Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Cross Flow and Heat Transfer in a Wall Bounded Tube Bundles - Li

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Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Cross Flow and Heat Transfer in a Wall Bounded Tube Bundles - Li

Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Cross Flow and Heat Transfer in a Wall Bounded Tube Bundles - Li

© All Rights Reserved

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijts

in a wall bounded tube bundle

Xiaowei Li*, Xinxin Wu, Shuyan He

Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 12 January 2013

Received in revised form

10 July 2013

Accepted 1 August 2013

Available online 4 September 2013

Tube bundles are usually used for heat transfer in heat exchangers. The walls bounding the tube bundles

will inuence the ow and heat transfer in the tube bundles. This becomes critical for the once through

steam generators of gas cooled reactors due to it is very compact and sensitive. URANS simulation of the

cross ow and heat transfer in a wall bounded inline tube bundle is presented in this paper. The numerical method was veried with experimental measurements. The local and average ow and heat

transfer characteristics were analyzed. The ow has the intrinsic characteristics of unsteadiness as that in

a free tube bundle. Bounding walls modify the ow and heat transfer signicantly. Near wall ow

passages have lower ow resistances due to the walls suppress wakes after the tubes. The uid velocities

in the near wall passages are larger and the temperatures are higher. The wall effects depress turbulence

intensities of the ow in the near wall ow passages, so the heat transfer coefcients of the near wall

tubes are 10% lower than those of the tubes in the middle of the bundle.

2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Tube bundle

Turbulent cross ow

Heat transfer

Wall effect

Steam generator

1. Introduction

High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is especially

excellent in safety due to its inherent safety design [1]. The helical

tube once through steam generator is an important equipment in

HTGR. It should be compact and very reliable. The primary side

helium absorbs heat from the reactor core, and then transfers it to

the secondary side water through the helical tube bundles in the

once through steam generator. The shell or bounding walls over the

tube bundles will certainly inuence the ow and heat transfer in

the tube bundles. Understanding the cross ow and heat transfer

characteristics in wall bounded tube bundles is very important for

the design of the HTGR steam generator.

Turbulent cross ow heat transfer in tube bundles is a basic ow

pattern in tube and shell type heat exchangers. There are many

investigations on the turbulent cross ow and heat transfer over a

single tube or a free (big enough) tube bundle [2]. Experimental

correlations of heat transfer and pressure drop have been established [3,4]. Coutanceau and Defaye [5] did a detailed survey of the

ow visualization works of the cross ow over a single circular

cylinder. Niemann and Holscher [6] reviewed the experiments

about drag and Strouhal number of cross ow over tube bundles.

E-mail addresses: lixiaowei@tsinghua.edu.cn, lixiaowei99@gmail.com (X. Li).

1290-0729/$ e see front matter 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2013.08.001

over tube bundles. Simonin and Barcouda [8] detailedly measured

the ow velocity distribution in a staggered tube bank, the results

showed that after four rows of tubes, the ow will be fully developed. Weavera and Elkashlana [9] recommended six rows of tubes

should be used for studying the cross ow induced vibrations in

tube banks. Zukauskas and Ulinskas [3] also recommended 4 rows

for the heat transfer to be fully developed in a free tube bank.

There are walls bounding the tube bundles in all shell and tube

heat exchangers used in thermal power and chemical engineering.

The calculation of heat transfer coefcients do not need to be so

accurate in ordinary industries. The development of HTGR steam

generator requires more accurate estimation of the heat transfer

coefcients of the wall bounded tube bundles due to it requires

high compactness, high reliability and high heat transfer rate. The

investigations of wall inuences on cross ow and heat transfer

over tube bundles are limited. Many works have been done to

investigate walls inuences on the cross ow over a single cylinder.

One of the early works was done by Bearman and Zdravkovich [10].

They experimentally investigated the ow around a cylinder placed

at various heights above a plane boundary. The results showed that

when the gaps between the wall and cylinder are less than 0.3

cylinder diameters, the regular vortex shedding was suppressed.

For dimensionless gaps greater than 0.3, the Strouhal number was

constant. Their Reynolds number was 45,000. Angrilli et al. [11]

experimentally investigated the wall induced modication to

128

numbers were 2,860, 3820 and 7,640, which was in the low

subcritical region. They found that the proximity of the wall induces a slight increase of vortex shedding frequency. Their results

were in contrast with that of Bearman and Zdravkovich [10]. They

attribute this disagreement to the different Reynolds numbers.

Buresti and Lanciotti [12] measured the mean and uctuating

forces on a circular cylinder in cross-ow near a plane surface and

found that the mean lift coefcient decreases when increasing the

gap size, while the mean drag coefcient seamed to increase. The

Reynolds number was from 86,000 to 277,000. They also found that

the Strouhal number decreased a little when decrease the gap size

for the cases with relatively thick boundary layers. Zhan et al. [13]

measured the drag and lift forces acting on a near wall circular

cylinder. The results were that the drag coefcient becomes smaller

and lift coefcient becomes greater when the gap ratio, H/D, becomes smaller. Forces acting on the cylinder tend to be constant

when the gap ratio reaches 1.0. Nishino et al. [14] detailedly

measured the vortex shedding from a circular cylinder near a

moving ground. Their measurements also showed that the drag

coefcient of the cylinder near the wall is 0.85e0.95 of that for a

free cylinder when H/D is from 2.0 to 0.05. Duan and Jiang [15]

numerically simulated the ow distribution in a wall bounded 3D

helical tube bundle using steady Reynolds averaged NaviereStokes

(SRANS), there are 5 rows of tubes in the bundle. The results

showed that the wall effect will decrease the ow rate in the ow

passages near the wall and the clearance between tube and wall

should be increased to make the ow rate distribution in the tube

bundle uniform. Aiba [16] measured the heat transfer around a

circular cylinder near a plane surface. The results showed that the

Nusselt number of the cylinder rst increases with increasing gaps,

and then decreases with increasing gaps. Miskinis et al. [17]

measured the heat transfer from a rough cylinder in cross ow

near a plane wall and found that the heat transfer rate has two

maximum values when increasing gaps between the plane and the

cylinder. Katinas and Tumosa [18] experimentally measured the

heat transfer coefcient of the tubes near the wall in a tube bundle.

The results showed that when the dimensionless clearance, H/

(S1 D), between the wall and tube bundle is below 2, the heat

transfer coefcient of the tubes near the wall was lower than that in

the center of the tube bundle, the maximum decrement can be 20%.

Numerical simulation helps a lot in understanding the ow

and heat transfer characteristics. There are many numerical

works about turbulent cross ow and heat transfer in tube

bundles, including direction numerical simulation (DNS) [19],

large eddy simulation (LES) [20e22] and Reynolds averaged

NaviereStokes (RANS). Benhamadouche and Laurence [23] and

Rollet-Miet et al. [24] reported the numerical simulation results

of tube bundles using LES and RANS. They concluded that LES

gave better results than RANS. Paul et al. [25] simulated the

turbulent cross ow in a tube bundle using commercial software

CFX. They compared the numerical results with their experiments. The results showed that the two equation turbulence

models can give good results, especially when the ow becomes

spatially periodic. Watterson et al. [26] simulated the turbulent

cross ow over a staggered tube bundle with a periodic boundary

condition using a low-Reynolds number ke3 model and

compared their results with a test case. They found that the ke3

model can give surprisingly good results and save a lot of time.

Wang et al. [27,28] simulated turbulent cross ow in a staggered

tube bundle using commercial software, Fluent. The heat transfer

prediction was found to be in reasonable agreement with

experimental data and empirical correlation. Ridluan and Tokuhiro [29,30] did a benchmark simulation of the turbulent ow

through a staggered tube bundle in the lower plenum of a very

Reynolds averaged NaviereStokes (SRANS) give poor results,

unsteady Reynolds averaged NaviereStokes (URANS) can give

acceptable results. URANS was recommended for the simulation

of cross ow over tube bundle. Bouhairie and Chu [31] introduced

their numerical work about 2D cross ow over circular cylinder.

They reviewed the 2D and 3D numerical simulation of cross ow

over a circular cylinder. Their conclusion was that although twodimensional simulations are constrained, it can in some cases

give important physical insight.

There are many investigations about cross ow and heat

transfer over free tube bundles, while the inuences of the wall

effect on the cross ow and heat transfer over a tube bundle is

limited and not consistent. From the review of the previous numerical works, two dimensional URANS is capable to predict the

cross ow and heat transfer in tube bundles. The cross ow and

heat transfer characteristics in a wall bounded tube bundle will be

simulated using two dimensional URANS. The numerical method

will be rst veried with experimental measurements and

experimental correlations.

129

Fig. 4. Grid size inuence on local velocity distribution. (a) Overall. (b) Enlarged.

2. Numerical method

2.1. Geometry model and boundary conditions

The numerical model is shown in Fig. 1. It is a two dimensional

wall bounded tube bundle. The tubes are in inline arrangement.

There are 7 rows and 5 columns of tubes in the bundle. Column No.

1 and column No. 5 tubes are adjacent to the walls. The tube

diameter is 19 mm. The tube pitches in the ow direction are

S2 25 mm, the tube pitches in the transverse direction are

S1 30 mm. The distances between the wall and the centers of wall

adjacent column tubes are S1/2. The computational area is

175 mm 150 mm. Flow enters the tube bundles from the left. Grid

distribution is shown in Fig. 2. The grid is intensied near the wall

regions. The smallest element dimension is 0.01 mm to ensure that

y is well below 1. The total element number is 222,000. Constant

temperature and non-slip wall boundary conditions were set for

the tube walls. Adiabatic and non-slip wall boundary conditions

were used for the bounding walls. Periodically fully developed

boundary condition was assumed for the inlet and outlet. For more

detailed description of the periodic boundary condition and the

numerical methods please refer to Li et al. [32,33] and reference

[34]. The working uid was helium with constant properties. The

maximum average velocity was 38,000 for the wall bounded tube

bundle. The maximum average helium velocity in the tube bundle

was 26.67 m/s.

Another tube bundle was also simulated to verify the code.

The geometry is the same as that used in the experiments by

Simonin and Barcouda [8] in order to compare with their measurements of the velocity elds. There are 7 rows and 10 or 11

columns of tubes. The tube is in staggered arrangement as shown

in Fig. 3. The tube diameter is 21.7 mm. There are total 498,800

elements in this model. For the verication case, the maximum

average velocity was 1.06 m/s. The working uid was water with

constant properties at 20 C. The operating pressure is atmosphere pressure. The Reynolds number based on the maximum

Table 1

Grid size inuence on Nusselt number and friction factor.

Element number

442, 632

221, 948

115, 163

61, 955

Nu

152.66

0.21785

150.24

0.21637

162.17

0.17922

186.05

0.15619

130

Fig. 6. Velocity distribution. (a) x 0, u. (b) x 0, v. (c) x 11, u. (d) x 11, v. (e) x 16.5, u. (f) x 16.5, v. (g) y 0, u. (h) y 0, v. (i) y 22.5, u. (j) y 22.5, v.

average velocity was 18,000. Uniform velocity was used for the

inlet. Fully developed condition was used for the outlet.

2.2. Governing equations and numerical scheme

The governing equations were the time-dependant threedimensional incompressible Reynolds averaged NaviereStokes

equations and the energy equation. The pressure variance in the

with the operating pressure of 7 MPa, so incompressible assumption

is reasonable. Standard ke3 model and Reynolds stress model proposed in Fluent software were used for the turbulence modeling.

The governing equations together with the turbulence models

were solved using the commercial CFD code, Fluent 6.3, which uses

the nite volume method. Two-layer model was used for the near

wall turbulence modeling, so the near wall turbulence effect can be

131

Fig. 6. (continued).

treated with the SIMPLEC algorithm. The convection terms were

discretized with the QUICK scheme. The time step was 0.0001 s for

all the cases.

2.3. Grid independence analysis

The grid independence study was conducted for the case with 7

rows and 5 columns tube bundle as described in Section 2.1. The

boundary conditions were the same as in Section 2.1. Four sets of

grid were generated, the element numbers are 442, 632, 221, 948,

115, 163 and 61, 955. The calculated average Nusselt numbers and

friction factors are shown in Table 1. The increment of element

number from 221, 948 to 442, 632 only results in the increase of

1.6% for Nu and 0.7% for x. The calculated local time averaged velocity magnitude distribution along the line between the row 4

column 1 and row 4 column 2 tubes with different grid size are

shown in Fig. 4. From Fig. 4(a), it can be seen that the velocity

difference is very little among the four sets of grids. Fig. 4(b) gives a

clearer picture. When the grid size increased from 221, 948 to 442,

632, the velocity magnitude increment is below 0.2%. So grid

number of 222, 000 was chosen to be used for the simulation.

3. Code verication

3.1. Velocity eld and turbulence intensity

Correct prediction of the velocity eld and turbulence intensity

is important for the numerical analysis of the ow and heat transfer

detailedly measured the averaged velocity eld and root mean

square velocity uctuations of cross ow over a 2D tube bundle. The

geometry of the tube bundle is shown in Fig. 3. The measurement

positions are shown in Fig. 5. Measurements showed that the ow

was fully periodic after 4 rows of tubes.

Three different turbulent models, standard ke3 model, SST keu

model and Reynolds stress model, are used for the simulation. The

time averaged numerical results are compared with the measurements of Simonin and Barcouda [8]. The u and v velocity at the

positions of x 0, x 11 mm, x 16.5 mm, y 0, and y 22.5 mm

are shown in Fig. 6. It can be seen that the time averaged velocities

predicted by standard ke3 model and Reynolds stress model agree

well with experiments, while the SST keu model is not so good and

is not presented. The turbulence intensity at the positions of x 0,

x 11 mm, x 16.5 mm, y 0, and y 22.5 mm are shown in Fig. 7.

The agreement with the measurements is good. Standard ke3

model and Reynolds stress model will be used for the simulation in

this paper.

3.2. Strouhal number

The Strouhal number of the cross ow over the tube bundle was

analyzed using statistical method. The frequency of the drag coefcient on the tubes can be attained using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. The standard ke3 model and Reynolds stress

model give almost the same results. Fig. 8 shows the results of FFT

analysis. The peak amplitude of FFT of Cd represents the dominant

frequency and the Strouhal number. The Strouhal number value of

132

Fig. 7. Turbulence intensity distribution. (a) x 0, u. (b) x 11, u. (c) x 16.5, u. (d) y 0, u. (e) y 22.5, u.

It can be seen that St 0.35. This agrees well with the measured

results given by Zukauskas et al. [35] with S1/D 1.58, S2/D 1.32.

3.3. Nusselt number and friction factor

A free tube bundle was also simulated to see whether the

method can predict the average heat transfer and pressure drop

well. The geometry of the free tube bundle was the same as that in

Fig. 1. The boundary conditions were almost the same except that

the up and down bounding walls were changed to periodic conditions. The ow and heat transfer were simulated with Reynolds

numbers from 10,000 to 50,000. As shown in Fig. 9, the Nusslet

numbers and friction factors are compared with empirical correlations. The Nusselt number correlation is proposed by Zukauskas

and Ulinskas [4] as in Eq. (1). The friction factor correlation is

proposed by Idelchik [36] as shown in Eq. (2). It can be seen that the

differences between the numerical and empirical correlation for

133

Fig. 8. Strouhal number of the row 4 column 5 tube in the staggered tube bundle of

Simonin and Barcouda [8].

represents the lift coefcient. The drag and lift coefcients are

calculated using Eqs. (3) and (4).

both Nusselt numbers and friction factors are below 25%. The differences maybe induced by both the uncertainties of the correlations and the numerical simulations.

Cd

Fp;x Fv;x

0:5ru2N DH

(3)

Nu 0:27Re0:63 Pr 0:36

Cl

Fp;y Fv;y

0:5ru2N DH

(4)

x 0:38

W D

0:94

LD

(1)

0:59

0:5

WD 2

W

Re0:2 LD

1

D

(2)

capable of predicting the ow in a tube bundle. The Strouhal

number results showed the transient characteristics of the ow in

the tube bundle can also be simulated. The numerical method can

also predict the average heat transfer and pressure drop.

viscous force, Fp,y is the y direction pressure force, Fv,y is the y direction viscous force. All the forces are calculated by integrating

The transient ow characteristics will be introduced rst. Then

the time and local averaged ow and heat transfer characteristics

will be presented and analyzed detailedly.

4.1. Transient ow characteristics

Fig. 10 is the transient drag and lift coefcients of the row 4 and

column 3 tube. Solid line represents the drag coefcient, dotted line

Fig. 11. Strouhal number. (a) Row 4 column 3 tube. (b) Row 4 column 1 tube.

134

along the wall surfaces. D is the tube diameter, H is the tube height

in z direction, it is unit in this case.

From Fig. 10, the drag and lift coefcients vary periodically with

time. There are total 34 periods for the drag coefcient, while there

are 17 periods for the lift coefcient. The oscillation period of the lift

coefcient is 0.32/17 z 0.0188 s. Compared with the transient velocity eld, it can be found that one period represents a variation of

the wake direction. Fig. 10 also shows that the variation of the lift

coefcient is much larger than the drag coefcient. This coincides

with the experimental measurements by Zhan et al. [13]. The experiments of Buresti and Lanciotti [12] also showed that the lift

coefcient of a single cylinder will increase when a wall approximates, while the drag coefcient will decrease. The lift coefcient

can be higher than the drag coefcient when the gap between the

wall and the tube is very small.

Fig. 11(a) shows the FFT analysis of the drag coefcient of row 4

column 3 tube as shown in Fig. 10. Fig. 11(b) shows the FFT analysis

the Strouhal number of row 4 column 3 tube is 0.06, while that of

row 4 column 1 tube is 0.03. This is different from that of a free tube

bundle [35]. The wall effect may be the reason. The measurements

of Bearman and Zdravkovich [10] showed that the wall suppressed

the vortex shedding frequency for a single cylinder when

Re 45,000. Buresti and Lanciotti [12] also found that Strouhal

number decreased a little when decreasing the gap size between

the tube and the wall. Besides the geometry in Fig. 1, a tube bundle

with 33 rows of tubes with inlet and outlet region was also simulated to investigate the inlet condition inuence. The tube bank

arrangement is the same as in Fig. 1. The Strouhal number attained

from the 33 rows tube bundle simulation is the same as in Fig. 11.

This means the periodic condition is applicable.

Fig. 12 shows the transient velocity elds from time t 0.4750 s

to t 0.4938 s. From the velocity elds at different times shown in

Fig. 12, we can see that the uid in the tube bundle sways as it

Fig. 12. Transient velocity eld. (a) t 0.475 s (b) t 0.4797 s (c) t 0.4844 s (d) t 0.4891 s (e) t 0.4938 s.

passes the tubes. This shows the intrinsic characteristics of unsteadiness of the cross ow over tube bundles. From Fig. 12(a), the

wakes of the middle three columns (column No. 2, 3 and 4) of tubes

in the rst row point to upper right, the wakes of the middle three

columns of tubes in the third and fourth rows point to lower right,

the wakes of the middle three columns of tubes in the sixth and

seventh rows point to upper right, while the wakes of the middle

three columns of tubes in the second and fth rows are in transition. In Fig. 12(b), it is the tubes in the third and seventh rows are in

transition. In Fig. 12(c), the directions of the wakes of the middle 3

columns of tubes are opposite to those in Fig. 12(a), and with the

second and fth rows in transition. In Fig. 12(d), the tubes of the

fourth and seventh rows are in transition. In Fig. 12(e), the directions of the wakes of the middle 3 columns of tubes return to the

states in Fig. 12(a). So the time period of one sway of the wakes is

about 0.0188 s. This coincides with the oscillation periods of the lift

coefcient shown in Fig. 10. From the pictures in Fig. 12, we can see

that the wakes of the tubes in the middle 3 columns can sway up

and down freely, but the wakes of the tubes in the side columns

(column No. 1 and 5) are conned by the walls. They can hardly

sway to the walls. This is the difference between the present wall

bounded tube bundle and a free tube bundle.

135

The time averaged velocity, temperature and turbulence intensity distributions in the ow passages in the tube bundle are

shown in Fig. 13. The horizontal coordinates are the ow passage

numbers, the vertical coordinates are the averaged velocity, temperature and turbulence intensity. The ow passage locations and

its numbering method are illustrated in the small picture at the top

of Fig. 13. The solid lines numbered 1 to 6 represent locations of the

ow passages, where the time and local average was carried out.

The velocity, temperature and turbulence intensity values shown in

Fig. 13(a), (b) and (c) are time and area averaged on the locations at

the solid lines numbered 1 to 6 in several ow periods. The ow

passages numbered 1 and 6 are the side passages which have the

bounding wall as one of its walls. The widths of passage No. 1 and

No. 6 are only half that of the passages numbered 2 to 5. The

averaged velocity, temperature and turbulence intensity in Fig. 13

show symmetric distribution.

From Fig. 13(a), the velocities in the middle passages (No. 2, 3, 4,

and 5) are lower than that in the two side passages (No. 1 and 6).

The side passages numbered 1 and 6 have the highest velocities.

This seems to be incorrect due to that the bounding walls compose

one of the walls of passage No. 1 and 6, which will make the viscous

forces of passage No. 1 and No. 6 larger than that of the passages in

the middle. This can be explained from the ow resistance coefcients shown in Fig. 14. The ow resistance of passage No. 1 is

calculated by the sum of the drag force on its adjacent wall and half

the drag force on tube No. 1, while the ow resistance of passage

No. 2 is calculated by the sum of half the drag forces on both tube

No. 1 and tube No. 2 (the tube number can be seen in the small

picture at the top of Fig. 15). The calculation of the ow resistance

coefcient of passage No. 6 is similar to passage No. 1, while that of

passage No. 3, 4, 5 are similar to passage No. 2. From Fig. 14, the ow

resistances of the six passages have a symmetric distribution. The

ow resistances of passage No. 1 and 6 are lower than that of

passage No. 2, 3, 4 and 5. The higher ow resistances in the middle

of the tube bundle cause the lower velocity.

Why the ow resistance of passage No. 1 and 6 are lower? This

should be explained from the time and area averaged viscous and

pressure force coefcients on the tubes and walls shown in Fig. 15.

From Fig. 15, the pressure forces on the tubes in x direction are

much larger than the viscous forces in the same direction. Also the

pressure forces in y direction on the tubes are much larger than the

viscous forces in the same direction. So the pressure forces dominate the drag and lift forces on the tubes. The rectangular symbols

in Fig. 15 clearly show that the pressure forces on the middle 3

tubes (tube No. 2, 3, 4) in x direction (the drag force) are higher than

Fig. 13. Velocity, temperature and turbulence intensity distributions in the ow passages in the tube bundle.

Fig. 15. Pressure and viscous force coefcients on tubes and walls.

136

that on the wall adjacent tubes (tube No. 1 and 5). So the ow resistances of the middle four passages (No. 2, 3, 4 and 5) are higher

than that of the two side passage (No. 1 and 6).

Then why the drag forces on the middle 3 tubes are higher than

that on the wall adjacent tubes? This can be explained from the

time and local area averaged pressure distributions on the tubes

shown in Fig. 16. As shown in Fig. 12, the ow in the tube bundle is

unsteady and the wake sways with time. The wakes of the tubes

adjacent to the walls cannot sway towards the walls. The wakes

determine the pressure distributions on the tubes, so the walls will

modify the pressure forces on the wall adjacent tubes. Fig. 16 shows

the pressure distributions on the tubes. Zero degree represents the

incoming ow direction, and the circumferential direction goes

clockwise (from the top view). From Fig. 16(a), we can see that

pressure distribution on tube No. 1 and No. 5 is not symmetric, the

side adjacent to the walls have relatively lower pressure. The

asymmetry of the pressure distributions on tubes numbered 2 and

4 is very small. The pressure distribution on tube No. 3 is totally

symmetric. So the pressure forces in the y direction of tube No. 1

and 5 are higher. The detailed comparison of Fig. 16(a), (b) and (c)

shows that the pressure in the region of 112.5e247.5 (where are

the wake regions) of tube No. 1 and 5 are higher than that of the

tube No. 2 and 4, while the pressure in the regions of 0.0e67.5 and

292.5e360 are almost the same. So the pressure resistances in x

direction on tube No. 1 and 5 are relatively lower. From the above

analysis we can see that it is the wall effect that results in the

different drag and lift forces on the tubes adjacent to the walls. This

nally results in the low ow resistance and higher uid velocity in

the two side ow passages (No. 1 and 6).

From Fig. 13(b), we can see that the temperatures of the uids

are higher in the two side passages, and the temperatures of the

uids in the middle passages are almost the same. The higher

temperatures in the two side passages are due to the higher velocities. The heat transfer coefcients on the tubes cannot vary

signicantly (we can see later in Fig. 19), so the uids in the two side

passages with larger ow rates will have higher temperatures. The

uniformity of the temperatures in passage No. 2, 3, 4 and 5 can be

explained from Fig. 17. Fig. 17 shows the time and local area averaged longitudinal and transverse velocities in the tube bundles

(absolute velocities are used during the average). The locations of

the ow passages are shown in the small picture at the top of Fig. 17.

Flow passage No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are the same as in Figs. 13 and 14,

the average velocities in these passages are in the longitudinal direction. Flow passage No. 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 are the transverse

passages, the average velocities in these passages are in the

transverse direction. From Fig. 17, we can see that the averaged

absolute transverse velocity in passage No. 3.5 can be more than

half the averaged velocity in the streamwise direction. The transverse velocities in passage No. 2.5 and 4.5 are slightly lower than

that in passage No. 3.5, while the transverse velocities in passage

No. 1.5 and 5.5 are only 30% of that in passage No. 3.5. This means

that the uids in passage No. 2, 3, 4 and 5 exchange greatly. So the

uid temperatures in passage No. 2, 3, 4 and 5 are almost the same.

While the two side passages numbered 1 and 6 have relatively less

exchange of uids with the middle passages, so their temperatures

can be more different from that in the middle.

Fig. 13(c) is the turbulence intensity distribution in the tube

bundle. The turbulence intensities in the two side passages

numbered 1 and 6 are relatively lower, while that in the middle

passages numbered 2, 3, 4 and 5 are almost uniform. This is due to

the large exchange of uids in the middle four ow passages

numbered 2, 3, 4 and 5. In the two side passages, due to the viscous

effect induced by the two bounding walls and the suppression of

the tube wakes, the turbulence is suppressed, and the turbulence

Fig. 16. Local pressure distribution on tubes. (a) Pressure on tube No. 1 and 5. (b) Pressure on tube No. 2 and 4. (c) Pressure on tube No. 3.

Fig. 17. Averaged absolute transverse and longitudinal velocities in the tube bundle.

intensity are smaller than that in the middle of the tube bundle.

This will certainly inuences the heat transfer characteristics.

4.3. Time averaged heat transfer characteristics

The time and area averaged local heat ux on the tubes are

shown in Fig. 18. As in Fig. 16, zero degree represents the incoming

ow direction, the circumferential direction goes clockwise (from

the top view). From Fig. 18(a), we can see that the local heat ux of

tube No. 1 and 5 have opposite distributions, and they both have

higher heat ux at the near wall side. This is due to the higher uid

137

wall effects are responsible for the asymmetric distribution. The

highest local heat ux appears at 45 and 315 directions but not

the zero direction. This is due to the inline arrangement of the tube

bundle. The local heat ux of tube No. 2 and 4 in Fig. 18(b) shows

that they also have opposite distributions, but the difference are

very small, which means the wall effects are much lower. Fig. 18(c)

shows that the heat transfer of tube No. 3 has a symmetric distribution. From Fig. 18, we can see that the walls inuences on the

near wall column of tubes are obvious, while the inuences on the

tubes in the middle of the bundle are very small.

The time and area averaged heat transfer characteristics in the

tube bundle are shown in Fig. 19. Fig. 19(a) shows the average heat

ux on the ve tubes. Tube No. 1 and 5 have the highest heat uxes

which are 10% higher than that of tube No. 3. This is due to the

higher uid temperatures in the passages numbered 1 and 6 as

shown in Fig. 13(b). The heat uxes of tube No. 2 and 4 are slightly

higher than that of tube No. 3. In order to calculate the heat transfer

coefcients on the tubes, Fig. 19(b) gives the average temperatures

of the uids just before and behind each tube, as shown in the small

picture at the top of Fig. 19. Fig. 19(b) shows that the temperatures

of the uids ow over tube No. 1 and 6 are about 30 C higher than

that ow over tube No. 2, 3 and 4. Fig. 19(c) shows the average heat

transfer coefcients of each tube. The average heat transfer coefcients are calculated using Eq. (5).

q

h

Tup Tdown 2 Tw

(5)

where q is the local heat ux. Tup is the uid temperature just

before the tube, Tdown is the uid temperature just behind the tube,

the positions are shown by the solid or dashed lines before and

Fig. 18. Local heat ux distribution on tubes. (a) Heat ux on tube No. 1 and 5. (b) Heat ux on tube No. 2 and 4. (c) Heat ux on tube No. 3.

138

heat transfer coefcient of the near wall tubes are smaller than

that in the middle due to the wall effects. The heat transfer

coefcient of the tubes near the wall is 10% lower than that in

the middle.

Acknowledgments

This work was nancially supported by National Natural Science

Foundation of China (51006061) and National S&T Major Project

(Grant No. ZX06901).

References

behind each tube in the small picture at the top of Fig. 19. Tw is the

tube wall temperature.

The local heat ux was calculated using Eq. (6). The near wall

turbulent thermal conductivity was zero.

vT

q l

vn wall

(6)

Fig. 19(c) shows that tube No. 1 and 5 have the lowest heat

transfer coefcients while tube No. 2, 3 and 4 have almost the same

heat transfer coefcients. The heat transfer coefcients of No. 1 and

No. 5 tubes are 10% lower than that of No. 2, 3 and 4 tubes. This is

due to the lower turbulence intensities in the near wall regions as

shown in Fig. 13(c). The measurements of Katinas and Tumosa also

showed that the maximum decrease of the heat transfer coefcient

of the tube banks induced by the wall can be 20% [18].

5. Conclusions

Development of nuclear technologies requires high heat transfer rate and more accurate heat transfer calculation. The shell side

heat transfer in the once through steam generators of high temperature gas-cooled reactors are cross ow heat transfer over wall

bounded tube bundles. This paper reported a numerical study

about the cross ow and heat transfer characteristics in a wall

bounded tube bundles. Numerical method was veried using

experimental measurement and empirical correlations before the

simulation. The ow in wall bounded tube bundles has the intrinsic

transient ow characteristics of swaying as in free tube bundles, but

the walls modify the ow and heat transfer signicantly. The ow

and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed detailed in this paper,

the main conclusions are:

1. The walls suppressed the wakes of near wall tubes and prevent

the wakes from swaying towards them. This modies the

pressure distribution on the wall adjacent tubes and make near

wall ow passages have lower ow resistance. The uid velocity and uid temperatures are higher in the near wall ow

passages.

2. The averaged absolute transverse velocity in the middle of the

tube bundle can reach 50% of the averaged streamwise velocity,

while the transverse velocity in the near wall ow passages

reduces to only 15%. There is great mixing in the middle of the

tube bundle. Temperature and turbulence intensity in the

middle of the tube bundle are uniform.

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tube bundles, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 20 (3) (1999)

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of turbulent cross-ow in a staggered tube bundle, International Journal of

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[31] S. Bouhairie, V.H. Chu, Two-dimensional simulation of unsteady heat transfer

from a circular cylinder in crossow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 570 (2007)

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139

Cl,v: viscous force coefcient in y direction, Cl;v Fv;y =0:5ru2N DH, dimensionless

D: tube diameter [m]

f: oscillation frequency of forces acting on the tube, [Hz]

Fp: pressure force, [N]

Fv: viscous force, [N]

h: convective heat transfer coefcient, [Wm2 C1]

H: tube length (it is unit in this paper) or the distance between the wall and

the tube, [m]

q

2 k=u , dimensionless

I: turbulence intensity, I

N

3

k: turbulence kinetic energy, k 12 u0i u0i , [m2 s2]

p: pressure [Pa]

Pr: Prandtl number, dimensionless

q: local heat ux, [W m2]

Re: Reynolds number, Re rumaxD/m, dimensionless

S1: transverse pitches, [m]

S2: longitudinal pitches, [m]

St: Strouhal number, St fD/umax, dimensionless

t: time [s]

T: temperature, [ C]

Tdown: uid temperature behind tubes, [ C]

Tup: uid temperature before tubes, [ C]

Tw: tube wall temperature, [ C]

uN: inlet velocity, [m s1]

umax: maximum average velocity in the tube bundle, [m s1]

y: dimensionless distance normal to the wall (yu*/y), dimensionless

Nomenclature

Greek symbols

2 3

3 : turbulence dissipation rate, [m s

]

l: molecular thermal conductivity, [W/m C]

m: dynamic viscosity [kg m1 s1]

x: friction factor, dimensionless

r: density, [kg m3]

Cd,p: pressure force coefcient in x direction, Cd;p Fp;x =0:5ru2N DH, dimensionless

Cd,v: viscous force coefcient in x direction, Cd;v Fv;x =0:5ru2N DH, dimensionless

Cl: lift coefcient, dimensionless

Cl,p: pressure force coefcient in y direction, Cl;p Fp;y =0:5ru2N DH, dimensionless

Subscripts

p: pressure

v: viscous

w: wall

x: x direction

y: y direction

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