO Web site.
Filing of the trademark registration must meet four requirements: (1) completion of the
written form, (2) a drawing of the mark., (3) five specimens showing actual use of fhe mark, and
(4) the fee. Each trademark must be applied for separately. Upon receipt of this information,
the PTO a~signs a serial number to the application and sends a flling receipt to the applicant
The next step in the registering process is a determination by the examining attorney at
the PTO as to whether the mark is suitable for registration. Within about three months, an
initial determination is made as to its suitability. Any objections by the entrepreneur must
be raised within six months, or the application is considered abandoned.lffhe trademark is
refused, the entrepreneur still has the right to appeal to the PTO.
Once accepted, the trademark is publshed in fhe Trademark Official Gazette to allow any
party 30 days to oppose or request an extension to oppose. If no opposition is filed, fhe registration is issued. This entire procedure usually takes about 13 months from the initial filing.

copyright Right given
lo prevent others from
printing, copying, or
publishing any original
works of authorship

A copyright protects original works of authorship. The protection in a copyright does not
protect the idea itself, and thus it allows someone else to use the idea or concept in a different manner.
The copyright law has beco me especially relevant because of the tremendous growth of
the use of the Internet, especially to download music, Iiterary work, pictures, and videos, to
name a few. Although software was added to copyright law in 1980, the issues surrounding
access to material on the Internet have led to major legal battles for the entertainment industry.
When Napster made its entrance in 1999, Internet users were able to exchange music
files at will. The music industry scrambled and fought against this use since its sales of CDs
were significantly impacted. After three years, the music industry was able to win its battle
with Napster. In addition, the Supreme Court ruled that StreamCast and Grokster, which
both have extensive peer-to-peer file sharing software, must implement content filters in
their software to reduce any copyright-infringing capabilities. 11
The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) has also aggressively pursued
universities and individual students that have been found to be illegally downloading music. In addition to the 12 universities recently sent prelitigation letters, the RIAA is also
pursuing individual s in what is referred to as "John Doe" lawsuits. One lawsuit involves a
20-year-old woman from Texas who admitted to downloading pirated music in her teens;
she is being asked to pay $7,400 to settle lhe suil. 12
Copyright protection related to the Internet will continue to be a concem and a gray area
until precedents and regulations are made dear. Although these issues seem complcated,
the registering procedure for copyright protection is fairly simple.
Copyrights are registered with the Library of Congress and will not usually require an
attorney. To register a work, the applicant can send a completed application (available 00line at, two copies of the work, and the required filing fees (the initial
filing fee is $35 if filed online or $45 if filed by mail, but other fees may apply based on the
number of works included). As a general rule fOI works created after January 1, 1978, the
term of the copyright is the Iife of the author plus 70 years.
Besides computer software, copyrights are desirable for such things as books, scripts, artides, poems, songs, sculptures, models, maps, blueprints, collages, printed material on board
games, data, and music. In sorne instances, several forms of protection may be available. For
example, the name of a board game may be protected by trademark, the game itself protected
by a utility patent, the printed matter or the board protected by a copyright., and fhe playing
pieces covered by a design patent.

The lines have been drawn between the file-sharing
companies (P2P) that provide software for free downIO,ading of music and movies and the entertainment
irfdustry. The Supreme Court has ruled that these
P2P companies do in fact facilitate the iIIegaJ downloading and sharing of entertainment. However, in
spite of the fact that there has been so much publicity
surrounding the legality of such initiatives, the youth
of our nation continue to illegally download material
that has been given copyright protection. This ineludes college students as well. recently evidenced
by the fact that the Recording Industry Association
of America (RIAA) filed copyright infringement Jawsuits against 405 students at 18 different colleges.
This list of colleges included Columbia. Harvard, and
Princeton. According to the lawsuit, these students
were allegedly using a new file-sharing application
called i2hub to download songs and movies at lightning speeds , The RIAA also has evidence that this
high-speed network is also being used at another
140 schools in 41 states.

In additionto these college anq univ~rsity incidn,

a recent Harris Interactive poli fo.und that l<cids and
teens, ranging in age from 810 1~. continue t download and share files that are copyright protectedin spite of the fact that nearly .90 per~ellt know it is
iIIegal. What is alarming in this-study is the factthat
80 percent of the participan.ts understand the meaning of a copyright. yet they continue to perform illegal functions. This finding illustrates a challenging
ethicaldilemma that persists in OUf sdety. The participants were more concerned with d.oWl'lloading
a virus or spyware than they were.,witl1 getting in
trouble with the law. It is apparent"'frGm this research that young people consider stealing ~oftware
a victimless crime, which wouldseem tb underline
the need for more ethics education at home and at
Sources: Sebastian Ruptey, "Infrioging Copyrights al Mach 5,"
pe Magazine (June 7, 2005). p. 24. and "Majority of Youth Understand 'Copyright.' but Maoy Cootinue to Download IDegally,PR Ne"'swire (May 18, 2()()4) pp. L-3.

trade secrel

against others revealing
or disclosing information
lhat could be damaging
to business

In certain instances, the entrepreneur may prefee to maintain an idea or process as confidential and to sell oe Jicense it as a trade secreto The trade secret will have a life as long as the
idea or process remains a secret.
A trade ecret is no! covered by any federal law but is recognized under a governing
body of common law in each state. Employees involved in working with an idea or
process may be asked to frst sign a confidential information agreement that will proteet
against their giving out the tcade secref either while an employee or after leaving the
organization. A simple example of a trade secret nondisclosure agreement is iIlustrated
in Table 6.3. The entrepreneur should hire an attorney to help draw up any sueh agreement. The holder of the trade secret has the right to sue any signee who breaches such an
What or how mueh information to give lO employees is difficult to judge and is often
determined by the entrepreneur's judgment. Historically, entrepreneurs tended to protect
sensitive or confidential company information from anyone else by simply not making
mero privy to this informaton. Today, there is a tendency to take the opposite view, that the
more informalion entrusred to employees, the more effective and creative employees can
be. The argumenL is mat employees cannot be creative unless they have a complete understanding of what is going on in the business.
Most entrepreneurs have limited resources, so they ehoose not to find means to protect
their ideas, products, or services. This could become a serious problem in the future, since
gathering competitive information legalIy is so easy to accomplish, unless the entrepreneur
takes the proper precautions. For example, it is often easy to learn competitive information




"YtlEREAS:New Venture CQrpor~~f~ii (NV, Any....vhere Stn;et. A~yplace, U.S.'A.,;;iS iJe9Ine;':,~

pf inr'rmtion
to; 'and :',
, ~ .'"
, "',:'~
. .:. :.'.

'wH.E~~~AS::NVC is~~~~iro~W6f gis~l~sjf!g Said i!1for.mation t~~eui!.d~rSigr.ed ~herei~~ft~~~;~:{.

.referretl toas ",Reclplent") forthepljrposes of USlng, evaluatlng; or entenng lOto further. :.",
agreetnen:UsingsLich tradesecrets asan employee, consultant,9r ageQt ofNVC; and.".,:~ ;j
WHfREAS, NVC wishes to

maint~in in c~nfidence said informa~i~ as'tr~de secret; a~d ~;,;'t


WflERAS. the undersi~re9 RelPt~r\t iecognizes the necessity of maintaining th,e. sti-j~~:'>
, C!:>~!i~~ enC~:'''Yith'.re~pect to any ~rde~~~rets of NVC "
ReCi~f~n.t here~y agrees as fOHO~~ -...
~:.: ' ..

<, '.


shall observe the


S1!iCt~ ~ecrecY wit~,respect t al infrmation present~~'~'/'

. ,;: NVC and Recipient's evalation-thereof and shall disclose such informatin only to ',' " ,~',
': perSbns a\Jthoriz~dto rec.eive same by Nv. Redpienhal1 be responsible for any '; 'j',;:,
"damage resultrn~ from any ~reacti?f this Agreement by Redpient.

2 . .R~iP~t shall neither m,!k use of nor disclose to any third partYduring the i?eriOci of.".,
'~is Agreement and thereafter any suc.h trade secrets or evaration there'of unless ;lriOf
- .~nSent i11 writing is given by NVC.

L,R~ii;tion9ndistlosure doesriotapply to informationprviousiyknown to fl.ecipiel'1tpt.,.:<.


o'tlerwisein ttie 'public dorilain. Any prior knwledge oftrad secrets bythe' Recip;e:iif :;.':~: disclos~d in writing within (30) days.
, ,

4: ,. At the cqmpJetion of the services performed by the flecipiEmt. R~cipient shallwithi~ ,':c
,(3Q) 'days ,return all original materials provided by NVC and any copies, notes, or other.: .

documents that are in the Recipien possession pertaining'thereto.


5. Any trade screts made public through publication or product annoLincements are
excluded from this agreement.
6. lhis agreement is executed and delivered within the State of _ _ and it shall be

tonstrued, interpreted, and applied in accordance with the laws of that State.
7. This agreement, including the provision hereof, shall not be modified or changed in a.ny
manner except only in writing signed by all parties hereto.
Eftectivethis _ __ _ __ day of _ __ _ ~ 20
REClPIENT: _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __
By: _ -:-:--_ _ _ _ _
ntle: _---'-_ _ _ _ _ __

Date: _ _ _

_ _ _ __

through such mean s as trade shows, transient employees, media interviews or announcements, and even Web sites. In all instances, overzealous employees are the problem. To try
to control this problem, entrepreneurs should consider some of the ideas listed below.


Train employees to refer sensitive questions to one persono

Provide escorts for al! office visitors.
Avoid discussing business in public places.

Keep important travel plans secret.

Control informaron that might be presented by employees at conferences or published
in journals.

e H A PTE R 6



Use simple security such as locked file cabinets, passwords on computers, and
shredders where necessary.
Have employees and consultants sign nondisclosure agreements.
Debrief departing employees on any confidential information.
Avoid faxing any sensitive information.
Mark documents confidential when needed.
Unfortunately, protection against the leaking oftrade secrets is difficult to enforce. More
important, legal action can be taken only after tbe secret has been revealed. It is not necessary for the entrepreneur to worry extensively about every document or piece of information. As long as minimal precautioos are taken, mosl problems can be avoided, primarily
beca use leales usuaUy occur inadvertently.


agreement gving rights to
others to use intellectual
property in return for a
royalty or fee

Licensing may be defined as an arrangement hetween two parties, where one party has
proprietary rigbts over sorne information, proces , or technology protected by a patent,
trademark., or copyrighl. Tbjs arrangement, specified in a contract (discussed later in this
chapter), req uires tbe licensee 10 paya royalty or some other specified sum to the holder
of tbe proprietary rights (licensor) in return for permission to copy tbe patent, trademark,
or copyright.
Thus, licensing has significant vaIue as a marketing strategy 10 holdees of patents, trademarks, or copyrigbts to grow their business in new markets when they lack resources or experience in those markets. [r is also an important marketing strategy for entrepreneurs who
wish to start a new venture but need permission to copy or incorporate the patent, trademark, or copyright witb their ideas.
A patent license agreement specifies how the Iicensee would have access to the patent.
For example, the licensor may still manufacture the product but give the licensee the rights
to market it under their labe l in a noncompetiuve market (i.e., foreign market). In other
in lances, the licensee mayactually manufacture and market the patented product under its
own label. This agreemenJ must be carefully worded and should involve a lawyer, to ensure
the protection of all parties.
Licensing a trademark generally involves a franchi sing agreement. The entrepreneur
operates a business using the tradernark and agrees to pay a fixed sum for use of the
trademark, paya royalty based on sales volume, buy supplies from the franchisor (exampIes would he SheIl, Dunkin' Donuts, Pepsi Cola or Coca Cola hottlers, or Midas muffler
shops), or sorne combination of these. Franchising is discussed later in the text as an
option for the entrepreneur a s a way to start a new business or asa means of financing
Copyrights are another popular licensed properry. Tbey involve rights to use or copy
books, software, music, photographs, and plays, to name a few. In the late 1970s, computer
games were designed using licenses from arcade game and movies. Television sbows have
also licensed their names for board games or computer games. Celebrities will often license
the right to use their name, likeness, or image in a product (i.e., Tiger Woods golf clothing,
Jessica Simpson perfume, Elvis Presley memorabilia, or Mickey Mouse lunch boxes). This
is actually analogous to a tTademark icense.
Licensing has become a revenue boom for many Fortune 500 companies. These firms
spend hiUions of dollars each year on the reseaech and development of new technologies
that they will never bring to rnarket. As a result, they will often license patents, trademarks,
and other intellectual property to small companies that can profit from them. Microsoft




Corporation, with its IP Ventures Division, is a great example of a firm that has offeced
technologies for biometric identity authentication, counterfeit-resistant labels, face detection and tracking, and other intellectual property that it does not know how to market or has
no intent to market. 13 These agreements have generated millions of dollars in revenue for
Microsoft. IBM continues to generate more than $1 billion from its licensing agreements. 14
ARC 1nternational, the world leader in computer processors, has increased its licensing of
its technology to semiconductor companies in their chip designoAt present there are about
140 companies worldwide that rely on ARC's technology.15
Although technology is one of the largest generators of licensing revenue, there are
other significant players in this market. The entertainment industry, particularly motion
picture studios such as Disney, Dream Works, Fox, Sony, and Warner Brothers, generates
millions of dollars foc its bottom line with licensing agreements foc clothing, toys, games,
and other related items. NBC Universal [nc., with its television, movie, music, and consumer products, amassed about $1 billion in revenues in 2008. Just recently, NBC Universal released a fullline of products from its successful television show "Heroes."16 Although
in 2006 Disney ended its lO-year licensing agreement with McDonald's, it has inked huge
deals with retailers to market a variety of products based on the success of "High School
Musical" and "Hannah Montana." These products are expected to result in $2.7 billion in
global retail sales. In fact global retail sales of all Disney's licensed merchandse exceeded
$30 billion in 2008. 17 McDonald's, on the other hand, has moved on and signed licensing
agreements with other molon picture studios such as DreamWorks Animation SKG and
Pixar Animation Studios.1 8
Licensing is also popular around special sporting events, such as the Olympics,
marathons, bowl games, and tournaments. Licenses to sell T-shirts, clothing, and other
accessories require written perrnission in the forro of a license agreement before sales are
Licensing represents opportunities for many firms to expand into new markets, expand
product lines, oc simply reach more customers within its existing target markets. Sorne
examples inelude Microsoft's MSN Mobile group, which recently signed a licensing agreement with DeviceAtlas to incorporate their databas e so MSN can improve the content it
presently delivers to its customers. This agreement has already resulted in significant increases in mobile registrations. 19 Retailers faced with economic pressures are looking toc
ways to increase sales of higher-margin items. For example, Safeway has been using Bugs
Bunny and his Looney Tunes friends as part of their new Eating Right Kids food and beverage line. These items can cornmand higher prices and pro vide what retailers feel is a
value-added endorsement. 20
Before entering into a licensing agreement, the entrepreneur should ask the following

WiU the customer recognize the Iicensed property?

How well does the licensed property complement my products or services?
How much experience do 1 have with the licensed property?
What is the long-term outlook for the licensed property? (For example, the loss of
popularity of a celebrity can also result in an end to a business involving that
celebrity's name.)
What kind of protection does the licensing agreement provide?
What cornmitment do [ have in terms of payment of royalties, sales quotas, and
so on ?
Are renewal options possible and under what terms?



Licensing is an exceIlent option for (he entrepreneur to increase revenue, without the
risk and costly start-up investment. To be able to Ucense requires the entrepreneur [O have
somelhing to license, which is why ir is so important to seek protection for any product,
information, name, and so on, with a patent, trademark, or copyright. On the other hand ,
licensing can also be a way to start a new venture when the idea may infringe on someone
eise's patent, trademark, or copyright. In this instance, lhe entrepreneur has nothing to lose
by trying ro seek a license agreement from the holder of the property.
Licensing continues to be a powerful marketing tool. Wilh the advice of a lawyer, entrepreneurs may fmd that Iicensing opportunities are a way to nnimize risk, expand a business,
or complement an existing product line.
product saJely and
liability Responsibility
of a company to mee! any
legal specifications
regatding a new product
covered by the Consumer
Produc! Safety A CI


Ir is very importan! for the entrepreneur to assess whelher any product that is lo be marketed in rhe new venture is subject to any regulations under the Coosumer Product
Safety ACL The original acto which was passed in 1972 and lhen arnended in 1990, created
a five-member commissioo that has the power to prescribe safely standards for more than
15,000 types oE consumer products. In August of 2008 there were significaot changes lbat
were made into law, now requiring stricter tandards for potentially hazardous and unsafe
Large fines as well as recaU of any products that are deemed un afe are the typical
outcomes of any action enforced by !he comrnission. For example, in 2007 U.S. companies were fo rced to make more !han 100 recalls involving abour 9 millioD toys. Polly
Pocket play sets and Batman actioo figures high1ighted these recalls, given tbat these
products were found Lo have high lead cOGtent or that they contained small accessories
lhar could be potentially hazardous ir swallowed by a child. The public outcry from
these recalls was a major factor in getting Congress lO act quickly on the new legi lation. In the past IwO decades Ihe Consumer Product Safety Commission had beeo operating 00 tighter budgets aod smaller staff and was Dot able to oversee lhe large number
of oew products being launched or imported each year. With a new budgel, significantly
larger staff, and support [rom the administratian il is expected thal the cornmission wiU
naw be able to take a more active role in making sure Ihat firms meet the new legal requirements [or product safety. Stricter enforcemenl as well as the tbreat of significant
incIeases in fLlles fOI vio lations should improve the SituatiOD. As an example, the fines
for violations in tbe past were $5,000 per violalion. The new law allows for fines of
$100,000 per violation with a cap of $15 millian. The commission will also be abLe to
take a more active role in demandiog recalls where in the past it ooly could oversee any
volu ntary recalls. T he development of stricter regulations regarding labeling and advertising is also part of lhe commission's responsibiliry under lhe new law. lL is c1ear with
just lht:se menliolled changes tha! any entrepreneur involved in marketing potentiaUy
hazardous or unsafe products will need to make sure lbat products are lested by approved
third-party tescing facililies. 21

Sorne of rhe problems reJating Lo product liability weIe dlscussed in the previous seclion.
Besides being cautious, it is also in the best interests of lhe entrepreneur to purchase insurance in the event lhat probLems do occur. Service-related bu inesses such as day-care centers, anmsemenl parks, and shopping centers have had significant increases in the number
of lawsuits.




In general, most tirms should consider coverage for those situations as described in
Table 6.4. Each of these types of insurance provides a means of managing risk in the new
business. The main problem is that the entrepreneur usually has limited resources in the beginning. Thus, it is important to hrst determine whether any of these types of insurance are
needed. Note that some insurance, such as disability and vehicle coverage, is required by
law and cannot be avoided. Other insurance, such as life insurance of key employees, is not
required but may be necessary to protect the financial net worth of the venture- Once the
entrepreneur determines what types of insurance are needed, then a decision can be made
as to how much insurance and from what company. It is wise to get quotes from more than
one insurance frrm since rates and options can also vary. The total insurance cost represents
an important hnancial planning factor, and the entrepreneur needs to consider increasing
premiums in cost projections.
Skyrocketing medical costs have probably had the most significant impact on insurance
premiums. This is especially true for workers' compensation premiums, which for some
entrepreneurs have doubled or tripled in the last few years. Insurance companies calculate the premium for workers' compensation as a percentage of payroll, the type of business, and the number of prior claims. Given the problems with fraudulent or suspicious
claims, some slates are beginning to undertake reforms in the coverage. Even before reforms are enacted, the entrepreneur can lake some action to control the premiums by paying attention to details, such as promoting safety through comprehensive guidelines that





are communicated to every staff member.

Being personalry involved with safety can, in
the long run, significantly control workers,compensation
Entrepreneurs also have to consider health
care coverage. This is an important benefit to employees and will require the venture to
cover a significant portion of this
expense for the employee. Rates to the company
will vary sig:nificantty depending on
the plan and its

is aiarge


but can be

as a

association that offers such

However, if you are a.self-employed entrepreneur,

the options are limited. If you are
leaving a corporate position,
extending your he4lth cae benehts with COBRA.
This usually allows you to continue
on the same health care poricy you were on fbr
about three years. Howevet, you now will
If your COBRA has expired or one is not
state insurance department, which can

individual health care insurance. polic

sidered because of their lower premiums. For

additional assistance in these matters it is
recommended that the entrepreneur contact
the Association of Health Insurance
the Health Insurance Association of America,
or the u.S. Labor Department, a located
in Washington, D.C.
Most recently there has been some controversy regarding
safety for employees in home_
based businesses. The government's respon
Ls responsible for

safety or health violations in


operating home-based businesses is

ru write
wrlf,c h
'sdrfvre to




es on home

nce agent is often diffrcult because the agent is

trying to
specialists at universities or the Small Business
ice at little or no cosr.


ments are now being putforth that the law

was passed too quickly as a result of all the corporate scandals and that the provisions
are too vague and their implementation by CpAs too
liance is not only prohibitive but that



nd no attempt will be made here to cover

ents will be discussed. The complete
The Sarbanes-oxley Act covers a wide range
of corporate governance activities.
r frnanciaf statements through a series of
must meet background, length of

radio. or


internal auditing and control. Any

al auditing process is considered a
fraud; secqrities fraud; and fraud by wire,




With the passage of this law there has been some concern as to the
law and subsequent directors' liability. For example' will this law dis
dividuals from being members of important boards because of their

Oxley AcL
The other option, ofcourse, is for the entrepreneur to set up a board of advisors insbead
of an extended board of direcrors. Advisors would not be subject to liability since they do
not formulate final policy for the venture but only provide recommendations to the actual
venboard of directors, which in this case could consist of the management of the start-up
ture. If a venture capitalist of even an angel
board seat, in which case the use of

liability protection would

be necessary.

contra A legally
binding agreement
between two parties

The entrepreneur, in starting a new venture, will be involved in a number of negotiations

adcontracts with vendors, landlords, and clients. Acontractis alegally enforceable agreement between two or more parties as long as certain conditions are met. Table 6.5 identiup
fies these conditions and the outcomes (breaches ofcontract) should one party not liv
to the terms of the contract. It is very important




fundamental issues related to contracts while

also recognizing the need fbr a lawyer in

many of these negof.iations.

there is no deal and that he or she may be

rule is to never rely
For example, a company
used in the trainins. The

. One

seu the tapes to others. Some rimc after rhe


and sell the tapes under a newly formed

The original developer of the tapes
brought suit' and the courts ruled that an oral
u!.""-"nt for more than one year is not enforceable. The only way that this could have ben
prevented was if the copying firm had
signed a contract.

In addition to the

one-year rule of thumb, the couts insist that

a written contract exist for all transactions over $500. Even a quote on
a specif,red number of parts from a

manufacturer may not be considered a tegat contract.

For example, if an entrepreneur
asked for and received a quote for l0 iterns
and then ordered only l item, the seller
would not have to sell that item at the original quoted
price unless a written contract existed' If the items totared over g500, evei the quoted
price could be changed without a
wrrtten contractMost sellers would not want to try to avoid their
obligations in the preceding example.
However, unusual circumstances may arise that
force the seller to .t rng" his or her mind.
Thus, the safest way to conduct business deals
is with a written
especially if the
amount of the deal is over_9500 and is likely to extend
beyond "onrrui,
one year.

Any deal involving real estate must be in writing to

be valid. Lases, rentals, and pur_
chases all necessitate some type of written agreement.
Although a lawyer might^be necessary in iery complicated
or large transactions, the entrepreneur cannot always afford one. Therefore,
it is hilpfut for the"entrepreneur to understand that before signing a contract he or she
should do ihe following:


Understand the terms and conditions in the conuacr.

Cross out anything that you do not agree to

3. Do not sign if there are blank spaces (these can be crossed
4. Make a copy for your hles after signing.



This chapter explores some of the major concerns
regarding inteilectuar property of
as well as.other important legal issues such
as product safety, insur_
ance. contracts. and the sarbanes-oxrey Act. The probrems
with inteilectuar property
have become more compricated with the growth
of the tnternet. rt i, i.portant for the
entrepreneur to seek regar advice in making any
inteilectuar property iegar decisions

the entrepreneur;





such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. Lawyers have specialties
that can provide the entrepreneur with the most appropriate advice under the circumstances. There are also resources identified in the chapter that should be considered
before hir:ing an attorney. Some of this information can save time and money for the
A patent requires a patent attorney, who assists the entrepreneur in completing an
application to the Patent and Trademark Office with the history and description of the
invention, as well as claims for its usefulness. An assessment of the existing patent(s)
will help to ascertain whether infringement s likely and to evaluate the possibilities of
modifying the patented product or licensing the rights from the holder of the patent.
A provisional patent can be filed that will give the entrepreneui 12 months to finalize
the patent. Being the first to file with a provisional patent can be very useful to provide immediate notification of ownership of the patent rights as well as provide time

to develop

business strategies.
A trademark rnay be a word, symbol, design, or some combnaton, or a slogan or
sound that identifies the source of certain goods or services. Trademark give the entrepreneur certain benefits as long as the following four requirements are met: (l) completion of the written application form, (2) submission of a drawing of the mark,
(3) submission of five specimens showing actual use of the mark, and (4) payment of

the required fees.

Copyrights protect original works of authorship. Copyrights are registered with the
Library of Congressand do not usually require an attorney. Copyrights have become
relevant to the use of the Internet, especially to download music, literary works, pictures, or videos. Copyright protection related to the lnternet will continue to be a gray
area until regulations are made clearer. Both trademark and copyright applications can
be filed electronically.

Licensing is a viable means of starting a business using someone else's product,

name. information. and so on. lt is also an important strategy that the entrepreneur
can use to expand the business without extensve risk or large investments.
The entrepreneur should also be sensitive to possible product safety and liability
requirements. Careful scrutiny of possible product problems, as well as insurance, can
reduce the risk. Other risks relating to property insurance. life insurance. health insurance, workers' compensation, and bonding should be evaluated to ascertar'n the most
cost-effectve program for the entrepreeur.
Contracts are an important part of the transactions that the entrepreneur will
make- As a rule of thumb, oral agreements are invalid for deals over one yea and over
$500. In addition, all real estate transactions must be in writing to be vlid. lt is important in a written agreement to identify all the parties and their respective roles, to
describe the transaction in detail. to specify the value of the deal, and to obtain the
signatures of the persons with whom you are doing business.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in 2002 and places a great burden on public
companies to streamline their financial reporting, modify the role and responsibility
of boards of directors, and basically provide more checks and balances to avoid
repeating the scandals of WorldCom, Enron, and others. There are a number of provisions of the law and entrepreneurs should be aware of any relevant requirements.
particularly if there is intent to take the company public. At this point the law
applies only to public companies, but there are possible interactions with private
firms as well as likely changes to these laws that will require continued scrutiny by
e ntrepreneu rs.






Using the Internet, obtain copies of three patents that

are at least three years
old' What are the elements that are comrnon across these patents?
What are the
differences? which do you berieve wiil be the greatest
suciess? can you fnd any
evidence of products that are now on the market that
incorporate any of these
patented technologies?
Search press reports

for patent infringement

cases. Describe

the process


the outcome. of particurar varue are exampres that rist

the legar costs of
defending patent infringements and the amount awarded
for a successful


3' what are some of the world's most famous trademarks? use data
to back up your

4. Provide a rear-rife exampre for each of the foilowing different

types of product

liability: (a) negligence, (b) warranty, (c) strict riabirity. and (d)
misrepresentationWhen possible, report both the details and the payouts.

5. How much does it cost to apply for and obtain a patent?


Provide three examples of companies that use trade

secrets to keep compettors
from imitating their products. what activities do they undertake
to maintain this
secrecy? How effective do you think they are?
2' Should copyrighted music be available on the Internet free of charge,
even if it is
aganst the wishes of the artist and the recording company?
Consider both sides
of the argument to make a more convincing argument.
3. To what extent should the government be involved in creating
and enforcing
safety laws and to what extent should companies (and industries)
be responsible
for creating their own standards and serf-poricing those standards?

Baroncelli, Eugenia; carsten Fink; and Beata Javorck. (2005).
The Global Distribution
of Trademarks: Some Stylised Facts. World Economy vol. 2g, no. pp.
This paper provides the first empirical analysis of the gtobat
distribution of trademarks. The analysis is based on data compitd and puilished
by the world tntellectual Property organization. tt includes an analysis f trademai registrations
countries of different income groups and diffrent sectoru
of the economy. The resulb provide implications for changes in intellectual property protection
in international trade.
Caballero-Sanz, F.: R. Moner-Colonques; and J. Sempere_Monerris. (2005).
Pof icies for a New product. Economcs of tnnovation
& New Technology, vor.
14, no.


This paper asjesses

ritory crause. consu
trto not jr"i., the exclusive

Product' The



exclusive terarrangement




Chaudhry. Rahul; and Kajigailiu G. Kamei. (July 2008). Can Your Firm Keep lts Secrets?
Managing Intellectual Property, lssue 181, pp. 109-12.
Irade secrets have become an mportant strategy of choice to protect confidental
information. The information age has enhanced the amount and importane of
nonpatentable information. This ar,tcle focuses on a definition of a trade secret and
describes ways to protect this information.
Cromfey, Timothy. (2004). Twenty Steps for Pricing a Patent. Journal of Accountancy,

vol. 'f 98, no. 5. pp. 31-34.

There are a number of steps that can be followed to asslsf the accountant in determining an evaluation of a patent. ln addition to a discussion of these procedures,
this pape:r a/so discusses the makeup f a valuation team.

Depoorter, Ben; Francisco Parisi; and Sven Vanneste. (2005). Problems with the
Eniorcement of Copyright Law: ls There a 5ocial Norm Backlash? International lournal
of the Economics of Business, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 361-69.
Copyright norms have developed in opposition to existng copyright laws. This arti'
cle argues that copyright enforcement efforts may actually induce further copyright
disobedience by reinforcing the moral and social beliefs against conventional copy-



Dodwef f, Wif fiam J. (2008). Six Years of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. CPA Journal, vol.78,'

no. 8, pp.38-43.
assessment of corporate financial reporting is provided in this review of the
effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The backlash of negative factors that was
created from the new law is presented as well as a subsequent cost-beneft analysis
of the relative significance of each of these factors.


f rance, M.; and s. Siwolop. (1996). How to Skin a copycat. Euslnessweek (october 21,

1996), pp.4-7.

Small businesses are particularly vulnerable to knockoffs because of their limited

resources. A number of examples, with effectve strategies that can be used to fight
knockoffs, are presented.
Johnson, E. Scott. (February 2003). Using and Protecting Trademarks. CPA Journal,

This article argues that because a trademark is an appreciating asset with a potentially perpetuat tfe, it s mportant to choose trademarks carefully and protect them
through federal registraton and controlled licensing. /t drscusses issues of trade-

mark clearance, the establishment of trademark rights, the federal trademark registration and application process, and domain names.
Marshalt, Jeffrey; and Ellen M. Heffes. (July/August 2008). Smaller Firms Get Hit Harder
Overseas. Survey Finds. Financial Executive, pp. 9-10.
The expansion of many small entities into foreign markets raises some significant
legal issues. Differences in laws, languages, currencies, and styles of conducting
business enhance the need for hiring a lavvyerThe survey reported here indicates a
shift in relevant factors in doing business overseas from terrorism and political insta'
bility to currency risk and supply chain failure.
Ryan, Kenneth E. (February 2003). Product Liability Risk Control. Professional Safety,
pp. 20-25.
ln the current legat climate, parties injured by the defective product can easily sue
not only the manufacturer of the product, but also any commercal supplier in the
distribution channel, including the wholesaler and the retailer. The article discusses
some of the risks and tiabilities that these parties face and some of the product
quality guidelines that they can follow to Iimit their liability.



. .'

See L.

rrc n.o to ortgnieo...:-.


fssuEs rqn rflEH,TRE'RENEUR 183





Department of Commerce Web site

' tcei s ni,l ou nal



rua iy zo'8).


tgntsfor Software,,, ComputerWeekty

R; C' Scheinfeld and J. D. Sullivan, llnternet-Related patents:
Are They paying


{October 2002), pp. 1-6.,



Rapoza, ,,Hope

tf,,,sinro,matno roaay

for Innovation,,, EWeek

See www.uspto.go/main/trademarks.htrn.

t0' s' W' Halpern, C. A. Nard. and K. L. Port, Fundamentals

of united States tntellectual Property taw(Boston: Kluwer Law International,

1999), pp. 30_34.
11- "Face the Music,.' Economist (April 2; 2005), pp. 57-58.
12. K- Fritz, "praying a Different Tune," tnformation Today (December
200g), p. 15;
D' o. Brood and Kee-Min Ngiam, "A Focus on Firters
Latest Deveropments in
MGM u Grokster," lntellectuat Property & Technology Law
Jiurnat (February 200g).



Design (April 28. 2005), pp.49_55.

m Intellectual property.,, Ottawa



2oo7), p-

reements with Leading European

gn Teams"' Business wire (March 6'


16' c' Purcell, r'Finding Revenue beyond the Screen," Television

week (April 21,
2008), pp. 6-7.
17. "Retailing Today,,,,News in Brief (June 23, 2008), p.

18' M- Marr and


"McDonaid's woos New partners as Disney pact

Nears End,,, The Watt Street Journal Eastern Edtion (June
6. 2005)
pp. Bl_82.
19. "MsN Mobre and Morodo Join Number of companies
Adopting DeviceAtras
Database for Derivering Device-Aware content.,i pR
Newswire(August 5, 2oog),
s- Grey,