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MATA KULIAH

EKONOMI
SUMBERDAYA
LINGKUNGAN

LAHAN

DAN

POKOK BAHASAN:
EKONOMI LAHAN

KOLEKTOR:
SOEMARNO, MEI 2004
1.
Title :Measuring the production efficiency of alternative land tenure contracts in
a mixed crop-livestock system in Ethiopia
View Article : Agricultural Economics. 1999. 20 (1). 37-49
CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Gavian S Ehui S
Author Affiliation:Livestock Policy Analysis Programme, International Livestock
Research Institute, P.O. Box 568, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abstract
:The hypothesis that land held under varying configurations of property
rights will be farmed at different levels of production efficiency is tested. Production data
were collected from 477 plots in a fairly productive, mixed farming system in the
Ethiopian highlands in 1994. Interspatial measures of total factor productivity, based on
the Divisia index, were used to measure the relative production efficiency of three
informal and less secure land contracts (rented, share-cropped and borrowed) relative to
lands held under formal contract with the Ethiopian government. Although the
informally-contracted lands are farmed 10-16% less efficiently, the analysis indicates that
farmers of such lands actually apply inputs more, rather than less, intensively (i.e., more
inputs per unit of land). The gap in total factor productivity thus results from the inferior
quality of inputs (or lack of skills in applying them) rather than a lack of incentive to
allocate inputs to mixed crop-livestock farming. For this reason, no empirical basis to
support the hypothesis that land tenure is a constraint to agricultural productivity is found
Descriptors :tenure-systems. efficiency. production. mixed-farming.
productivity.
farm-inputs. resource-allocation.
Geographic Locator:Ethiopia
Supplemental Descriptors:East-Africa. Africa-South-of-Sahara. Africa. Least-DevelopedCountries. Developing-Countries. ACP-Countries Subject Codes:EE165. EE200
2.
Title :A method of land evaluation including year to year weather variability
View Article : Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2000. 101 (2/3). 203-216
CD Volume : 325
Author(s)
:Hudson G Birnie R V

Author Affiliation:Land Use Science Group, Macaulay Land Use Research Institute,
Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8HQ, Scotland, UK
Abstract
:Land evaluation is sensitive to the effects of annual variability in weather.
A method to incorporate this variability into land evaluation systems is proposed, using the
land capability system for Scotland as a case study. Land capability classes were found to
be sensitive to the climate reference period from which data are taken. Individual stations
rarely occupy their long-term land capability class. In addition, the relative position of
stations in the land classification alters from year to year, indicating variations with time in
spatial correlation structures. Markov chain analysis was used in a risk assessment
approach to estimate the mean return time to a land capability category for individual
stations and for areas of land. The main conclusions were: that land evaluation systems
should not be applied using data from a different period to the baseline weather period
used to establish the classification; there is a need to establish whether groups of stations
tend to behave in similar ways over space and through time; mapping zones of risk could
provide a means of formally incorporating weather variability into land evaluation
Descriptors :land-evaluation. assessment. case-studies. classification. climate. landclassification. mapping. risk-assessment.
Geographic Locator:UK. Scotland
Subject Codes:PP300. JJ500. PP500

3.
Title :Improvements to models and methods for evaluating the land-surface
energy balance and 'effective' roughness using radiosonde reports and satellite-measured
'skin' temperature data
View Article : Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 1993. 63 (3-4). 189-218
CD
Volume
:15
Author(s)
:Diak G R Whipple M S
Author Affiliation:Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, 1225 West
Dayton Street, Madison WI 53706, USA
Abstract
:A technique developed previously which uses radiosonde measurements of
the daytime change of the height of the planetary boundary layer in combination with
geostationary satellite measurements of surface skin temperature to evaluate the energy
balance and an 'effective' roughness of the land surface was expanded further. The
improvements were designed to increase the amount of usable data produced by the
system by expanding the circumstances under which measurements can be taken. Several
techniques were tested to compensate for the effects of horizontal and vertical temperature
advection and vertical motions above the planetary boundary layer. The improved
techniques and the sensitivities of the determination of the surface energy balance and
effective roughness to advection and vertical motions were investigated in a case study
which included three days of data in the Midwest and Great Plains areas of continental
USA in the summers of 1987 and 1988
Descriptors :climate. energy-balance. Models
Geographic Locator:USA
Subject Codes:PP500. ZZ100

4.
Title :Policy instruments for sustainable land management: the case of highland
smallholders in Ethiopia
View Article : Agricultural Economics. 2000. 22 (3). 217-232
CD Volume :332 Print Article: Pages: 217-232

Author(s)
:Shiferaw B Holden S T
Author Affiliation:Agricultural University of Norway, Department of Economics and
Social Sciences, P.O. Box 5033, 1432 As, Norway
Abstract
:Degradation of land continues to pose a threat to future food production
potential in many developing economies. Various approaches, mainly based on commandand-control policies, have been tried (with limited success) in the past to encourage
adoption of erosion-control practices by farm households. High transactions costs and
negative distributional impacts on the welfare of the poor limit the usefulness of standards
and taxes for soil and water conservation. One innovative approach is the use of
interlinked contracts which create positive incentives for land conservation. This study
analyses the social efficiency of such policies for erosion-control in the Ethiopian
highlands using a non-separable farm household model. Incentive contracts linked with
conservation seem to be promising approaches for sustainable resource use in poor rural
economies. This may suggest that conservation programmes should give greater
consideration to better fine-tuning and mix of policies that help achieve both economic
and environmental objectives
Descriptors :land-management. conservation. contracts. costs. efficiency. environment.
food-production. households. incentives. models. land-policy. production-possibilities.
standards. taxes. water-conservation. peasantry. peasant-farming. environmentaldegradation. sustainability
Subject Codes:EE115. PP300
5.
Title :Factors influencing adoption of land-enhancing technology in the Sahel:
lessons from a case study in Niger
View Article : Agricultural Economics. 9. 20 (3). 231-239
CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Baidu Forson J
Author Affiliation:Senior Research Fellow, United Nations University, Institute for
Natural Resources in Africa, Private Mail Bag, Kotoka International Airport, Accra, Ghana
Abstract
:Technical change, through the introduction of land-enhancing conservation
technologies, is essential to economic growth in the Sahel. Tobit analysis was used to
identify factors that motivate level and intensity of adoption of specific soil and water
management technologies. The results show that higher percentage of degraded farmland,
extension education, lower risk aversion, and the availability of short-term profits are
important for increasing the adoption and intensity of use of improved 'tassa' and halfcrescent shaped earthen mounds. Age and attitudes to differential gains between farm and
non-farm income showed no influence on adoption. Three main policy implications
emerge from these findings. First, technologies should be targeted to locations that have
large percentages of degraded farmlands. The probability of adoption and intensity of use
are likely to be high at such locations. Second, there is a need to provide extension
education that demonstrates risk reduction capacities of conservation techniques. This will
make available information capable of stimulating adoption of land-enhancing
technologies. Finally, policy-makers should not seek to target innovations to younger
farmers because age has no relationship to adoption of the improved 'tassa' and halfcrescent shaped earthen mounds. Lessons from the case study have broad relevance to
cropped areas in the Sahel
Descriptors :farm-management. land-use. innovation-adoption. land-management.
erosion. soil-management. water-management. conservation. sustainability. economicanalysis. case-studies. technical-progress. decision-making. rural-development
Subject Codes:EE200. EE160

6.
Title :The effects of land sales restrictions: evidence from south India
View Article : Agricultural Economics. 9. 21 (3). 279-294
CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Pender J L Kerr J M
Author Affiliation:International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St., N.W.
Washington, DC 20006, USA
Abstract
:The effects of land sales restrictions on credit use, land investment and
cultivation decisions are investigated using 1993 data from two villages in south India
(n=291 households). Sales restrictions are found to have little effect on credit supply and
demand or demand for land improvements. Some household characteristics are found to
affect investment demand on plots subject to sales restrictions in one village, suggesting
that the 'transactions effect' of such restrictions may be inhibiting allocative efficiency.
However, it is also found that household characteristics influence investment on titled
plots, and that the magnitude of impact of such characteristics is greater on titled plots.
These results imply that sales restrictions are not a major source of inefficiency in the
villages studied, and suggest that the nature of village credit and land markets and
enforcement of sales restrictions are critical determinants of the impacts of such
restrictions
Descriptors :land-markets. constraints. economic-impact. credit. investment.
production-structure. land-improvement. efficiency. households. attitudes. Villages
Geographic Locator:India
Supplemental Descriptors:South-Asia. Asia. Developing-Countries. Commonwealth-ofNations
Subject Codes:EE800. EE115. PP300. UU485

7.
Title :Resource degradation and adoption of land conservation technologies in
the Ethiopian highlands: a case study in Andit Tid, North Shewa
View Article : Agricultural Economics. 1998. 18 (3). 233-247
CD Volume:229
Author(s)
:Shiferaw B Holden S T
Author Affiliation:Agricultural University of Norway, Department of Economics and
Social Sciences, P. O. Box 5033, 1432 Aas, Norway
Abstract
:Results from a study of resource degradation and conservation behavior of
peasant households in a degraded part of the Ethiopian highlands are reported. Peasant
households' choice of conservation technologies is modelled as a two-stage process:
recognition of the erosion problem, and adoption and level of use of control practices. An
ordinal logit model is used to explain parcel-level perception of the threat of the erosion
problem and the extent of use of conservation practices. Results show the importance of
perception of the threat of soil erosion, household, land and farm characteristics;
perception of technology-specific attributes, and land quality differentials in shaping
conservation decisions of peasants. Furthermore, where poverty is widespread and
appropriate support policies are lacking, results indicate that population pressure per se is
unable to encourage sustainable land use. The challenge of breaking the povertyenvironment trap and initiating sustainable intensification thus requires policy incentives

and technologies that confer short-term benefits to the poor while conserving the resource
base
Descriptors :peasantry. environmental-degradation. innovation-adoption.
landmanagement. conservation. highlands. case-studies. models. resource-management.
environmental-management
Geographic Locator:Ethiopia
Supplemental Descriptors:East-Africa. Africa-South-of-Sahara. Africa. Least-DevelopedCountries. Developing-Countries. ACP-Countries
Subject Codes:EE150. EE160. PP300. PP000
8.
Title :CAP reform: modelling supply response subject to the land set-aside
View Article : Agricultural Economics. 1997. 17 (2/3). 277-288 CD Volume:179
Author(s)
:Ball V E Bureau J C Eakin K Somwaru A
Author Affiliation:Natural Resources and Environment Division, Economic Research
Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA
Abstract
:This paper uses duality theory to develop a model of European Union
agriculture. The model is used to investigate the impact of the land set-aside provision of
the recent package of reforms of the CAP. It is assumed that producers chose output and
variable input levels that maximize difference between revenue and variable cost. By
including first-order conditions for the allocation of land across its uses, the observed
allocations are imposed as profit-maximizing allocations. To overcome the problem of
incorporating many outputs into an estimable production structure, the restriction that the
technology was weakly separable in major categories of outputs was imposed a priori.
With this restriction, it was possible to model production decisions in stages using
consistent aggregates in the latter stages
Descriptors :CAP. land-diversion. change. supply-response. models. European-Union.
land-management. decision-making Geographic Locator:European-Union-Countries
Subject Codes:EE120. EE160

9.
Title :GIS-based fuzzy membership model for crop-land suitability analysis
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 2000. 63 (2). 75-95.
CD Volume:325
Author(s)
:Ahamed T R N Rao K G Murthy J S R
Author Affiliation:Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,
Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India
Abstract
:Crop-land suitability analysis is a prerequisite to achieve optimum
utilization of the available land resources for sustainable agricultural production. The FAO
recommended an approach for land suitability evaluation for crops in terms of suitability
ratings from highly suitable to not suitable based on climatic and terrain data and soil
properties crop-wise. The assignment of a given area element (pixel) to any one suitability
class is encountered with problems due to the variation of soil properties within the area as
well as matching of the soil properties with more than one suitability class to different
extents. The Boolean methods are designed to assign a pixel to a single class and no
provision exists for assigning partial suitability to each of the appropriate suitability
classes. In the present study the use of fuzzy (partial) membership classification is used to
accommodate the above uncertainty in assigning the suitability classes to the pixel. The
evaluation of the spatial variability of relevant terrain parameters is carried out in a
geographic information system environment while assigning the land suitability for crops
in the study area of Kalyanakere sub-watershed in Karnataka, India. Nine parameters

(eight of soil and one of topography) are considered and suitability analysis is carried out
by fuzzy membership classification with factors included to accommodate the relative
importance of the soil parameters governing the crop productivity. According to the field
information, the crop being grown in the maximum area is finger millet. However, the
crop-land evaluation indicated that the maximum area is potentially suitable for growing
groundnut
Descriptors :models. agricultural-production. finger-millet. land-evaluation. landresources. crop-production. groundnuts. grain-legumes. soil-fertility. topography. soilchemistry. soil-physical-properties. resource-management. analytical-methods. soilsuitability. soil-properties
Geographic Locator:India
Organism Descriptors:Eleusine-coracana. Arachis-hypogaea
Subject Codes:JJ200. JJ600. FF100. ZZ100. PP300

10.
Title :Modelling multiple objectives of land use for sustainable development
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 9. 59 (3). 311-325. CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Zander P Kachele H
Author Affiliation:Department of Land Use Systems and Landscape Ecology, Centre for
Agricultural Landscape and Land Use Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374
Muncheberg, Germany
Abstract
:This paper presents a modelling system designed to analyse agricultural
sustainability as a combination of economic and ecological objectives. The kind of
information the model can generate and the circumstances of usage are shown. The heart
of the modelling system is a multiple goal linear programming model, which is generated
by data base modules. Simulation of single farm models as well as regional models based
on simultaneously optimised farm types is possible. The modelling system appears to be a
highly flexible tool with respect to the number and type of farms, sites and production
techniques. Environmental objectives can easily be included and different levels of goal
achievement can be simulated. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as the
strategic planning of individual farmers. Currently, the model system is developed in the
context of three research projects at the Centre for Agricultural Landscape and Land Use
Research in Germany: (1) in the biosphere reserve 'Schorfheide-Chorin' for the design of
land use systems integrating agricultural and nature protection objectives; (2) in the
Unteres Odertal National Park for the analysis of the economic effects of the return of
agricultural land to reserve area; and (3) in the Bundesland Brandenburg to investigate
some ecological and economic impacts of large scale transformation from conventional to
organic farming
Descriptors :agricultural-production. sustainability. models.
multiple-objectivefunctions. land-use. economic-impact. environmental-impact. land-use-planning. natureconservation. organic-farming. national-parks. reserved-areas
Geographic
Locator:Germany
Supplemental Descriptors:Western-Europe. Europe. Developed-Countries. EuropeanUnion-Countries. OECD-Countries
Subject Codes:EE150. PP300. EE160. EE200. PP700
11.
Title :Impact of policy interventions on land management in Honduras: results of
a bioeconomic model
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 9. 60 (1). 1-16
CD Volume:257

Author(s)
:Barbier B Bergeron G
Author Affiliation:International Food Policy Research Institute, 1200 17th Street,
Washington, DC 20036-3006, USA
Abstract
:This study examines the effects of various State policy scenarios (such as
market liberalization, road construction, and land redistribution) on farmers' incomes and
natural resource conditions in central Honduras. Dynamic linear programming is
combined with a biophysical model and applied to the microwatershed of La Lima, where,
in recent years, farmers have turned to intensive production of vegetables. Outputs of
different model scenarios are compared with historical data over the last 20 years (197595). The main results of the simulations are: (1) the 1990 liberalization has had a
beneficial impact on the incomes of small farmers who adopted a 'vegetable pathway'; (2)
the shift from extensive production to intensive vegetable production does not reduce
erosion, as the greater opportunity cost of labour increased the cost of investing in land
conservation; and (3) small farmers are more likely than ranchers to erode soils, because
they are more likely to produce vegetables during the rainy season and usually cultivate
steeper slopes. However, small farmers are more likely to invest in land conservation
because soil depth becomes a limiting factor for production
Descriptors :watersheds. land-use. vegetable-growing. erosion. farm-income.
economic-impact. small-farms. environmental-impact.
soil-conservation.
landmanagement. ranching. agricultural-development. intensification. economic-policy.
rural-development
Supplemental Descriptors:Central-America. America. Developing-Countries. CACM.
Latin-America
Subject Codes:EE200. EE120. PP400. EE160

12.
Title : Land allocation conditioned on El Nino-Southern Oscillation phases in the
Pampas of Argentina
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1999. 60 (3). 197-212
CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Messina C D Hansen J W Hall A J
Author Affiliation:IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 4453
Avda, San Martin, Buenos Aires 1417, Argentina
Abstract
:The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to the vulnerability
of crop production to climate variability in the Pampas region of Argentina. Predictability
of regional climate anomalies associated with ENSO may provide opportunities to tailor
decisions to expected climate, either to mitigate expected adverse conditions or to take
advantage of favourable conditions. Model analysis was used to explore the potential for
tailoring land allocation among crops to ENSO phases at the farm scale in two sub-regions
of the Pampas. The model identifies as a function of risk preferences and initial wealth the
crop mix that maximizes expected utility of wealth at the end of a 1-year decision period
based on current costs and prices, and crop yields simulated for each year of historical
weather. The model reproduced recent land allocation patterns at the district scale under
moderate risk aversion, and predicted increasing diversification with increasing risk
aversion. Differences in land allocation among ENSO phases were consistent with known
climate response to ENSO, and crop response to water availability. Tailoring land
allocation to ENSO phase increased mean net farm income between US$5 and $15 ha-1
year-1 relative to optimizing the crop mixture for all years, depending on location, risk
aversion and initial wealth. The relationship between potential value of ENSO information
and risk aversion was not monotonic, and differed between locations. Crop mix and

information value also varied with crop prices and initial soil moisture. There are potential
financial benefits of applying this approach to tailoring decisions to ENSO phases
Descriptors :crops. production. climate. production-structure. land-use. optimization.
risk. diversification. decision-making. farm-income. economic-impact. cropping-systems.
prediction
Geographic Locator:Argentina
Subject Codes:PP500. EE130

13.

Title :Multi-scale modelling of land use change dynamics in Ecuador

View Article : Agricultural Systems. 9. 61 (2). 77-93


CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Koning G H J de Verburg P H Veldkamp A Fresco L O
Author Variant:de-Koning-G-H-J
Author Affiliation:Laboratory of Soil Science and Geology, PO Box 37, 6700 AH
Wageningen, Netherlands
Abstract
:A spatially explicit multi-scale approach to land use change modelling is
explained and demonstrated. It is based on the empirical description of the biogeophysical
and socioeconomic drivers of land use at different aggregation levels, using a system
analytical approach for the characterization of agro-ecosystems. Sub-national changes in
land use following changes in the national demand for agricultural commodities are
modelled on the basis of complex interactions in time and space and the competition
between alternative land uses. In a multi-scale allocation procedure, land use changes are
calculated for cells of a geographical grid with a maximum resolution of 5x5 min. The
model was applied to Ecuador. Land use change allocation in the model was validated
with historical data. A hypothetical future base-line scenario of increasing demands for
agricultural commodities was used to demonstrate how dynamics of land use are
modelled. The results may be used to detect so-called 'hot-spots'. These are dynamic areas
where impacts of land use change on the natural resource base can be expected. The model
offers scope for comparison of different scenarios in which alternative development paths
can be defined, for example, with respect to changes in food demands, technology levels,
infra-structure, soil suitability or the protection of natural areas
Descriptors :land-use. models. change. ecosystems. demand. food-production. trends.
forecasts
Geographic Locator:Ecuador
Subject Codes:EE160. PP300. EE165. EE150

14. Title :Quantification of land use systems using technical coefficient


generators: a case study for the Northern Atlantic zone of Costa Rica
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1999. 61 (2). 109-121
CD Volume:257
Author(s)
:Hengsdijk H Bouman B A M Nieuwenhuyse A Jansen H G P
Author Affiliation:REPOSA, Wageningen Agricultural University, Apartado 224, 7210
Guapiles, Costa Rica
Abstract
:This paper describes two generic technical coefficient generators,
PASTOR (Pasture and Animal System Technical coefficient generator) and LUCTOR
(Land Use Crop Technical coefficient generator), that quantify land use systems in terms
of inputs and outputs based on the integration of systems-analytical knowledge, standard
agronomic and animal husbandry data and expert knowledge. PASTOR quantifies
livestock systems while LUCTOR is geared towards cropping systems. Main inputs
quantified include costs, labour requirements, fertilizer use and application of crop

protection agents. Outputs are production and a number of associated environmental


indicators. Although both PASTOR and LUCTOR were developed to generate input data
for land use models, they are also useful as stand-alone tools to explore the technical
efficiency of land use systems, to perform cost-benefit analyses and to quantify the tradeoff among socioeconomic, agronomic and environmental indicators at the field level.
PASTOR and LUCTOR are illustrated with data from the Northern Atlantic zone in Costa
Rica. Tools such as PASTOR and LUCTOR integrate different types of knowledge,
including non-documented knowledge from field experts, and make that knowledge
transparent and open to critical review and discussion by others
Descriptors :case-studies. land-use. animal-husbandry. costs. plant-protection.
cropping-systems. efficiency. environmental-management. fertilizers. indicators. labourrequirements. livestock. models.
pastures.
livestock-farming. arable-farming
Geographic Locator:Costa-Rica
Subject Codes:EE200. EE150. EE160. PP300

15. Title :Special issue: Policy analysis for sustainable land use and food
security
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1998. 58 (3). 281-481
CD Volume:219
Author Affiliation:Department of Economics and Management, Wageningen Agricultural
University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Document Editor: Kuyvenhoven-A. Bouma-J. Keulen-H-van
Editor
Variants:vanKeulen-H
Abstract
:This Special Issue contains a selection of ten edited papers presented at a
symposium on policy modelling and analysis for sustainable land use and food security
which was held on 28-29 November 1996 in The Hague, Netherlands. The purpose of the
seminar was to review the currently available modelling approaches, demonstrate
applications and operational methods and verify the relevance to policy makers of the
outcome of these research efforts. The ten papers deal with approaches for policy analysis,
including the role of integrated bio-economic modelling and explorative land use studies
in the policy making process; integration of biophysical and socioeconomic analysis; and
the effectiveness of policy interventions and determinants of adoption
Descriptors :land-use. sustainability. food-security. agricultural-policy. economicimpact. environmental-impact. models. methodology
Subject Codes:EE160. EE120. EE150. EE110. EE200

16. Title :Sustainable land use and food security in developing countries:
DLV's approach to policy support
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1998. 58 (3). 285-307
CD Volume:219
Author(s)
:Keulen H van Kuyvenhoven A Ruben R
Additional Authors:Kuyvenhoven-A Author Variant: van-Keulen-H
Author Affiliation:Institute for Agrobiological and Soil Fertility Research, Agricultural
Research Department (AB-DLO), P.O.Box 14 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands
Document Editor:Kuyvenhoven-A. Bouma-J. Van-Keulen-H
Abstract
:During the past decades, major changes have taken place with regard to the
available policy instruments for food security and rural development. These changes are

reviewed against the background of the structural adjustment programmes carried out in
the agricultural sector. The linkages between agricultural policy and farmers' supply
response are discussed, emphasizing the influence of macro-policy for decision-making at
the micro-level of a farm household. The integrated bio-economic modelling framework
developed by the Wageningen research programme 'Sustainable Land Use and Food
Security in the Tropics' (DLV) is presented. The DLV approach allows a better
understanding of the effects of macro and sectoral policy interventions for food security
and sustainable land use at the farm and (sub) regional level. Critical areas where the
understanding of macro-micro linkages is still weak are identified. Major conclusions
regarding a suitable analytical framework for policy analysis and support are presented
Descriptors :land-use. sustainability. food-security. structural-adjustment. agriculturalpolicy. assessment. models. methodology. macroeconomics. agricultural-households
Subject Codes:EE120. EE200. EE110

17. Title :Exploratory land use studies and their role in strategic policy
making
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1998. 58 (3). 309-330
CD Volume: 219
Author(s)
:Ittersum M K van Rabbinge R Latesteijn H C van Additional
Authors:Kuyvenhoven-A
Author Variant:van-Ittersum-M-K. van-Latesteijn-H-C
Author Affiliation:Department of Theoretical Production Ecology, Wageningen
Agricultural University, PO Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands
Document Editor:Kuyvenhoven-A. Bouma-J. Van-Keulen-H
Abstract
:To support the different phases of a policy making process aimed at
changing land use, distinct types of land use studies are required. This paper focuses on
exploratory land use studies and their role in the phase of formulating strategic policy
objectives. Exploratory land use studies contribute to a transparent discussion on policy
objectives by showing ultimate technical possibilities and consequences of imposing
different priorities to agro-technical, food security, socioeconomic and environmental
objectives. A methodology is presented in which science-driven technical information is
confronted with value-driven objectives under given values of exogenous variables (e.g.
regarding population growth and requirements for agricultural produce). Land use
scenarios are generated showing consequences of different priorities for objectives by
using natural resources and technical possibilities in different ways. Applications of such
an approach are given for the global, regional and farm level, each addressing specific
questions and target groups. The paper focuses on the type of results these studies produce
and their role in the societal and political debate on strategic land use policy and planning.
It is concluded that if exploratory land use studies are carried out in true interaction with
target groups, they may well contribute to the debate and learning on sustainable land use
options and a purposeful identification of effective policy instruments in a next phase of
the policy making process
Descriptors :land-use. policy. target-groups. sustainability. research
Subject Codes:EE160. EE110

18. Title :Agrarian policies for sustainable land use: bio-economic


modelling to assess the effectiveness of policy instruments
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1998. 58 (3). 465-481

CD Volume:219

Author(s):Kruseman G Bade J
Additional Authors:Kuyvenhoven-A
Author Affiliation:Department of Economics and Management, Wageningen Agricultural
University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, Netherlands
Document Editor:Kuyvenhoven-A. Bouma-J. Van-Keulen-H
Abstract
:This article presents a bio-economic modelling approach for the
assessment of the effectiveness of different agrarian policies to improve farm household
income and soil fertility. Farm household decisions on allocation of land, labour and
capital resources for crop and production technique choice are simulated, taking into
account resource availability, household objectives and prevailing market conditions. The
modelling framework relies on a combination of three procedures: (1) farm household
modelling, (2) linear programming, and (3) partial equilibrium analysis. These procedures
are applied to evaluate the impact at farm household and regional level of technology
improvement and a variety of policy instruments: improvement of infrastructure, price
support, land policy and credit schemes. Regional aggregation allows prices to be
determined endogenously on regional markets. The approach is applied to the Cercle de
Koutiala in Mali, for which selected results are given as an example. Results indicate that
technology alone cannot sufficiently induce farmers to adopt sustainable production
systems. Additional economic incentives are necessary to foster technological change
Descriptors :agricultural-policy. economic-impact. environmental-impact. assessment.
models. agricultural-households. decision-making. simulation-models. farm-inputs.
linear-programming. technical-progress. evaluation. infrastructure. price-support. landpolicy. agricultural-credit. incentives. technology. sustainability. rural-development
Subject Codes:EE120. EE145. EE200. EE130. EE160. EE800

19.

Title :Land use planning and national soils policies

View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1997. 53 (2-3). 161-174


CD Volume:173
Author(s)
:Verheye W H
Author Affiliation:National Science Foundation, Belgium and Soils Department, Gent
University, Krijgslaan, 281, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Abstract
:Land is used for many purposes and is the focus of conflict between a wide
range of land uses including agriculture, mining, forestry and nature protection, leisure,
and urban and industrial development. Competition between users grows more under
increasing population pressure and in countries with a mixed economy. Decision making
on land use options is a current problem of modern societies. Adequate planning and
decision making about land use is facilitated by a national soils policy framework. This is
a set of guidelines, aimed at ensuring a sustainable utilization of the land - either for
agricultural or non-agricultural uses - and limiting direct or indirect damage to the
environment. The policy is integrated into a national development plan and addresses the
natural diversity and specific physical and socioeconomic problems of the region
concerned. National soils policies are therefore very country-specific; they rely on clearly
defined long-term objectives and involve strategies and tools for implementation. A
number of examples are given to illustrate the most relevant issues in national soils
policies
Descriptors :land-use.
land-policy.
decision-making.
government-policy.
environmental-impact. environmental-policy. land-use-planning.
soil-management.
policy. administration. soil
Subject Codes:EE160. JJ500

20.
Title: Determinants for land use strategies in a Sahelian agro-ecosystem anthropological and ecological geographical aspects of natural resource management
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1997. 53 (2-3). 209-229
CD Volume:173
Author(s)
:Reenberg A Paarup Laursen B
Author Affiliation:Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10,
DK-1350, Copenhagen K., Denmark
Abstract
:Traditional concerns of anthropological and ecological geographical
approaches to the analysis of agricultural systems are presented, with a view to
contributing to a multidisciplinary and holistic framework. Following a short introduction
to how each discipline is able to contribute an insight into the complex processes
determining natural resource management strategies, a case study from northern Burkina
Faso is presented (n=43, 1995). A few aspects concerning the land use and agricultural
strategies have been selected in order to illustrate how the two approaches can fruitfully
supplement each other and lead to a more profound understanding of forces driving
management strategies in the agricultural system. The priorities given to different soil
types, determinants for field sizes and the division of inputs between various agricultural
activities are analysed in the examples. The findings underline the fact that withinhousehold variations in resource management strategies can only be fully understood if the
analysis is based on broad insight into different objectives and rationalities for land use
decisions
Descriptors :ecosystems. land-management. farming-systems. environmental-impact.
natural-resources. land-use. resource-management
Supplemental Descriptors:West-Africa. Africa-South-of-Sahara. Africa. ACP-Countries.
Francophone-Africa. Least-Developed-Countries. Developing-Countries
Subject Codes:EE160. EE150

21.
Title :Exploring land use scenarios, an alternative approach based on actual land
use
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1997. 55 (1). 1-17
CD Volume:173
Author(s)
:Veldkamp A Fresco L O
Author Affiliation:Department of Soil Science and Geology, P.O. Box 37, 6700 AA
Wageningen, Netherlands
Abstract
:Land use scenarios should be able to describe land use as a result of
changing biophysical and socioeconomic conditions, as well as the pathways of possible
future developments including feedbacks between land use and its drivers. Several
approaches exist, to develop regional and national scenarios: (a) explorative biophysical
studies which explore the biophysical boundaries of the 'solution space'; (b)
socioeconomic explorative studies which couple calculated biophysical potentials with
crude socioeconomic estimates. An alternative approach, based on actual and past land use
and its biophysical and demographic drivers as integrated within the multi-scale land use
change model CLUE (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects), is presented and discussed
for Costa Rica. Using the model, the impact on Costa Rican land use is simulated under
six scenarios: urbanization; abolition of national parks; extension of national parks; soil
erosion and soil fertility depletion; crop disease in permanent crops below 300 m; and a
volcanic eruption. It is concluded that, in combination with existing explorative
approaches, this approach may contribute to more realistic land use projection scenarios

Descriptors :land-use. change. simulation-models


Rica
Subject Codes:PP300. EE160

Geographic

Locator:Costa-

22.
Title :Analytical framework for disentangling the concept of sustainable land use
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1996. 50 (2). 191-207
CD Volume:13
Author(s)
:Kruseman G Ruben R Kuyvenhoven A Hengsdijk H Keulen H van
Author Variant:Van-Keulen-H
Author Affiliation:DLV Research Project, Department of Development Economics,
Wageningen Agricultural University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, Netherlands
Abstract
:The framework presented in this paper offers a set of operational
definitions and an integrated method aimed at analysis of sustainable land use at plot, farm
and regional level, taking into account interactions among agro-ecological and
socioeconomic components. Trade-offs among these components and the consequences of
actions made at one system level for other system levels should be quantified in order to
enable the elaboration of policy scenarios. Socioeconomic components are production and
consumption at the farm household level, while at the policy level economic efficiency
and social equity are the main criteria. Agro-ecological sustainability indicators (e.g. soil
structure, nutrient balances, soil loss, pollution) need to be incorporated into farm
household models as a component of the objective function for reproduction of the
household resource base. The same agro-ecological sustainability indicators can be
translated into goals and threshold values to explore the consequences of different options
at the policy level. The conceptual framework set out in the paper has been operationalized
in various studies in developing countries
Descriptors :land-use. sustainability. objectives. models
Geographic Locator:Developing-Countries. Subject Codes:PP000. EE150
ISSN:0308-521X
23.
Title :Integrated land evaluation to generate risk-efficient land-use options in a
coastal catchment
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1996. 50 (3). 287-305
CD Volume:13
Author(s)
:Johnson A K L Cramb R A
Author Affiliation:Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Queensland
4072, Australia
Abstract
:Current methods of agricultural land evaluation in Australia suffer from a
number of weaknesses that limit their usefulness as a tool for land-use planning. An
integrated method of land evaluation that generates biophysical and economic measures of
land performance using crop yield prediction, expert systems and risk analysis is
introduced. The paper reports on the use of the method to generate risk-efficient land-use
options in the lower Herbert River catchment of north Queensland. The method was
applied at two different scales (1:100 000 and 1:5000) for four different land uses
(sugarcane production, Pinus caribaea plantations for softwood production, improved
pasture for beef cattle fattening and smooth-leaf pineapple production for the domestic
fresh fruit market). Utilizing stochastic dominance analysis, the effect of a range of risk

preferences on land-use option selection is examined. Four typical land-use planning


scenarios are presented that demonstrate the usefulness of the method
Descriptors :risk. sugarcane. forestry. beef-cattle. pineapples. production. landcapability. land-use. optimization-methods. land-evaluation. coastal-areas. forest-trees.
forest-plantations
Geographic Locator:Australia. Queensland
Organism Descriptors:pinus-caribaea. Pinus-radiata. Saccharum. Ananas-comosus
Subject Codes:EE160. JJ500. EE200. KK100. KK110. KK150
ISSN:0308-521X

24.
Title: Integration of computer-based models and tools to evaluate alternative
land-use scenarios as part of an agricultural systems analysis
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1995. 49 (4). 353-367
CD Volume:13
Author(s)
:Stoorvogel J J
Author Affiliation:Atlantic Zone Programme (CATIE-WAU-MAG), Apartado 224-7210,
Guapiles, Costa Rica
Abstract
:A wide variety of computer-based models and tools have been developed
to describe and characterize agricultural production systems. For complex problems,
however, no single application is available nor it is advisable to develop one for practical
reasons. Integration of models and tools may be a a solution, where limitations of some
may be compensated for by others. Different models and tools were integrated for the
analysis of different land-use scenarios for the Neguev settlement in the tropical lowlands
of Costa Rica. Crop-growth simulation models and expert systems were used for the
description of alternative land-use systems. A geographical information system was used
for data storage, and the analysis and presentation of results. The optimization of land-use
was carried out by a linear programming model. Using a series of relevant land-use
scenarios, effects are studied of: (i) changes in capital availability; (ii) restrictions on
biocide use; and (iii) the effect of nutrient depletion as a negative contribution to farm
income. For the integration of models and tools, a modular approach is proposed, which is
based on separate software packages and appropriate database structures. The database
structures can be jointly used by the different modules and form the link between them. In
addition, a separate software package is used for the integration of the modules. The
methodology is particularly appropriate for interdisciplinary research, integrating
socioeconomic and agroecological data
Descriptors :simulation-models.
optimization-methods.
agricultural-chemicals.
farming-systems. land-use. Models. Geographic Locator:Costa-Rica
Supplemental Descriptors:CACM. Central-America. America. Developing-Countries.
Latin-America. Threshold-Countries
Subject Codes:EE200. CC300
ISSN:0308-521X
25.
Title :A decision support system for land use planning at farm enterprise level
View Article : Agricultural Systems. 1994. 45 (3). 239-257
CD Volume:13
Author(s)
:Sharifi M A Keulen H van Author Variant:Van-Keulen-H
Author Affiliation:International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC),
PO Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, Netherlands
Abstract
:A dynamic land use planning system developed as a decision support
system for land use planning at farm enterprise level is described. The system consists of a
Geographic Information System (GIS) with a process model that follows the logic of the

decision-making process and makes use of an integrated planning model for planning at
different levels i.e. tactical and operational. The integrated model consists of a crop growth
simulation model to accurately estimate the productivity of each feasible land use, a linear
programming model to integrate the physical and socio-economic information and design
the best suitable plan that maximizes the benefit of the system under a given set of
constraints (tactical plan), and a spatial decision model to translate the tactical plan into an
actual operational plan
Descriptors :computer-techniques. farm-planning. farm-enterprises. land-use-planning.
information-systems. geographical-information-systems. models
Subject Codes:JJ500. EE160
ISSN:0308-521X
26.
Title :Toward optimal land drainage pumping
View Article : Agricultural Water Management. 1993. 23 (1). 51-65
CD
Volume:23
Author(s)
:Marshall D C W
Author Affiliation:Inst. Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK
Abstract
:The interaction between land drainage pumping stations and their feeder
drain networks was investigated. Two pumped catchments in central eastern England were
instrumented. This paper describes the work undertaken at one of those catchments, the
Boy Grift drain network and pumping station, between August 1986 and March 1989.
While brief descriptions of the field equipment are included, the objective of the paper is
to illustrate the scope for improving the operation of a land drainage pumping station by
pumping the same volume of water at a reduced cost. The relative merits of avoiding
pumping against high tides and during periods of expensive electrical supply tariff are
assessed. The ways in which these two constraints conflict are demonstrated and
suggestions made on optimizing land drainage pumping
Descriptors :Costs. Drainage. pumps. optimization
Geographic Locator:UK
Supplemental Descriptors:OECD-Countries. British-Isles. Western-Europe. Europe.
Commonwealth-of-Nations. Developed-Countries. European-Union-Countries
27.
Title :Evaluation of the livestock carrying capacity of land resources in the Hills
of Nepal based on total digestive nutrient analysis
View Article : Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2000. 78 (3). 223-235 CD
Volume:325
Author(s)
:Thapa G B Paudel G S
Author Affiliation:School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of
Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
Abstract
:Land degradation and poverty caused by traditional arable agriculture have
been serious problems in the ecologically fragile and economically backward mountains of
Nepal. There is a prospect to address both of these problems to some extent by promoting
livestock raising. However, a large livestock population exceeding the carrying capacity of
land resources will risk undermining the sustainability and productivity of these resources.
On the basis of these concerns, this study analyses the carrying capacity of land resources
under on-going and improved management systems based on total digestive nutrient
(TDN) demand and supply situation in Shyangja, a mountainous district of the Western
Development Region of Nepal. Results reveal that under the current type of management
system, land resources in Shyangja district could provide the required amount of TDN to

147 735 livestock standard units (LSU), whereas the total number of LSU had already
reached 203 510 as of 1996/97. Provided improvements are made in forest and grazingland management as well as in crop production and agroforestry systems in line with
assumptions made, land resources in the study area will be able to accommodate an
additional 6408 LSU on top of existing stock by the year 2001/02 and 63 113 LSU by the
year 2006/07
Descriptors :carrying-capacity. land-resources. livestock. agroforestry. environmentaldegradation. grazing. fodder. fodder-crops. forage. feeds. forests. poverty. sustainability.
mountain-areas. agroforestry-systems
Geographic Locator:Nepal
Subject Codes :RR000. FF007. PP600. PP350. UU850. KK600
ISSN:0167-8809
28.
Title: Assessing sustainable land management (SLM)
View Article : Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2000. 81 (2). 83-92
CD Volume:325
Author(s)
:Hurni H
Author Affiliation:Centre for Development and Environment, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern,
Switzerland
Conference Title:Special Issue: Indicators of land quality and sustainable land
management. Selected papers from a Satellite Symposium on Land Quality organized by
the World Bank as part of the 16th International Congress of Soil Science, Montpellier,
France, August 1998
Abstract
:The term 'sustainable development' and its component 'sustainable land
management (SLM)' have received increasing attention in development co-operation and
at the global level. However, practical tools which can help local users and multidisciplinary teams to work together and apply these general concepts at the local to
regional levels have emerged only recently. Some of these tools, as well as programme
support services are presented. Only a comprehensive, participatory approach involving
stakeholders at all levels will have the potential to develop locally useful solutions within
a favourable, i.e. 'enabling' institutional environment. Assessment tools will require
transdisciplinary methods that involve natural, social, and political sciences as well as
local knowledge systems. Support services for SLM activities will have to include
monitoring and impact assessment, experimentation with innovative ideas, resource
assessment, information, and training. Examples from different parts of the globe have
shown that the proposed tools are now receiving greater attention and may fulfil the
requirements set forth by the concept of SLM
Descriptors :assessment. sustainability. land-management. land-evaluation.
landdegradation. soil-degradation. conferences
Subject Codes:JJ500. JJ600. PP300 ISSN:0167-8809
29.
Title: Land quality indicators: research plan
View Article : Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2000. 81 (2). 93-102
CD
Volume:325
Author(s)
:Dumanski J Pieri C
Author Affiliation:16 Burnbank Street, Ottawa, K2G 0H4, Canada
Conference Title:Special Issue: Indicators of land quality and sustainable land
management. Selected papers from a Satellite Symposium on Land Quality organized by
the World Bank as part of the 16th International Congress of Soil Science, Montpellier,
France, August 1998

Abstract
:Indicators of land quality (LQIs) are being developed as a means to better
coordinate actions on land related issues, such as land degradation. Economic and social
indicators are already in regular use to support decision making at global, national and
sub-national levels and in some cases for air and water quality, but few such indicators are
available to assess, monitor and evaluate changes in the quality of land resources. 'Land'
refers not just to soil but to the combined resources of terrain, water, soil and biotic
resources that provide the basis for land use. Land quality refers to the condition of land
relative to the requirements of land use, including agricultural production, forestry,
conservation, and environmental management. The LQI programme addresses the dual
objectives of environmental monitoring as well as sector performance monitoring for
managed ecosystems (agriculture, forestry, conservation and environmental management).
The primary research issue in the LQI programme is the development of indicators that
identify and characterize the impact(s) of human interventions on the landscape for the
major agroecological zones of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate environments. Core
LQIs identified for immediate development are: nutrient balance, yield gap, land use
intensity and diversity, and land cover; LQIs requiring longer term research include: soil
quality, land degradation, and agro-biodiversity; LQIs being developed by other
authoritative groups include: water quality, forest land quality, rangeland quality, and land
contamination/pollution
Descriptors :indicators. research. land-degradation. land-management. land-use.
monitoring. nutrient-balance. crop-yield. biodiversity. conferences
Identifiers
:land quality. soil quality
Subject Codes:PP300. AA500. JJ600 ISSN:0167-8809
30.
Title: Practical and cost-effective indicators and procedures for monitoring the
impacts of rural development projects on land quality and sustainable land management
View Article : Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2000. 81 (2). 147-154 CD
Volume:325
Author(s)
:Steiner K Herweg K Dumanski J
Author Affiliation:GTZ, Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany
Conference Title:Special Issue: Indicators of land quality and sustainable land
management. Selected papers from a Satellite Symposium on Land Quality organized by
the World Bank as part of the 16th International Congress of Soil Science, Montpellier,
France, August 1998
Abstract
:The impact(s) of development activities on land quality often become
manifest only several years after termination of a project. Baseline studies and costeffective monitoring needs to be initiated while activities are on-going, and this needs to
be continued in post-project activities. This is possible, however, only when relatively
simple and cost-efficient monitoring methods are available. These tools, however, are still
rare and need to be further developed. An international working group, initiated by GTZ
[Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Germany] and SDC (Swiss Development
Co-operation) and strongly supported by the 'Land Quality Indicator Initiative' of the
World Bank, developed guidelines for impact monitoring to address this constraint. These
included a tool kit of relatively easy to handle and cost-effective methods. The impact
monitoring procedure presented involves seven basic steps: identification of stakeholders,
identification of core issues, formulation of impact hypotheses, identification and selection
of indicators, selection and development of monitoring methods, data analysis and
assessment of sustainable land management, as well as information management

Descriptors :sustainability. land-management. monitoring. projects. rural-development.


indicators. conferences. environmental-impact
Identifiers
:land quality
Subject Codes:JJ600. PP300. UU850
ISSN:0167-8809
31.
Title :Socio-economic inducements in land market: a case study of Uttar Pradesh
state in India
View Article : Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics. 1998. 21 (1/2). 59-70
CD Volume:333
Author(s)
:Gyanendra Mani Pandey V K
Author Variant:Mani-G
Abstract
:This study, using the qualitative analytical methods of logit function,
identifies the socioeconomic characteristics which influence the land sale or lease
decisions of farmers in a highly fertile and developed region of India. The study found
that with an increase in the size of holding, farmers showed a greater probability of: (1)
buying more land in the sale market; and (2) leasing out land in the lease market. The
former tendency leads to dispossession of small holders and, consequently, adverse effects
on distribution of land and production of subsistence crops needed for the growing
population, while the latter tendency offsets these adverse effects through favourable
redistribution of at least the operated area as generally small holders lease-in land in the
region to optimize their family labour and financial resources. Among the other variables,
the increase in age and addiction to drugs or gambling in the family are found to increase
the probability of being a seller or lessor. It is argued that leasing of agricultural land
should be accorded a fully recognised legal status with regulatory controls
Descriptors :land-markets.
farm-leases.
farm-size.
production-structure.
socioeconomic-status
Geographic Locator:India. Uttar-Pradesh
Subject Codes:EE165. UU800
ISSN:0237-3539
32.
Title :Optimum land use pattern and resource allocation in a growing economy :
a closed model approach
View Article : Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics. 1995. 18 (2). 15-37
CD Volume:118
Author(s)
:Alam M S Elias S M Rahman M M
Author Affiliation:Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Abstract
:The land use pattern for 150 small farmers at the farming systems research
site (Jessore, Bangladesh) is examined, and an optimum land use pattern considering
available resources is developed during 1989/90. Linear programming was used for
optimizing resources. The results revealed a considerable divergence between the existing
and optimum plans under both limited and borrowed capital situations. The resources were
not found optimally allocated and after optimization, gross margin and employment of
labour could be increased. Tractor/power tiller utilization increased under borrowed capital
situation, while labour employment and tractor/power tiller utilization decreased under
limited capital situation. This suggests that capital acted as a severe constraint. Cereal
based cropping patterns showed dominance in both the existing and optimum plans. The
optimum plans affected tenurial groups differently because of inter-tenurial variation in
resource endowment and management. It is suggested that strengthening of the extension

services and market network, besides strong financial support, would improve the
prospects of small farmers in the study area
Descriptors :tenure-systems. linear-programming. farm-planning. resource-allocation.
constraints. production-structure. small-farms. land-use. optimization
Geographic Locator:Bangladesh
Subject Codes:EE200. EE165. EE160

TAHAPAN PENELITIAN PERENCANAAN PENGEMBANGAN PEMBANGUNAN PELABUHAN PERIKANAN DI INDONESIA

OBSERVASI
Identifikasi Masalah Penelitian secara Luas

4
5

11

KERANGKA TEORITIS Variabel di identifikasi dan diberi label


Kesimpulan
& Rekomendasi
Perencanaan (Pilihan Prioritas)
PENGUMPULAN,
PENGUMPULAN,
ANALISIS
ANALISIS
&
& INTERPRETASI
KLASIFIKASI
DATA
DATA
Perumusan Masalah
Maping jurnal penelitian Perumusan Hipotesis Desain Metode
Penelitian
Penelitian

PENGUMPULAN
DATA PENDAHULUAN
(Survey Literatur)

PEMBAHASAN

10
Analisis Hirarki Proses (PenentuanPrioritas)

(Hipotesis, Pengaruh Perencanaan yang didukung SDM, SDA dan SDB dampaknya terhadap kesejahteraan


KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL MEMILIH PERENCANAAN PENGEMBANGAN PEMBANGUNAN PELABUHAN DI INDONESIA

Tujuan

Kriteria
Luas Lahan
( ha )
Jml Kapal Tangkap Ikan

(Unit/hr)

Alternatif
Kls I (Tipe A) :
Luas > 50.
Jml Kapal > 100
Ukrn Kapl > 100
Tangkapn Ikan > 500 (ton / hr)
Fasilitas Pembina Mutu > 100
Sarana Pemasaran Tersedia
Pengembangan Industri Tersedia
Infrastruktur Tersedia.

Ukuran Kapal (GT)

Kls II (Tipe B)
Ikan di Daratkan (ton/hari)

Luas 30 - 50.
JmlKapl 50 - 100
Ukrn Kapl 50-100 GT
Tangkapn Ikan 100 - 500 (ton/hr)
Fsilitas Pembina Mutu 80 - 100
Sarn Pemasaran Tersedia
Pengembangan Industri Tersedia
Infrastruktur Tersedia.

Memilih Perencanaan Pengembangan Pelabuhan Perikanan

Kls III (Tipe C)

Fasilitas Pembinaan Mutu

Sarana Pemasaran

Luas 10 - 30.
Jml Kapl 25 - 50
Ukuran Kapal 30- 50 GT
Tangkapan Ikan 30 - 100 (ton/hr)
Fsilitas Pembina Mutu 25 - 30
SaranaPemasaran Tersedia
Pengembangan Indstri Tersedia
Infrastruktur Tersedia.

Kls IV (Tipe D)
Pengembangan Industri

Infrastruktur

Luas < 10.


Jml Kapal < 25
Ukuran Kapal < 30 GT
Tangkpn Ikan < 30 (ton / hr)
Fasilits Pembina Mutu < 25
Srana Pemasarn Tidak Tersedia
Pengembng Industri Tidak Tersedia
Infrastruktur Tidak Tersedia.

KERANGKA DECISION MAKING COMPLEX WORLD

N
O
1
1

AUTHOR
JUDUL
AND CO
AUTHOR
2
3
H.
Igor APAKAH
Ansoff,
Jay
PERENC
Avnar,
ANAAN
Richard
G.
PERLU
Bradenburg,
DIPERH
Fred
E.
ATIKAN?
Portner, dan PENGA
Raymond
RUH
Radesevich
PERENC
ANAAN
PADA
KEBERH
ASILAN
PEROLE
HAN
DALAM
PERUSA
HAAN
AMERIK
A

MAPING JURNAL PENDUKUNG TEORI


MASALAH &
METHODOLOGI
PENGUKURAN
VARIABEL
4
5
Tipe
pertama Pengukuran diferensial
menentukan apakah, dan
tingkat
pertumbuhan
kapan, perusahaan harus
meminimkn pnyimpangn
menemukan perolehan
inheren dari ukuran
Kedua
adalah
tunggal apapun.
perencanaan operasional Ukuran Tipe-I adalah
dari mekanisme terhadap
rata-rata
tingkat
perolehan,
yang
perubahan
tahunan.
memperlihatkan
bahwa
Ukuran Tipe-II meng
perusahaan
telah
gabungkan
nilai-nilai
memutuskan
untuk
variabel dalam tahun
memperoleh
dan
pertama dan kedua,
menetapkan tujuan dari
Mencari signifikan nilai
program perolehan itu
ganjil
tunggal.
Studi ini mempergunakan
Perbandingan dua tipe
ukuran
itu
bisa
dua puluh satu ukuran
mempengaruhi nilai-nilai
performa berbeda dalam
performa irreguler utk
tigabelas
variabel
satu tipe ukuran,
terpisah. Untuk sebagian

Tipe-III,
menentukan
besar variabel, performa
itu diukur dengan lebih
nilai rata-rata tunggal
dari satu cara untuk
variabel diatas sesuai
meminimalisir pengaruhmasa pengukurannya.
pengaruh bias dari satu
tipe ukuran apapun

KESIMPULAN
6
Perusahaan-perusahaan
yang ikut serta dalam
aktifitas
perolehan
cenderung mengambil satu
dari
dua
pendekatan
berbeda
terhadap
perencanaan
perolehan.
Karena : Pertama adalah
pendekatan
oportunistik
yang tak terencana, Kedua
pendekatan yang terencana
secara
sistematis.
Jika
sebuah perusahaan gagal
untuk merencanakan semua
fase program itu, maka
perusahaan lebih mungkin
tidak
jadi
melakukan
perencanaan
secara
bersama-sama.

Dalmar
W. PERENC Populasi
kelompok
Karger dan
ANAAN
perencana dibandingkan
Zafar A. Malik
JANGKA
secara statistik dengan

PANJAN
kelompok
nonG DAN
perencana pada setiap
KINERJA
kelompok
industri
ORGANI
menurut setiap dari 13
SASI
ukuran
berorientasi
finansial tersebut.
Baik "t" test maupun
Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test
(tes terakhir digunakan
karena variasi yang luas
pada data menunjukkan
'non-normalitas'
pada
disribusi)
digunakan
untuk
membandingkan
perencana dengan nonperencana.

Tugas pertama adalah Penelitian


yang
dikutip
mendesain
kuesioner
sebelumnya menunjukkan
yang dapat dijawab
bahwa top management
CEO dalam beberapa
organisasi profit apapun
menit (sebagian besar
dianggap melanggar aturan
dengan
memeriksa
atau lalai jika mereka tidak
kotak respon ya/tidak)
berpartisipasi
dalam
dari mana peneliti dapat
perencanaan tipe FILRAP mengidentifikasi tipe dan
pandangan ini berlaku pada
tingkat perencana an
kasus
umum.
Maka,
yang
dijalankan
mendatang
harus
perusahaan.
Fiksasi
menekankan
pentingnya
kuesioner
tersebut
perencanaan bagi pencari
pertama-tama diperiksa
profit maupun non-profit.
dengan mengirim surat Meskipun
sebagian
pertama pada kelompok
organisasi besar menjalan
perencanaan (20) dan
kan
tipe
perencanaan
kepada kelompok nonkhusus,
menunjuk
kan
perencana (5). Didapati
masih
ada
sebagian
bahwa
jawaban
organisasi yang menyusun
kuesioner
rencana secara umum lebih
memungkinkan peneliti
baik dari pada sebagian
untuk
melakukan
organisasi
lain
yang
pembedaan
antara
menjalankan tipe khusus.
perencana FILRAP dan
Perbedaannya
yang
mereka
yang
me
sebagian kecil ini lebih baik
lakukan
tingkat
karena
mampu
perencanaan lain, yang
menjalankannya
dengan
dapat
digolongkan
baik. Hal ini tidak beda

sebagai kelompok nonperencana

JOHN
A.
PEARCE II

DAMPAK
STRATE
GI
BESAR
DAN
FORMAL
ITAS
PERENC
ANAAN
PADA
PERFOR
MA
KEUAN
GAN

tipe strategi besar, tingkat


formalitas perencanaan,
dan performa perusahaan
secara keseluruhan.

dengan
kinerja
yang
ditunjukkan
'kurva
pembelajaran'
(learning
curve) industri dimana satu
perusahaan belajar lebih
cepat daripada yang lain pembelajar yang lebih cepat
dapat dimanej secara lebih
baik.

Data dari penelitian ini Temuan-temuan


utama
diminta
melalui
penelitian ini mempunyai
instrumen-instrumen
daya tarik intuitif. Jika
yang dikirimkan lewat
strategi-strategi
besar
pos dari para CEO dari
merupakan
hasil-hasil
ke-609
perusahaan
proses
perencanaan
manufakturing di satu
strategi; jika kemungkinan
negara bagian di timur.
satu pilihan strategi optimal
Satu
penentuan
ditingkatkan
oleh
lapangan/medan yang
perencanaan
yang
terbatas secara regional
diformalisasi;
dan
jika
dipilih
untuk
kebaikan-kebaikan
satu
menghadirkan sejumlah
strategi
besar
bersifat
kendali atas faktor-faktor
situasional
dari
pada
eksternal
non-industri
mendasar,
maka
seperti peraturan, pajak,
peningkatan pada performa
dan tingkat gaji
organsiasi akan dihasilkan
Analisis
chi-square
oleh formalitas yang lebih
tinggi
tanpa
memperkuat
bahwa
memperhitungkan
sifat
para responden survei
strategi yang dipilih. Dengan
tidak berbeda secara
didorong
oleh
dasar
signifikan (p = tingkat
pemikiran ini dan oleh bukti
0,05)
dengan
non-

responden berdasarkan
salah satu dari enam
dimensi/ukuran
yang
menjadi
dasar
pengumpulan
data:
penjualan
tahunan,
jumlah
karyawan,
daerah geografis yang
ditentukan
menurut
kabupaten, tahun-tahun
sejak penyatuan, kode
SIC dua digit, dan
kemauan
untuk
merespon
ukuranukuran
obyektif
performa perusahaan.

empiris yang diberikan oleh


penelitian ini, pendapatpendapat yang mendukung
satu proses perencanaan
strategi
formal
telah
diperkuat oleh penelitian ini.

Namun demikian, hasilhasil penelitian tidak boleh


diinterpretasikan
sebagai
satu dukungan universal
atas formalitas perencanaan
strategi yang lebih tinggi.
Pertanyaan
tentang
kemungkinan
kebutuhan
untuk
menyesuaikan
karakteristik, sumber daya,
kompetensi, dan situasi
kompetisi
perusahaan
dengan
tingkat-tingkat
fomalitas perencanaan yang
tepat
tidak
dibicarakan
dalam penelitian ini. Di
samping
itu,
hanya
perusahaan-perusahaan
manufakturing yang disurvei
dan, dari segi perbandingan,
perusahaan-perusahaan
tersebut harus dikategorikan
kecil. Oleh karena itu,
generalisabilitas hasil-hasil
untuk
industri-industri
lainnya,
atau
untuk
perusahaan-perusahaan
yang berukuran lebih besar,

harus menunggu penelitian


berikutnya.
Namun
demikian,
hasil-hasil
penelitian ini menambah
satu ukuran kekuatan pada
hubungan
lemah
yang
seringkali diduga antara
perencanaan strategi dan
performa perusahaan.

4.

Daniel

C.

Bello
Nicholas
Williamson

C.

PERUSA
HAAN
PERDAG
ANGAN
EKSPOR
AMERIK
A:
MERENC
ANAKAN
RANCAN
GAN
SUATU
BADAN
USAHA
PERDAG

Produ
k-produk yang Diekspor

Perat
uran Ekspor

Volum
e Penjualan Ekspor bagi
Para Supplier

Prose
dur Statistik

Berbagai macam analisa Ketika


para
penganalisa
variasi
(MANOVA)
menyarankan bahwa produkdigunakan untuk menguji
produk
yang
diekspor
hipotesa
pertama.
mempunyai
dampak
Hipotesa yang terdahulu
fundamental bagi pelayanan,
telah
diuji
secara
penelitian
selanjutnya
langsung melalui ANOVA
haruslah dapat mengakses
untuk
masing-masing
hasil-hasil
produk
dan
pelayanan
ekspor.
perubahan pasar ATC. Sejak
MANOVA menggunakan
ATC unggul dalam dasar
empat skala pelayanan
finansial
mengekspor
ekspor sebagai variabelproduk/gabungan
produkvariabel yang tergantung
produk yang dibedakan dan
pada keadaan/situasi dan
atau yang tidak dibedakan
produksi, peraturan, serta
pada pasaran luar negeri,

ANGAN
INTERN
ASIONAL
YANG
BARU

volume sebagai variabelvariabel mandiri, dengan


pola pula kali dua kali dua
(2 2 2).
MANOVA
yang
merupakan variabel yang
sangat tergantung pada
keadaan yang saling
berhubungan,
kepemilikan yang tidak
sah dari teknik multi
variasi
berhubungan,
kepemilikan yang tidak
sah dari teknik multi
variasi telah diuji pada
pengujian Bartlett tentang
proses global (Cooly dan
Lohnes Tahun 1971). Tes
pengujian (Bartlett sama
dengan dua tiga lima titik
sembilan enam dengan
enam Df, P kurang titik
non nol satu (Bartlett =
23.96 dengan 6 Df < .
001),
menunjukkan
bahwa
MANOVA
menyediakan data-data
analisa.
Meskipun delapan poin
inti di dalam rancangan
memuat berbagai macam
responden,
NS
merupakan inti yang tidak
sama.
Sebagai

adalah
akibat
dari
kemandirian intern di antara
tindakan-tindakan
tersebut
yang harus diteliti (Wind dan
Douglas,
1981)
sebagai
contoh, ATC memerlukan
evaluasi apakah pelayanan
ekspor dapat distandarisasi
berlawanan dengan jumlah
portofolio
mereka,
atau
apakah pelayanan harus
diindividualisasikan
guna
mengkhususkan produk dan
pasar luar negeri.

Bimbingan yang efektif


akan memudahkan ATC untuk
berfungsi lebih efektif dan
bersaing dengan lebih baik
pada pasar global

konsekuensinya
pendekatan
model
perbandingan digunakan
untuk
menguji
dampak/efek
dari
MANOVA
tersebut.
Perbandingan
ini
direkomendasikan atau
disarankan bagi peristiwa
non-orthogonial
sejak
masing - masing dampak
telah terbukti menghapus
pengaruh kekacauan dari
faktor-faktor yang lain.
(Apple Baum dan Cramer,
1974;
Perreault
dan
Darden, 197

Luis
L.
Martins,
Kimberly A.
Eddleston,
John F. Viega

HUBUN
GAN
ANTARA
KONFLI
K
PEKERJ
AAN

Variabel
Control
Pengendali:
Keluaran Finansial,
Peningkatan Karir,
Otonomi,
Kekuasaan.

pendekatan
sampling
bola salju (Snowball
sampling
approach),
yang merupakan media
pengambilan data yang
lazim digunakan dari
beragam
perusahaan

Temuan-temuan
menunjukkan bahwa jalan
terang
untuk
penelitian
masa depan pada efek-efek
konflik pekerjaan keluarga
atas kepuasan karir adalah
untuk menelaah faktor-faktor

KELUAR
GA DAN
KEPUAS
AN
KARIR

Terikat / Dependent:
Kepuasan karir
Bebas:
konflik
pekerjaan

keluarga
Moderator:
Gender,
usia,
status
perkawinan, dan status
orang tua

dalam
bermacammacam industri (misal
tepper,
1995)
pendekatan
sampling
bola salju (Snowball
sampling
approach),
yang merupakan media
pengambilan data yang
lazim digunakan dari
beragam
perusahaan
dalam
bermacammacam industri (misal
tepper, 1995). Kami
meminta
Mahasiswa
MBA dalam karir pada
Universitas Negeri yang
berada
di
Ameriak
Serikat bagian timur
untuk secara sukarela
berpartisipasi di dalam
penelitian sebagai satu
pilihan
untuk
mendapatkan
nilai
ekstra.
Dari
200
mahasiswa
yang
diminta,
176
setuju
untuk
berpartisipasi.
Mereka
diminta
mengidentifikasi sampai
dengan 10 individu dari
urutan
manajerial
/
profesional perusahaan
mereka dan meminta
mereka untuk secara

penyerta yang
mungkin
menyuguhkan
pedoman
tindakan untuk berpindah
dari keuntungan pekerjaan
keluarga satu ukuran untuk
semuanya menuju yang
lebih
terkait
dengan
lebutuhan-kebutuhan
seseorang,
dan
untuk
mengembangkan programprogram
pekerjaan

keluarga yang melampaui


dukungan praktis dengan
menyajikan
dukungan
sosioemosional.
Secara
khusus, penelitian masa
depan hendaknya mengkaji
bagaimana
faktor-faktor
yang
berada
dibawah
kendali organisasi, semisal
norma-norma
yang
menyangkut
penggunaan
keuntungan-keuntungan
pekerjaan keluarga dan
perilaku supervisor terhadap
pegawai-pegawai
yang
mengalami konflik pekerjaan
keluarga (Stephens &
Sommer, 1995), pengaruh
hubungan antara konflik
pekerjaan keluarga dan
kepuasan karir.

Dari
sudut
pandang
praktis,
temuan
kami

tidak bernama mengisi


survei
dan
mengembalikannya
pada
kami
secara
langsung
melalui
amplop berbea pos.
Dalam
rangka
mengurangi
efek
sebaran yang dihasilkan
oleh
perbedaanperbedaan gender dan
karakteristik
latar
belakang, sukarelawan
diberitahu bahwa untuk
masing-masing
orang
yang mereka identifiaksi,
mereka
hendaknya
berusaha
mengidentifikasi
satu
orang lainnya dengan
jenis kelamin / gender
yang berbeda yang mirip
dalam usia ( 5 tahun)
dan dari organisasi,
divisi, area fungsional,
dan wilayah geografis
yang sama

menunjukkan
bahwa,
dengan adanya sumber
daya tak terbatas untuk
menangani konflik pekerjaan

keluarga,
melibatkan
faktor-faktor
individual
semacam gender dan usia
dalam urusan ini bersifat
penting untuk mendesain
program-program pekerjaan
keluarga. Lebih lanjut,
hasil kami menyangkut efekefek moderat / pengurang
status gender
minoritas
menunjukkan
bahwa
organisasi
hendaknya
menggunakan mekanisme
dimana
pegawai-pegawai
dalam gender minoritas
pada unit-unit kerja mereka
dapat meraih akses menuju
yang lainnya yang serupa di
dalam organisasi dimana
dari sini diperoleh dukungan
sosial contohnya, melalui
kelompok-kelompok jaringan
seluas organisasi. Hasilhasil kami menyarankan
bahwa
organisasi
hendaknya
merasakan
suatu keuntungan dalam
memberikan semangat pada
pegawai
mereka
untuk
mengembangkan
ikatan

terhadap lingkungan tempat


tinggal
mereka,
melalui
program-program
sosial
lokal atau sukarela.

Akhirnya, begitu resensi


pegawai menjadi kepedulian
utama
organisasi,
pemahaman
faktor-faktor
yang
mempengaruhi
kepuasan karir pegawai
adalah penting, dan mengupdate (menjadikan selalu
baru) model-model di dalam
kajian pustaka karir untuk
mencari
penyebab
pengembanganpengembangan terkini di
dalam tenaga kerja adalah
esensial.
Temuan-temuan
kami
secara
jelas
menyarankan agar konflik
pekerjaan keluarga adalah
faktor penting yang harus
diperhatikan dalam modelmodel sementara ini

6.

STANLEY S.
THUNE dan
ROBERT J.
HOUSE.

TEMPAT
KETIKA
PERENC
ANAAN
RENTAN
G
PANJAN
G
MENUNJ
UKKAN
KEBERH
ASILAN.

Bagaimana
adopsi
prosedur-prosedur
perencanaan
rentang
panjang
yang
formal
mempengaruhi perform
ekonomi
suatu
perusahaan?
Variabelnya
adalah:
penjualan, harga stock,
pendapatan per saham
umum, kembalinya modal
pada
kesetimbangan
umum, dan kembalinya
modal total yang dipakai

metode statistik yang


dipakai adalah analisis
varian dua arah, yang
menggunakan
pengelompokan industri
dan perencana formal vs
informal
sebagai
variabel
bebas/independen, dan
perubahan-perubahan
dalam penjualan, harga
stok, pemeroleh pada
kesetimbangan
umum/dependen. Lima
analisis varian dihitung,
satu
untuk
masingmasing ukuran performa
ekonomi. Selanjutnya di
buatkan
dua
perbandingan
yaitu;
pertama,
performa
sekelompok perusahaan
lebih dari dua periode
waktu sebelum dan
setelah
mereka
mengawali
perencanaan,
dan
kedua,
performa
perusahaan,
selama
satu periode waktu yang
dapat
dibandingkan,
yang
menggunakan

bahwa
perusahaanperusahaan
ini
tengah
menggunakan
praktek
manajemen modern dan
yang
secara
analisis
terorientasi lainnya dalam
wilayah-wilayah keputusan
lainnya. Sebagai contoh, kita
telah berspekulasi bahwa
perusahaan-perusahaan
yang
terkait
dalam
perencanaan formal juga
menggunakan
metodemetode yang lebih canggih
untuk desain dan analisis
organisasi;
seleksi
manajerial, pengembangan,
dan
kompensasi;
serta
kontrol administratif. Oleh
sebab itu, sepertinya bahwa
perencanaan
formal
merupakan
karakteristik
perusahaan yang dikelola
dengan baik bukannya
penyebab tunggal performa
ekonomi yang sukses.

7.

Reikman
Aritonang

8.

Matthew

S.

Kraatz
James
Moore

H.

PERKIR
AAN
KEBANG
KRUTAN
STUDI
KASUS:
MURRA
Y RIVER
DEVELO
PMENT
LTD
MIGRAS
I
EKSEKU
TIF DAN
PERUBA
HAN
INSTITU
SIONAL

- Model Altman
a. Cash flow dari
Aktifitas Operasi
b. Cash inflow-outflow
- Rasio Tradisional
c. Profitabilitas
d. Struktur Modal
e. Modal Kerja
- Model Altman

Variabel
dependent:
Adopsi
program
professional, Mi- grasi
eksekutif, Tekanan yang
lain
pada
perubahan
institusional,
Interaksi
migrasi dengan tekanan
kontekstual yang lain,
Interaksi dengan kekuatan
eksekutif
Variabel Kontrol:
(1.)
ukuran
organisasional (keikut
sertaan) dan usia
(2.)
penarikan spp

perencanaan
formal
dengan
sekelompok
perusahaan yang dapat
dibandingkan
dengan
yang
tidak
menggunakan
perencanaan formal.
- Analisis Model Altman
- Analisis Cash Flow
-

Analisis

Rasio

Tradisional

model adopsi program


profesional mengguna kan
analisis kejadian sejarah
pada waktu yang berbedabeda. Analisis waktu yang
berbeda memungkin kan
estimasi model logit dari
hasil
dikotomi
untuk
serangkaian data pada
beberapa kumpulan waktu
tertentu, dimana unit yang
sama diamati pada interval
multipel.

Penggabungan
analisis
laporan cash flow dengan
analisis Altman
Z-score
merupakan pilihan terbaik
untuk menunjukkan gejala
kebankrutan Murray River
Development Ltd.

instruktif untuk memperluas


lingkup penyelidikan migrasi
yg jauh dari para elit dan
mempertimbangkan
bagaimana
gerakan
berbagai
partisipan
institusional
lainnya,
(profesional, pekerja tekhnik,
anggota sukarela wan dan
lainnya) secara signifikan
mempengaruhi stabilitas dan
perubahan
institusional.
Ketekunan
beberapa
institusi sosial tergantung
pada, level dasar, partisipasi
berbagai individual yang

perguruan
tinggi
(distandarisasi
menurut tahun untuk
mengurangi
efek
inflasi)

9.

Robert
Smith

W. PENGEL pelatihan etika, lingkup


OLAAN
jurisdiksi, dan beban kerja
ETIKA DI
dalam berbagai bidang
PALMET
seperti
pengungkapan
TO
kampanye
dan
STATE:
pengawasan.
STUDI
KASUS
TENTAN
G
KOMISI
ETIKA DI
NEGARA
BAGIAN
SOUTH
CAROLI
NA

stabil dan telah belajar


aturan serta telah diterima
sehingga mem butuhkan
nilai yang tepat. Dengan
memperhatikan pemahaman
ini poin awal sebuah variasi
arah
adalah
menarik
perubahan.

Deskriptif,
studi kasus

Bahwa
memang lebih
banyak sumber daya harus
disediakan pada Komisi,
lebih banyak staf harus
diangkap ditempatkan dalam
bidang-bidang
program
penting, dan lebih banyak
kebutuhan pelayanan harus
dipenuhi.
Tetapi
dapat
banyak aspek, pertanyaan
ini tidak sama dengan
pertanyaan apakah adanya
Komisi ini ada pengaruhnya
atau tidak. Komisi etika
apapun menurut anggapan
orang, bagaimanapun juga,
merupakan
lembagalembaga pemerintah negara
bagian dan lembagalembaga kecil di negara
bagian.
Keberhasilan
mereka
akhirnya
akan
tergantung pada komitmen
pemimpin politik negara

bagian dan rakyat negara


bagian untuk menuntut agar
etika memainkan peran
yang lebih besar
dalam
pemerintahan
pemerintah
negara bagian menjelang
Abad ke-21

1
0.

Niklas

REPRO

Luhmann,

DUKSI

Biefield

DIRI

HUKUM
DAN
BATASA
NBATASA
NNYA

Konsep