Anda di halaman 1dari 33

History and Future of Nanoscience /

nanotechnology
Some history:
Feynmans prophesy:
Theres plenty of room at the bottom
What is nanoscience/nanotechnology?
Nano-fabrication
Nano tools
Materials of nanoscience
Current applications of nano
Future applications (dreams)
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Feynmans Challenge (~1960)


Why cant we write the Encyclopedia
Brittanica on the head of a pin?
Or the entire contents of the library of
congress in the volume of a sugar cube?
There is plenty of room at the bottom.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Scales of length
Importance of size and scale
1,000,000,000 m
1,000,000 m
10 m

=109

Sun

=106

Earth

=101

building

1m

human being

0.001 m = milli =10-3


0.000001 m = micro =10-6
0.000000001 m = nano =10-9
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

thickness of a dime
bacteria
atom

nanoscale

Nano is the scale of atoms and molecules


up to ...
The nanoscale ranges from individual atoms
to bacteria.
1 nanometer = 10 atoms

1000 nanometers = 1 bacterium

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

The push to make things smaller

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

The power of miniaturization

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Moores law

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Top down fabrication (integrated circuits)


Use a microscope (light or electron) to write a pattern
in a light sensitive layer.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Use an electron microscope beam to make


very small patterns

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Fabrication of semiconductor crystals one atomic layer at a time

Produces atomically flat and perfect crystals - layer by layer


Can be used for semiconductors or metals
Molecular beam epitaxy - developed since ~1975
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Fabrication of truly new materials


Molecular beam epitaxy is used to make new
types of materials
semiconductor devices (transistors,
computer circuits)
lasers on a chip (fiber optics, optical
communications)
very small and very sensitive read heads
for computer hard disks (laptops, ipods)

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Rotary motor
Uses electrostatic force

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

A nano-mechanical oscillator

Fabrication

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Nano-gravimiters

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Fabrication from the bottom up


Nano is the scale of atoms -- need tools for
visualizing and manipulating individual atoms.
Scanning probe microscopes (~1980s)
Move a very small probe over a surface and
study the probe/surface interaction.
Different types:
Scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
Atomic force microscope (AFM)
Magnetic force microscope (MFM)
+ more
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Scanning tunneling microscope (STM)


use tunneling current
from tip to sample
tunneling ~exp(-x) so
have very high x
resolution (<0.01 nm)
QuickTime and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Building - atom by atom


moving and placing Fe atoms on a Cu surface

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Building with atoms


abacus with atoms

quantum corral

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Atomic force microscope (AFM)


move cantilever with atomically sharp tip over a
surface or molecule
monitor deflection of cantilever (= spring with k=0.1
N/m -- like a slinky)
cantilever = 0.1 mm long
can detect 10-11N and << 0.1 nm
can image in air or water (biology!)

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Atomic force microscope tips

3000 nm

tips are only 10-100 atoms wide

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

AFM image of graphite surface


Individual atoms on a carbon surface.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

DNA on a mica surface

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Molecular Electronics

Use scanning probe microscopy to attach


leads to individual molecules, and study
electrical conduction.
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Fabrication of a molecular switch

Conduction through a ROTAXANE molecule changes by a factor


of 1000 when the active group is chemically oxidized.
In a circuit the switch can be closed by application of a voltage.
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

New materials:
carbon buckyballs and carbon nanotubes
Discovery of buckyballs (fullerenes) C60 and
larger.
Can be used to pattern or trap at the nano-scale

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Carbon nanotubes
Graphene sheets rolled into cylinders. As
small as a few nm in diameter.
Very strong (space elevator?).
Can conduct electricity.
Use as small pipes, channels, or gears.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Fabrication by self assembly


Use natural properties of atoms and
molecules to form nano-scale structures.
Molecular beam epitaxy
Carbon nanotubes
DNA
Use as templates or in other ways.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Current applications of nanoscience

Very powerful computers, mp3 players, ipods


Computer hard disks
CDs and DVDs
Nanostructured materials: ultra-strong and
ultra-light, used in tennis rackets, skiis, cars
and airplanes

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Nature is a nanoscientist

Nature uses nanoscale


molecular motors
QuickTime and a
Graphics decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Molecular motors walk from place to place


within a cell

QuickTime and a
Video decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime and a
Video decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

goal: make nanoscale motors following Natures design


Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Grand nanoscience challenges for the future


Putting the entire contents of the Library of Congress in a
device the size of a sugar cube
Developing materials that are 10 times stronger than steel
Improving the speed and reducing the size of computers
Detecting cancerous tumors that are only a few cells in size
(new sensor technologies)
Removing the finest contaminants from water and air
Making motors as small and efficient as biological motors
(nano electro-mechanical systems)
Doubling the energy efficiency of solar cells
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech

Nano threads
Tools
scanning probe microscopy
Fabrication:
top down vs bottom up
self assembly
Materials
silicon integrated circuits
DNA
carbon nanotubes and buckyballs
Intro/history of nanoscience/tech