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PHARMACOLOGY 305 SMALL GROUP

DISCUSSIONS
PHARMACODYNAMICS
1) Define ;
Potency
Mechanisms by which drugs act
Tachyphylaxis
2) Define ;
Antagonist
Receptor regulation
Receptor selectivity
3) Define;
Dose response curve
Therapeutic efficacy
Therapeutic index
Tolerance

PHARMACOKINETICS
1)Bio availability
2)1st order Kinetics
3)Zero order kinetics
4)Loading dose
5)Steady state concentration
6)Plasma life
7)Apparent volume of distribution.
8)Clearance

DRUGS ACTING ON SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


1)Describe the clinical uses , adverse effects and precautions of;
Adrenaline
Dopamine
Dobutamine
2)(a)Pharmacological basis of using adrenaline in anaphylaxis.
(b)Pharmacological basis of using adrenaline in cardiac arrest.

DRUGS ACTING ON THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM &


CHOLINERGIC AND ANTICHOLINERGIC DRUGS
1) A 25year old Organophosphate poisoning;
(a)Mechanism of action of Organophosphates
(b)Clinical features
(c)Describe the management of this patient.
2) Name other Anti-cholinergic drugs and their clinical uses.
3) Principles of drug treatment in Myesthenia Gravis.
4) Effects of Acetyl choline esterases.

DRUGS ACTING AT NM JUNCTION & MUSCLE RELAXANTS,


GENERAL ANESTHETICS, LOCAL AND REGIONAL
ANESTHETICS
1) (a) Describe the different types of neuromuscular blockers.
(b)List the indications to use neuromuscular blockers.
2) Write notes on;
(a)Propafol
(b)Ketamine
3) (a)What are the stages of Gen.Anesthesia
(b)Name all Pre-anesthetic drugs and their indications.
4)List the use of administration of local anesthetic drugs.
5)Describe the mechanisms of action of local anesthetics drugs.
6)Describe the factors that affects the rate of absorption from the site of
injection.

NARCOTIC ANALGESICS ,NSAIDS & DRUGS USE FOR


RHEUMATIC DISEASES
1)Describe the pain relief in each condition and the pharmacological
basis of;
a) MI
b) Ureteric colic
c) Pain in the knee joint in Rheumatoid arthritis
d) Migraine

BETA ADRENOCEPTOR BLOCKERS & DRUGS USED IN THE


TREATMENT OF IHD
1) (a)List the drugs used in a STEMI within the 1st 24hours.
(b)Describe the pharmacological basis for using the above drugs.
(c)List the adverse effects of the above drugs.
(d)List the drugs prescribed to the patient on discharge to the hospital.
2) A 45 year old man complains of chest pain on exertion;
(a)Name the drug that is effective in relieving this patients symptoms.
(b)Pharmacological basis for using the above drug.
(c)Describe the advices given to the patient to use the above drug.

DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF HEART FAILURE


1) A 59year old man is admitted with acute left ventricular failure.
(a)Describe the immediate drug treatment of this patient.
(b)Describe this mechanism of action of drugs mentioned in (a).
(c)Describe the drug treatment of chronic congestive heart failure.

Fe METABOLISM & VITAMINS


1) A 20 year old unmarried female presents with Fe.def anemia. The
Hb level is 9g/dl;
(a)Describe the management of this patient.
(b)List the indication for parenteral Fe.
2)A 60 year old alcoholic is found to have Megaloblastic anemia
and peripheral
neuropathy. Describe the treatment of anemia and
peripheral neuropathy.
3)(a)List the indications to prescribe Vit.A.
(b)List the A/E of Vit.A and the precautions taken when
prescribing it.

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE METABOLISM


1) A 65 year old woman was managed in a surgical ward for Colles
fracture. She was referred to a medical ward for treatment of her
osteoporosis.
(a) Describe the pharmacological basis of using Bisphosphanates
in this patient.

(b)State the precautions and advices that you would take and
give at the administration of Bisphosphanates.
(c) What other drugs are available for the treatment of
osteoporosis?
(d)Describe the pharmacological basis of using calcitriol in a
patient with chronic renal failure.

ANTIMICROBIALS(PRINCIPLES OF USING ANTIMICROBIALS,


B-LACTAMS AND CEPHALOSPORINS)
1) A 40 year old man was admitted to the medical ward with Community
Acquired Pneumonia. Describe the criteria used to select an antibiotic for
this patient.
2) List 3 clinical situations for using antibiotic combinations. Name the
antibiotics used for each combination you have listed.
3) (a) Describe the mechanism of action of B-Lactam antibiotics.
(b) (i)Describe 2 clinical uses of Benzyl penicillin.
(ii)Describe the significance of pharmacokinetics of Benzyl penicillin
for its clinical use.
(c) (i)List 2 clinical uses of Benzythene penicillin.
(ii)Describe the significance of pharmacokinetics of Benzythene
penicillin for its clinical use.
(d)Describe the precautions taken when giving penicillin to a patient.
4) (a)Mention differences in the 3 generations of cephalosporins.
(b)Mention one drug belonging to each of the generations.

ANTIMICROBIALS (QUINOLONES AND


AMINOGLYCOSIDES)
1)(a)Indicate the mechanisms of action and the pharmacokinetics of
Gentamicin.
(b)Discuss the clinical use of single dose Gentamicin therapy and indicate
the advantages and disadvantages of this regime.
2) Name the drugs used clinically in non-complicated UTI and list their A/Es.
3)Describe the precautions taken when prescribing Ciprofloxacin.

ANTIMICROBIALS (MACROLIDES, TETRACYCLINES &


SULFONAMIDES)

1) (a) Describe the mode of action, clinical uses and A/E of Tetracyclines.
(b) What is the advantage of using Doxycycline instead of using
Tetracycline in a patient with renal impairment?
2)(a) Describe the mechanism of action of Macrolides.
(b)Describe the different types of Macrolides.
(c) Describe the significant drug interactions of Macrolides.
3)(a) List the conditions for which Erythromycin is used as a drug of choice.
(b)Describe the mechanism of action of chloramphenicol.
(c)Describe the mechanism of action of sulfonamide.
4)(a) What is the sulfonamide and Trimethoprim combination.
(b) Write the clinical uses of this combination.

ANTIMICROBIALS(ANTI-MYCOBACTERIALS)
1)(a) A 25 year old unmarried woman is found to have Pulmonary T. State the
drug regime for this patient and describe the pharmacological basis for using
the drugs that you have mentioned.
(b) Discuss the problems that may arise during the treatment.
2)Describe the drug regime for;
(a) Pausi Bacillary leprosy.
(b)Multi bacillary leprosy.

ANTIMICROBIALS ( ANTI-MALARIALS)
1) Describe the drug treatment for uncomplicated plasmodium vivax
infection.
2) Describe the mechanism of action of the drugs mentioned in 1).
3) Outline the treatment of severe malaria.
4) What are the indications to use quartem or ACT and what
precaution
would you take when prescribing quartem?

ANTIMICROBIALS (ANTI-HELMINTHICS)
1) Write the names of the drugs its mechanism of action for the following
conditions;
(a) Mixed worm infections.

(b)Larva Migrans (cutaneous and visceral)


(c) Leishmaniasis
(d)Toxoplasmosis
(e) Amoebiasis
(f) Giadiasis
(g)Trichomonas Vaginalis
(h)Tetanus
(i) Filariasis
(j) Thread worms
(k) Filariasis eradication

DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROID


DISEASES
1) (i) A 60 year old man was diagnosed as having
hypothyroidism. Describe the drug treatment of this
patient.
2) A 26 year old woman is diagnosed as having thyrotoxicosis.
(a) Describe the drug treatment of this patient and
what advice would you give to this patient &
relatives regarding the drugs prescribed.
(b)Describe the pharmacological basis of using the
drugs mentioned in (a).
(c) Describe the drug treatment of thyrotoxicosis in a
pregnant female.
3) (a) List the drugs used in the treatment of thyrotoxic crisis.
(b)List the drugs used in the treatment of myxedema
coma.

DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF


DIABETES MELLITUS.
1) A 15 Year old boy with Type I DM was prescribed insulin.
(a) Describe the mechanism of action of insulin.
(b)What are the different types of insulin.
(c) What advice is given to patients regarding the use
of insulin.
2) A 50 year old man with a fasting blood glucose of 250mg/dl
(Normal range: 65-110mg/dl) was prescribed Metformin.
(a) Describe the mechanism of action of Metformin.
(b)What other drugs can be used in this management
of this patient?
(c) What are the advantages of using Metformin?

3) Name the drugs that can be used for a diabetic patient with renal
impairment.

ADRENAL STEROIDS
1) A 15 year old girl, with non-minimal change nephrotic
syndrome was prescribed high dose steroids for more than
2 weeks.
(a) Describe the mechanism of action of
corticosteroids.
(b)What advice would you give her on her use of
steroids?
(c) What precautions would you take when prescribing
steroids?
2) (a) List some other uses of steroids.
(b) Name the corticosteroid preparations that are used
clinically and their methods of administration.
3)A patient on high dose of steroids is admitted to your ward on
appendectomy. State your management?

SEX HORMONES, OVARIAN STIMULANTS &


OXYTOCICS, OCPS
1) A 25 year old healthy unmarried female informs you that she
intends to get married in 2 months time;
(a)State what type of OCP you would give stating the reasons
for your selection.
(b)Describe what precautions you would take when
prescribing an OCP?
2) Describe the principles of emergency contraception.
3) Describe the uses of Oxytocin, Ergometrine & Prostaglandins
in labour, abortion and post-partum haemorrhage.

DRUGS USED TO TREAT BRONCHIAL ASTHMA


1) A 26 year old female chronic asthmatic is admitted to a medical ward
with acute bronchial asthma.

(a)Describe the drug treatment of this patient indicating the dose


used and their
method of administration.
(b)Describe the pharmacological basis for the use of drugs that you
have mentioned.
(c)Discuss the treatment of this patient on discharge from the ward.
(d)What general advice is given to this patient?
(e)List the drugs used for treatment of acute severe asthma.

DRUGS USED TO TREAT PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE


1) Explain the pharmacological basis for the use of proton pump
inhibitor in the treatment of PUD.
2) Explain the following;
(a)Omeprazole is given once daily inspite of having a short t1/2.
(b)Patients are advised to take PPI on an empty stomach.
3)List the indications of purgatives.
4)Explain the mechanism of action of osmotic laxatives.

ANTICONVULSANTS
1) (a) A 15 year old girl was diagnosed with grand-mal epilepsy. Name a
drug that could be prescribed for this patient & explain your reasons
for selecting this drug.
(b) Describe the pharmacokinetic properties of Phenytoin.
(c)Describe the A/E of Carbamazepine.
2) A young female epileptic patient who wishes to become pregnant
seeks medical advice. Discuss how you would advise this patient.

ANTIPSYCHOTICS , ANTIDEPRESSSANTS & ANTI


PARKIOINSONS DRUGS
1) (a) What are the different groups of antidepressants?
(b)Describe their mechanisms of action.
(c)Give at least 1 example for each group.
(d) Describe the principles for prescribing antidepressants.
2) (a) What are the two main groups of antipsychotics? What are the
differences between these two?
(b)Describe the A/E of antipsychotics.

3) (a)Describe the pharmacological basis of using Levodopa in the


treatment of Parkinsons disease.
(b)Describe the use of Levodopa Carbidopa combination.
(c) Name two other drugs used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.