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Bearing Cage Materials

Under Guidance of
Mr. Manish Pandey & Mr. Manish Singh
Mechanical Maintenance (Rotary)

Presented by : Aditya Gupta


MT-Mechanical

Acknowledgment
I am thankful to Mr. Manish Pandey Sir for giving me an
opportunity to work on this topic while my stay at Rotary
Department.
I am also thankful to all the people of Rotary from Mr.
Manish Singh, Mr. Prabal Gupta, Mr. Ram, Mr. Manoj
Gupta, Mr. Subish, Mr. Jayant, Mr. Subish and Mr.
Shamroj Khan for giving me time out of their busy
schedule.

WHAT IS BEARING??
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative
motion and reduces friction between moving parts to only
the desired motion. The design of the bearing may, for
example, provide for free linear movement of the moving
part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may
prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal
forces that bear on the moving parts.
Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of
operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the
loads (forces) applied to the parts.

The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to


bear" a bearing being a machine element that
allows one part to bear (i.e., to support)
another. (1)
Bearing is a mechanical element that permits
relative motion between two parts, such as the
shaft and the housing with minimum friction. (2)

FUNCTIONS OF BEARING
The Bearing ensures free rotation of the shaft or the axle
with minimum friction.

The Bearing Supports the shaft or the axle and holds it


in correct position.
The Bearing takes up the forces that act on the shaft or
the axle and transmits them to frame or the foundation.

BEARING CAGE
In applications involving rolling element bearings,
proper attention to cage design and materials
selection is essential in order to ensure reliable, longterm bearing performance. 3
With the exception of full complement bearings, all
rolling bearings contain a cage. The number of cages
depends on the number of ball or roller sets within the
bearing and on the cage design.

The primary purposes of a cage are:


Keeping the rolling elements at a proper distance from each
other to reduce the frictional moment and frictional heat in the
bearing.
Keeping the rolling elements evenly spaced to optimize load
distribution and enable quiet and uniform operation.

Guiding the rolling elements in the unloaded zone, to improve


the rolling conditions and to prevent damaging sliding
movements.
In separable bearings, the cage is designed to retain the balls
in the outer ring so the rings can be handled separately. 4

FACTORS IN CAGE SELECTION


Cost will always be a factor but following are important from
Engineering Point of View

Low coefficient of friction with ball and race materials


Compatible expansion rate with ball/ring materials
Low tendency to gall or wear
The ability to absorb lubricant
Dimensional and thermal stability
Suitable density
Adequate tensile strength
Creep resistance
High temperature
Corrosive atmospheres

Classification of cages

Cages can be classified according to the


manufacturing process and material group into:
stamped metal cages
machined metal cages
polymer cages

Stamped metal cages

Stamped metal cages are generally made of sheet


steel and with some exceptions, of sheet brass.
Depending on the bearing type, the following stamped
metal cages are available:
(a)ribbon-type cage

(b)riveted cage
(c)snap-type cage
(d)window-type cage

Stamped metal cages are lightweight. They provide ample space inside the
bearing to maximize the effects of the lubricant.

a ribbon-type cage (a) a riveted cage (b) a snap-type cage (c)


a window-type cage (d)

Machined metal cages


Machined metal cages are made of brass, steel or light
alloy.
Depending on the bearing type, design and size, the
following machined metal cages are available:
(a)two-piece machined riveted metal cage
(b)two-piece machined metal cage with integral rivets
(c)one-piece machined window-type metal cage

(d)double prong-type machined metal cage

Machined metal cages generally permit higher


speeds, are typically used when forces, other
than pure rotational forces, are superimposed
on the cage.

a) two-piece machined riveted metal cage


b) two-piece machined metal cage with integral rivets

c) one-piece machined window-type metal cage


d) double prong-type machined metal cage

Polymer cages
Polymer cages are injection moulded. Fabric
reinforced phenolic resin cage are also there, but only
for super-precision bearings.
Depending on the bearing type, design and size, the
following polymer cages are available:
(a) polymer window-type cage
(b) polymer snap-type cage

Good Combination of strength and elasticity


Good sliding properties on lubricated steel surfaces
Smoothness with the rolling elements resulting in less
frictional heat and wear in the bearing are

minimized.
Low density means that the inertial forces generated
are minimum.
Excellent running properties under poor lubrication
conditions permit continued operation of the
bearing for some time without the risk of seizure and
secondary damage.

(a)polymer window-type cage


(b)polymer snap-type cage

Cage guidance
Stamped metal cages are typically guided by
the rolling elements.
Depending on the bearing type and design,
machined metal and polymer cages are
radially centred either on:
(a) rolling elements

(b) inner ring (shoulder(s))


(c) the outer ring (shoulder(s))

Cages guided by the rolling elements permit the


lubricant to enter the bearing easily.
Ring guided cages provide more precise guidance,
are typically used when bearing arrangements must
accommodate high speeds, frequent, rapid

accelerations or high vibration levels.

Cage materials
Stamped metal cages
Sheet steel cages
Stamped sheet steel cages : continuously hot-rolled low carbon
steel.
Properties : Lightweight cages, Relatively high strength. Surface
treated to further reduce friction and wear. Used in Stainless steel
bearings
Sheet brass cages
Brass, Some small and medium-size bearings.
Properties : In applications like refrigeration compressors that use
ammonia, season cracking in sheet brass might occur, therefore
machined brass or steel cages should be used instead.

Stamped metal cages

Type

Sheet Steel cages

Sheet Brass cages

Material

Hot Rolled Low


Carbon steel

Brass

Properties

uses

Light Weight
cage
High Strength

Stainless steel
bearings

Susceptible to
corrosion from
NH3 and Other
Lubricants

Small and
Medium Sized
bearings

Machined metal cages


Machined steel cages
Non-alloyed structural S355GT (St 52) steel
Properties : To improve sliding and wear-resistance properties,
some machined steel cages are surface treated. Not affected by
the mineral or synthetic oil based lubricants normally used for
rolling bearings, or by the organic solvents used to clean
bearings.
Used for large bearings or in applications where there is a danger
that season cracking, caused by a chemical reaction, may occur
if a brass cage is used.
Operating temperatures : <= 300 C (570 F).

Machined brass cages


CW612N cast or wrought brass
They are unaffected by most common bearing
lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases, and
can be cleaned using normal organic solvents.
Operating temperatures <= 250 C (480 F).

Machined metal cages

Type

Material

Properties

Machined
Steel cages

Non Alloyed
Structural
steel S355GT

Good wearing
and sliding
Properties
Not effected by
Lubricants

Machined
Brass
Cages

CW612N cast
or wrought
brass

Unaffected by
Lubricants

Max Temp.
3000 C

2500 C

Uses
Large
Bearings,
harsh
aggressive
Medium

Small and
Medium size
bearings

Polymer cages

Polyamide 66
Injection moulded polyamide 66 (PA66) with or without
glass fibres
Properties : Good combination of strength and
elasticity. Mechanical properties are temperature and
lubricant dependent.

The permissible operating temperature is defined as the temperature that provides a


cage ageing life of at least 10 000 operating hours.

Medias can be aggressive and mild. A typical example is


ammonia, used as a refrigerant in compressors. In those cases,
cages made of glass fibre reinforced PA66 should not be used at
operating temperatures above 70 C (160 F).
Low temperature limit
Polyamide loses its elasticity, which can result in cage failures
under extremely cold conditions. As a result, cages made of glass
fibre reinforced
Operating Temperature >= 40 C (40 F).
In applications where a high degree of toughness is a critical
operational parameter, such as in railway axle boxes, a supertough modified PA66 can be used.

Polyamide 46
Glass fibre reinforced polyamide 46 (PA46) is the standard cage material
for some small and medium-size CARB toroidal roller bearings.
Permissible operating temperature is 15 C (25 F) higher than for glass
fibre reinforced PA66.

Polyetheretherketone
Glass fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
High speeds, chemical resistance or high temperatures.
Properties : Superior combination of strength and flexibility, high
operating temperature range, high chemical and wear-resistance
Temperature <= 200 C (390 F).
Maximum temperature for high-speed use <= 150 C (300 F)
{ this is the softening temperature of the polymer. }

Phenolic resin
Lightweight, fabric reinforced phenolic resin cages Withstand
heavy inertial forces, but are not able to accommodate high
operating temperatures.
Used as standard in super-precision angular contact ball
bearings.

Polymer cages

Type

Material

Properties

Polyamide
66

Injection
moulded
PA66 w or
w/o Glass
fibres

Good
Combination of
strength and
elasticity
Temp &
Lubricant
Dependent

Polyamide
46

PA46

Greater Temp
Resistant

Max Temp.

Uses

200oC
150oC (High
Speed use)

High speeds,
chemical
resistance or
high
temperatures.

15oC (+PA66
Temp)

Small and
Medium size
bearings

Type

Polyetheret
herketone

Phenolic
resin

Material

Glass fibre
reinforced
PEEK

Properties
Superior
Combination of
strength and
elasticity
High Temp,
chemical and
wear resistance

Withstand High
Inertail forces
but not High
Temp.

Max Temp.

Upper : 70oC
(for
aggressive
media)
Lowe : -40oC

Uses
Applications
of High degree
of toughness
as in railway
axle boxes

superprecision
angular
contact ball
bearings.

Selection of bearing type


Bearing

Load

Ball Bearings

Low and Medium

Roller Bearings

Heavy

Bearing

Shaft Diameter

Ball Bearings

Low and Medium

Roller Bearings

Large

Bearing

Alignment

Self Aligning Ball & Roller

Chances of Misalignment

Normal

No

Bearing
Deep Groove ball
Bearings
Angular Contact
Bearings
Spherical Roller
Bearings

Load Direction

Radial
Combined
Radial and
Axial

Thrust Ball Bearings

Medium Axial

Cylindrical Roller
Bearings

Heavy Thrust

Visual

Bearing

deep groove ball bearings


angular contact bearings
cylindrical roller bearings

Speed and Temperature

High

Brass Bearings

Low and Medium

Bearing

Rigidity Control

Double Row Cylindrical Roller


Taper Roller Bearings
Single Row bearings

High

Normal

Bearing

Noise

Deep Groove Ball Bearings

Low (Household)

Ball Bearings

Medium

Cylindrical roller Bearings

High

References
Thanking them in anticipation

1- Wikipedia
2- Gary Hughes, Product Engineering Manager at The Barden Corporation
3- SKF Rolling bearing Manual
Mechanical Engineering Design 7th Ed. Shigley
Design of Machine Elements by Bhandari
SCHAEFFLER Website

Thank you