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Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of
Degree of Bachelor of Technology
Electronics & Communication Engineering


Submitted to:
Ms. Monika Katta
Ms. Monika Surana
Project Coordinators

Submitted by:

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering





INTRODUCTIONNEED- Recently face recognition is attracting much attention in the society of

network multimedia information access. Areas such as network security, content
indexing and retrieval, and video compression benefits from face recognition
technology because "people" are the center of attention in a lot of video. Network
access control via face recognition not only makes hackers virtually impossible to
steal one's "password", but also increases the user-friendliness in human-computer
Face recognition is an emerging field of research with many challenges such as large
dimensions of images, large set of images, improper illuminating conditions
and many more. Eigenface approach is a Principal Component Analysis technique
which is one of the simplest and most efficient methods to overcome some of these
obstacles in developing a system for Face Recognition which reduces the
dimensions of image set and overcome the effects of improper illumination
conditions. Various techniques are used for preprocessing the image in order to
handle bad illumination and face alignment problem. Then, Eigenface approach can
be used for Face Recognition. Eigenfaces are eigenvectors of covariance matrix,
representing given image space. Any new face image can be then represented as a
linear combination of these Eigenfaces. This makes it easier to match any two given
images and thus Face Recognition process.
Face recognition has an important advantage over other biometric technologies - it is
a nonintrusive and easy to use method.

ABOUT PROJECTFace recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the
beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue; mainly due to its important
real-world applications in areas like video surveillance, smart cards, database
security, internet and intranet access.

The face plays a major role in our social intercourse in conveying identity and
emotion. The human ability to recognize faces is remarkable. We can recognize
thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and identify familiar faces at a
glance even after years of separation. The skill is quite robust, despite large changes
in the visual stimulus due to viewing conditions, expression, aging, and distractions
such as glasses or changes in hairstyle.
Computational models of faces have been an active area of research since late 1980s,
for they can contribute not only to theoretical insights but also to practical
applications, such as criminal identification, security systems, image and film
processing, and human-computer interaction, etc. However, developing a
computational model of face recognition is quite difficult, because faces are
complex, multidimensional, and subject to change over time. The basic task, given
as input the visual image of a face, is to compare the input face against models of
faces stored in a library and report a match if one is found. The problem of locating
the face- distinguishing it from cluttered background is usually avoided by imaging
face against a uniform background.
Face recognition is difficult for two major reasons. First, face form a class of similar
objects; all faces consist of the same facial features in roughly the same geometrical
configuration, which makes the recognition problem a fine discrimination task. The
Second source of diffcuility lies in the wide variation in the appearance of a
particular face due to changes in pose, lighting, and facial expression.
The face representation was performed by using two categories. The First category is
global approach or appearance-based, which uses holistic texture features and is
applied to the face or specific region of it. The second category is feature-based or
component-based, which uses the geometric relationship among the facial features
like mouth, nose, and eyes. (Wiskott et al.,1997) implemented feature-based
approach by a geometrical model of a face by 2-D elastic graph.
Principal components analysis (PCA) method (Sirovich & Kirby, 1987; Kirby &
Sirovich,1990) which is also called eigenfaces (Turk & Pentland, 1991; Pentland &
Moghaddam, 1994) is appearance-based technique used widely for the
dimensionality reduction and recorded a great performance in face recognition.
PCA is known as Eigenspace Projection which is based on linearly Projection the
image space to a low dimension feature space that is known as Eigenspace. It tries to
find Eigen vectors of Covariance matrix that corresponds to the direction of
Principal Components of original data.
PCA based approaches typically include two phases

1) Training
2) Classification
In the training phase, an eigenspace is established from the training samples using
PCA and the training face images are mapped to the eigenspace for classification.
In the classification phase, an input face is projected to the same eigenspace and
classified by an appropriate classifier.

ABOUT PCA- The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the most
successful techniques that have been used in image recognition and compression. It
is a way of identifying patterns in data, and expressing the data in such a way as to
highlight their similarities and differences. PCA is a statistical method under the
broad title of factor analysis. The purpose of PCA is to reduce the large
dimensionality of the data space (observed variables) to the smaller intrinsic
dimensionality of feature space (independent variables), which are needed to
describe the data economically. This is the case when there is a strong correlation
between observed variables.
The jobs which PCA can do are prediction, redundancy removal, feature extraction,
data compression, etc. Because PCA is a classical technique which can do something
in the linear domain, applications having linear models are suitable, such as signal
processing, image processing, system and control theory, communications, etc.

Some mathematical function for process of PCA

1) Mean:If we denote a set of data by X = (x1, x2, ..., xn). Then the mean

n= no.of data

2) Standard Deviation:If the random variable X takes on N values

(which are real
numbers) with equal probability, then its standard deviation can be
calculated as follows:

Find the mean, , of the values.

For each value xi calculate its deviation (
Calculate the squares of these deviations.
Find the mean of the squared deviations.
Take the square root of the variance.

) from the mean.

3) Variance:It is almost identical to the standard deviation. The formula is this:

4) Covariance:The covariance between two real-valued random variables X and Y, with

5) Covariance Matrix:-

The covariancematrix is a matrix of covariances between elements of

a random vector. It is the natural generalization to higher dimensions of the
concept of the variance of a scalar-valued random variable.

The covariance matrix is often denoted .

ij is the covariance of Xi and Xj .
ii is the covariance of Xi with itself, that is its variance i. So the diagonal
elements of the covariance matrix are the variances of the Xis.

6) Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues:Let A be an n n matrix. The real number is called an eigenvalue of A if

there exists a nonzero vector x in R n such that
Ax x .

The nonzero vector x is called an eigenvector of A associated with the
eigenvalue .



EQUIPMENT REQUIRED MATLAB 7.2 software, Images for database
, computer with windows os.

APPLICATION-Network security
-password security
-bank security
-authenticaion security
- content indexing and retrieval
-video compression
2. Eigenfaces for recognition, M. Turk and A. Pentland, Journal of Cognitive
Neuroscience, vol.3, No.1, 1991
3. Face recognition using eigenfaces, M. Turk and A. Pentland, Proc. IEEE
Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 586-591, 1991
4. Face recognition, Kresimir Delac and Mislav Grgic
5. A tutorial on Principal Components Analysis, Lindsay I Smith February 26,
6. Face Recognition using Principle Component Analysis Kyungnam Kim
Department of Computer Science University of Maryland, College Park
MD 20742, USA

MEMBERSNITIN GOYAL ( EC/07/20) Roll no.-6 Batch-B-1

Email id
Phone no.-09887587493
2.RISHIRAJ SRIVASTAVA (EC/07/95) Roll no.-29
Batch B-2


Email id-

Phone no.-09785146642

PREFERED GUIDE1.Miss Neetu sharma

2.Mr. Amit sharma