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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Program
Kursus
Kod Kursus
Pensyarah

:
:
:
:

Bachelor Of Engineering ( Hons ) Mechanical


Thermalfluids lab
MEC 554
ENCIK MOHD AZHARI B MOHD RODZI

Laboratory Report
Title

PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

No

Names

UiTM No.

1.

Usmar Aiman Bin Azhar

2013490144

2.

Ahmad Naquiyuddin Bin Rasid

2013802598

3.

Ahmad Almizan Bin Che Omar

2013254614

4.

Aimi bin Ezani

2013212512

5.

Ahmad Haniff ilmuddin Bin Mohd


Nawi

2013274648

Sessi Amali

Pengesahan Staf :
(Tarikh)

Penyerahan Laporan :

(T. Tangan)
Pengesahan Staf :

(Tarikh)

Signature

(T. Tangan)

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

Contents
Table of Figures...............................................................................................................................3
1.0 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................4
1.1 Pump......................................................................................................................................4
1.2 Centrifugal pump...................................................................................................................4
2.0 OBJECTIVE..............................................................................................................................5
3.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND...........................................................................................6
4.0 PROCEDURE............................................................................................................................7
4.1 APPARATUS.........................................................................................................................7
.........................................................................................................................................................8
.........................................................................................................................................................8
.........................................................................................................................................................8
4.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE........................................................................................8
4.2.1 Preliminaries...................................................................................................................9
4.2.2 Actual Experiment..........................................................................................................9
5.0 DATA ANALYSIS...................................................................................................................10
5.1 DATA TABULATION AND RESULT ANALYSIS............................................................10
5.1.1 TEST 1..........................................................................................................................10
5.1.2 TEST 2..........................................................................................................................11
5.1.3 TEST 3..........................................................................................................................12
5.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION.................................................................................................13
6.0 DISCUSSION..........................................................................................................................14
7.0 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................15
8.0 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................16

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

Table of Figures
Figure 1 : Basic element of centrifugal Pump.................................................................................4
Figure 2 : cross section of Centrifugal pump...................................................................................5
Figure 3 : Experimental arrangement for pump performance characteristic...................................6
Figure 4 : Water-flow bench and centrifugal pump.........................................................................7
Figure 5 : The instrumental panel....................................................................................................7
Figure 6 : V notch weir..............................................................................................................7
Figure 7 : Graph of Efficiency (%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW) vs Volume Flow
Rate(m3/s) for Test 1........................................................................................................................9
Figure 8 : Graph of Efficiency (%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW) vs Volume Flow
Rate(m3/s) for Test 2......................................................................................................................10
Figure 9 : Graph of Efficiency (%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW) vs Volume Flow
Rate(m3/s) for Test 3......................................................................................................................11

Table 1 : Data for test 1....................................................................................................................9


Table 2 : Data For test 2.................................................................................................................10
Table 3 : Data for test 3..................................................................................................................11

1.0 INTRODUCTION

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

1.1 Pump
A pump is a device used to move gases, liquids or slurries. A pump moves liquids or gases from lower
pressure to higher pressure, and overcomes this difference in pressure by adding energy to the system (such as a
water system). A gas pump is generally called a compressor, except in very low pressure-rise applications, such as
in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning, where the operative equipment consists of fans or blowers.

1.2 Centrifugal pump


A centrifugal pump is a rot dynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the
velocity of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through a piping
system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated
by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits
into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through
smaller heads.

Figure 1 : Basic element of centrifugal Pump

2.0 OBJECTIVE
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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

To obtain performance characteristics for a variable speed centrifugal pump operating at 3


different impeller speeds. Performance characteristics of pump:
-

Pressure (head) jump


Power requirement
Flow rate influence
Pump speed influence

3.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND


The centrifugal pump has two main components: an impeller attached to a
rotating shaft and a stationary casing or housing enclosing the impeller. The
basic elements of centrifugal pump are shown below.

Figure 2 : cross section of Centrifugal pump

Energy is added to the fluid by the rotating blades and both pressure
and absolute velocity are increased as the fluid flows from the eye to
periphery of into the blades. The kinetic energy is converted into further
increase in pressure as the fluid flows from the impeller into the casing
enclosing the impeller.
Due to the general complexity of flow through a centrifugal pump, the
actual performance of the pump cannot be predicted on a completely
theoretical basis. Actual pump performance is determined experimentally
through tests on the pump and the results are presented as pump
performances curves.
Consider the experimental arrangement for determining the head rise
gained by the fluid flowing through a pump, as shown in figure 3 below.
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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

Figure 3 : Experimental arrangement for pump performance characteristic.

The pump head rise can be calculated by using the energy equation
h2 = (p2 p1) / g + (z2 z1) + (V22 V12 ) / 2g
The differences in elevation and velocities (between inlet and outlet) are so
small so that
hp = (p2 p1) / g
The power, Pf gained by the fluid is given by the equation
Pf = gQhp
The pump overall efficiency, is the ratio of power actually gained by the
fluid to the shaft power supplied Wshaft as given by the equation
= Pf / Wshaft
Where the Wshaft is the shaft power, is the product of Torque applied to the
shaft and the angular velocity .
Wshaft = Tshaft
Where
=

2 N
60

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

4.0 PROCEDURE
4.1 APPARATUS

Figure 4 : Water-flow bench and centrifugal pump

Figure 5 : The instrumental panel

Figure 6 : V notch weir

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

4.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

4.2.1 Preliminaries
i
ii

Students had been adequately supervised.


The discharge and suction valves was turned to fully open and the motor speed

iii

control was set to zero.


The electrical supply and motor drive were switched on. The motor control knob
slowly adjusted to around half way position. The system was ensured free from
leaking. The motor speed was reduced back to zero.

4.2.2 Actual Experiment


i

The suction valve was opened and the discharge valve was closed. The maximum

ii

pump speed N1 by adjusting speed control to 100%.


Discharge valve was fully opened and the water was allowed to circulate. The volume

iii

of flow was indicated and the suitable increment in flow was decided.
The discharge valve was closed. The reading was taken when all measurements were

iv
v

steady.
The discharge valve was slightly opened, to give the first increment in volume flow.
Step iv) was repeated. The final measurements corresponding to the valve being fully

vi

opened.
The entire experiment at pump speed was repeated correspond to speed control
position of 75% and 50%.

5.0 DATA ANALYSIS


5.1 DATA TABULATION AND RESULT ANALYSIS
5.1.1 TEST 1

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

PUMP SPEED, N = 1439 rpm


= 150.69 rad/s
Table 1 : Data for test 1
INPUT

OUTPUT
Shaft Power

water
height,
mm

Torque, T
(Nm)
kW

0.6

50

61

1.1

65

1.2

69

1.3

73

1.4

75

1.4

77

1.4

0.0
9
0.1
5
0.1
7
0.1
8
0.2
0
0.2
1
0.2
1
0.2
1

Volume Flow
Rate

Hp
(100%
)

l/mi
n

0.12

0.20

50

0.22

80

0.24

90

0.26

105

0.28

125

0.28

130

0.28

140

m3/s
0.000
0
0.000
8
0.001
3
0.001
5
0.001
8
0.002
1
0.002
2
0.002
3

Efficiency

Discharge
Pressure,

Inlet Pressure,

p1

p2

water
head,h
(m)(100%)

output
power,
Watt

Mh2
o

N/m2

psi

N/m2

0.2

1961.33

8.
5

58605.46

5.77

0.00

0.00

0.1

980.67

55158.08

5.52

45.15

29.96

0.00

48263.32

4.92

64.35

38.82

-0.1

-980.67

41368.56

4.32

63.52

35.13

-0.2

-1961.33

34473.80

3.71

63.76

32.55

-0.4

-3922.66

27579.04

3.21

65.63

31.11

-0.5

-4903.33

20684.28

2.61

55.44

26.28

-0.7

-6864.66

13789.52

2.11

48.19

22.84

TEST 1
Efficiency
Efficiency(%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW)

Head pump
Brake Horsepower

volume flow rate,(m3/s)

Figure 7 : Graph of Efficiency (%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW) vs Volume Flow Rate(m 3/s) for Test 1

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

5.1.2 TEST 2
PUMP SPEED, N = 2178 rpm

= 228.08 rad/s

Table 2 : Data For test 2


INPUT
water
height,
mm

OUTPUT
Torque, T
(Nm)

Shaft Power

kW

Volume Flow
Rate

m3/s

Hp
(100%
)

l/mi
n

0.34

0.64

95

0.00
00
0.00
16

Efficienc
y
Inlet Pressure,

p1

Mh2
o

1.1

66

2.1

0.2
5
0.4
8

73

2.4

0.5
5

0.73

125

0.00
21

-0.2

78

2.6

0.5
9

0.80

145

0.00
24

-0.7

81

2.7

0.6
2

0.83

160

0.00
27

-1

84

2.8

0.6
4

0.86

175

0.00
29

-1.2

87

2.9

0.6
6

0.89

190

0.00
32

-1.4

89

0.6
8

0.92

200

0.00
33

-1.7

10

Discharge
Pressure,

p2

N/m2

0.1

980.67

0.00
1961.3
3
6864.6
6
9806.6
5
11767.
98
13729.
31
16671.
31

psi

water
head,h
(m)(100%)

output
power,
Watt

13.96
12.65

0.00
196.
50

41.03

N/m2

2
0
1
8

137895.
20
124105.
68

1
6

110316.
16

11.45

233.
91

42.73

1
4

96526.6
4

10.54

249.
86

42.13

1
2

82737.1
2

9.43

246.
78

40.07

1
0

68947.6
0

8.23

235.
42

36.86

55158.0
8

7.02

218.
14

32.98

41368.5
6

5.92

193.
47

28.27

0.00

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

TEST 2

efficiency
Head pump
Efficiency(%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW)
Brake Horsepower

Volume flow rate(m3/s)

Figure 8 : Graph of Efficiency (%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW) vs Volume Flow Rate(m 3/s) for Test 2

5.1.3 TEST 3
PUMP SPEED, N = 2945 rpm

= 308.4 rad/s

Table 3 : Data for test 3


INPUT
water
height,
mm

OUTPUT
Torque, T
(Nm)

Shaft Power

kW

Volume Flow
Rate

Hp
(100%
)

l/mi
n

m3/s

Efficienc
y
Inlet Pressure,

p1

Mh2
o

1.8

0.5
6

0.74

0.00
00

0.1

75

3.5

1.0
8

1.45

130

0.00
22

-0.3

83

3.9

1.2
0

1.61

170

0.00
28

-0.9

89

4.2

1.3
0

1.74

200

0.00
33

-1.3

11

Discharge
Pressure,

p2

N/m2

980.67
2942.0
0
8825.9
9
12748.
65

psi

water
head,h
(m)(100%)

output
power,
Watt

N/m2

3
6

248211.
36

25.20

0.00

0.00

3
3

227527.
08

23.49

499.
35

46.26

3
0

206842.
80

21.98

611.
06

50.81

2
7

186158.
52

20.28

663.
03

51.19

MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

92

4.4

1.3
6

94

4.5

1.3
9

1.86

235

0.00
39

-2

97

4.6

1.4
2

1.90

245

0.00
41

-2.5

99

4.8

1.4
8

1.99

260

0.00
43

-2.8

1.82

215

0.00
36

-1.8

17651.
97
19613.
30
24516.
63
27458.
62

2
4

165474.
24

18.67

656.
20

48.36

2
1

144789.
96

16.76

643.
91

46.40

1
8

124105.
68

15.15

606.
88

42.78

1
5

103421.
40

13.34

567.
15

38.31

TEST 3

efficiency
Head
pump
Efficiency(%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW
)
Brake Horsepower

Volume flow rate(m3/s)

Figure 9 : Graph of Efficiency (%) , Head pump(m), Brake Horsepower(kW) vs Volume Flow Rate(m 3/s) for Test 3

5.2 SAMPLE CALCULATION


Take the data no 2 of test 1 as an example, N = 1439 rpm
=

2 N
60
2 (1439)
60

= 150.69 rad/s

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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

W shaft =T
= 1 150.69
150. 69 rad/s

Taking water height = 50 mm

We got the value of volume flow rate, Q = 50 L/min from the 90 VEE NOTCH
CALIBRATION
CURVE
4 3

Q
=50 L/min = 8.33 10 m /s
Water head,
hp=

hp

p2 p1
g

(55158.056980.665)
(1000 9.81)

5.5227 m

Output power,

Pf

p
Pf =g Qh
( 1000 ) ( 9.81 ) ( 8.33 104 ) (5.5227)
45.13 Watt
Efficiency ,
=

pf
100
W shaft

(45.13)
100
150.69

29.9

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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

6.0
DISCUSSIO
N
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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

7.0 CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, we can say the result for Test 3: Pump Speed = 2945 rpm at 100% and Test 2:
Pump Speed = 2178 rpm at 75% are better than Test 1: Pump Speed = 1439 rpm at 50%. Its
mean that the best performance of the pumps is when it operates at speed between 1439 rpm
until 2178 rpm and the efficiency between 50% and 75%. From the experiment, we can conclude
that the best performance of this centrifugal pump to operate is at speed N1 = 2945 rpm and flow
rate, Q between the range of 0 to 3 (m/s) x 10-.
By doing this experiment also, all the characteristics of this pump which is efficiency,
break horsepower and the head can be defined by using a different speed of pump, and thus the
objective of this experiment is achieved already. Therefore it can be acceptable in order to define
any centrifugal pump characteristics.
It also can be said that the main objectives of this experiment have been achieved
successfully. We can also determine all the parameters required. However, it is to be noted that,
some of the value of readings obtained may be inaccurate due to certain errors that occurred
during the experiment such as parallax error and human error. Yet it still leads and produced the
expected results accordingly and as required.
As a conclusion, what I get here is that I know what a centrifugal pump is and how it
functions. I also get knowledge on the performance characteristics which are very useful for me
as a future mechanical engineer in order for me to select an appropriate pump for several
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MEC 554 THERMOFLUIDS LAB: PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

operations, which depends largely on the brake horsepower, the efficiency, and also the pump
head varies with the capacity or the flowrate. All these need to be considered in selecting an ideal
pump.

8.0 REFERENCES
1. Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York, USA, 2003.
2. Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi, Fundementals of Fluid
Mechanics, 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Asia,2006.
3. John F. Douglas, Janusz M. Gasiorek, John A. Swaffield, Fluid Mechanics, 4th Edition,
Pearson Prentice Hall, Scotland, 2001.

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