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Job evaluation

A job evaluation is a systematic way of determining the value/worth of a job in relation to

other jobs in an organisation. It tries to make a systematic comparison between jobs to
assess their relative worth for the purpose of establishing a rational pay structure.
Job evaluation needs to be differentiated from job analysis. Job analysis is a systematic
way of gathering information about a job. Every job evaluation method requires at least
some basic job analysis in order to provide factual information about the jobs concerned.
Thus, job evaluation begins with job analysis and ends at that point where the worth of a
job is ascertained for achieving pay equity between jobs.
Management by objectives (MBO)
Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of defining objectives within an
organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand
what they need to do in the organization in order to achieve them.
The term "management by objectives" was first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954
book 'The Practice of Management'.
The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course of actions and decision
making. An important part of the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the
employees actual performance with the standards set. Ideally, when employees
themselves have been involved with the goal setting and choosing the course of action
to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their responsibilities.
Recruitment is the process of finding candidates, reviewing applicant credentials,
screening potential employees, and selecting employees for an organization. Effective
recruitment results in an organization hiring employees who are skilled, experienced, and
good fits with your corporate culture.
Human Resource Planning (HRP)
Human resources planning is a process that identifies current and future human
resources needs for an organization to achieve it goals. Human resources planning
should serve as a link between human resources management and the overall strategic
plan of an organization. Ageing worker populations in most western countries and
growing demands for qualified workers in developing economies have underscored the
importance of effective Human Resources Planning
The state of chronic absence from work. Absenteeism is usually addressed through
progressively stricter disciplinary measures that can result in the termination of the
individual's employment. This is generally governed by the organization's attendance
policy. The employee handbook frequently documents expected attendance and
consequences for absenteeism.
Human resources
Human resources is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an
organization, business sector or an economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used
synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more
narrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an
organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent",
"labor" or simply "people".

Incentives refer to the variable records granted to the individuals in terms of changes in
specific results in organisational setting incentives incite the people towards action
According to George R Terry, incentives means that which incites or has tendency to
incite action They are devised to play a causal role in conjuction with rewarding the effect
In simple words, incentives means that psychological excitement which makes the
employees efficient Normally the employees need the incentives to achieve the
objectives Security in job, recognition, promotion, respect, praise, minimum wages
promise are the examples of incentives
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Motivation is the inner drive that directs a persons behavior toward goals. Motivation can
be defined as a process which energizes, directs and sustains human behavior. In HRM
the term refers to persons desire to do the best possible job or to exert the maximum
effort to perform assigned tasks. An important feature of motivation is that it is behavior
directed towards goal.
Labour Turnover
Labour turnover is the proportion of employees that leave a business over a period of
time. This is usually measured over one year. Labour turnover is calculated by dividing
the number of employees leaving by the average number of employees within the
business and then multiplying it by 100. For example if 20 employees left the business
and the average number of employees was 500 then the labour turnover would be 4%
Job Analysis
Job analysis is the formal process of identifying the content of a job in terms activities
involved and attributes needed to perform the work and identifies major job
requirements. Job analysis was conceptualized by two of the founders of
industrial/organizational psychology, Frederick Taylor and Lillian Moller Gilbreth in the
early 20th century. Job analyses provide information to organizations which helps to
determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs.
Internship Training
Internship is a system of on-the-job training for white-collar and professional
careers.Internships for professional careers are similar to apprenticeships for trade and
vocational jobs. Although interns are typically college or university students, they can
also be high school students or post-graduate adults. On occasion, they are middle
school or even elementary students.
Generally, the internship works as an exchange of services for experience between the
student and his or her employer. They can also use an internship to determine if they
have an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts, or gain school credit.
Some interns also find permanent, paid employment with the companies in which they
interned. Thus, employers also benefit as experienced interns need little or no training
when they begin full-time regular employment
The recruitment practices of an organisation are centralized when the HR / recruitment
department of an organisation are carried out by the one central HR (or recruitment)
department. Centralized from of recruitment is commonly seen in government

Transfer as a source of Recruitment

Transfer means a change in the place of employment without any change in the position,
status, salary and responsibility of the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by
transferring a suitable candidate from the same organisation.

raining by job rotation

Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over
a period of a few years.Surveys show that an increasing number of companies are using job rotation
to train employees. There are both positive and negative effects involved with job rotation that
need to be taken into consideration when a company makes the decision to use this technique.
Job rotation is also a control to detect errors and frauds. It reduces the risk of collusion between
individuals. Organizations dealing with sensitive information or system (e.g. bank) where there is
an opportunity for personal gain can benefit by job rotation. Job rotation also helps in business
continuity as multiple people are equally equipped to perform a job function. If an employee is not
available other can handle his/her position with similar efficiency.
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HRD (Human Resource Developement)

Human Resources Development (HRD) as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human
capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual
to achieve performance improvement. Adam Smith states, The capacities of individuals depended
on their access to education. The same statement applies to organizations themselves, but it
requires a much broader field to cover both areas.
Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career
development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops
the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs
through planned learning activities. Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage
change. Also, HRD ensures a match between individual and organizational needs. [
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An induction programme is an important process for bringing staff into an organisation. It provides
an introduction to the working environment and the set-up of the employee within the
organisation. The process will cover the employer and employee rights and the terms and
conditions of employment. As a priority the induction programme must cover any legal and
compliance requirements for working at the company and pay attention to the health and safety of
the new employee.
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360 Degree method of Performance Appraisal

In human resources or industrial psychology, 360-degree feedback, also known asmulti-rater

feedback, multi source feedback, or multi source assessment, is feedback that comes from
members of an employee's immediate work circle. Most often, 360-degree feedback will include
direct feedback from an employee's subordinates, peers, and supervisor(s), as well as a selfevaluation. It can also include, in some cases, feedback from external sources, such as customers
and suppliers or other interested stakeholders. It may be contrasted with "upward feedback," where
managers are given feedback only by their direct reports, or a "traditional performance appraisal,"
where the employees are most often reviewed only by their managers.
The results from a 360-degree evaluation are often used by the person receiving the feedback to
plan and map specific paths in their development.

Human Resource Accounting

Human Resource Accounting (HRA) means to measure the cost and value of the people (i.e.
of employees and managers) in the organisation. It measures the cost incurred to recruit,

hire, train and develop employees and managers. HRA also finds out the present economic
value of its employees and managers .