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Thermodynamics 

• is that branch of the physical sciences that

treats of various phenomena of energy and
the related properties of matter, especially
of the laws of transformation of heat into
other forms of energy and vice versa.
• And the movement of energy from one location
to another.
STATE - refers to the condition of the substance as
BASIC PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS AND identified through its properties
Process- If any one or more properties of a system
 Working Substance - usually a fluid, in which change, the system is said to have undergone a process.
energy can be stored or which it can be
 Fluid - is a substance that exist, characterizes by
 Low resistance to flow
 Tendency to assume the shape of its
 THE THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM Cycle - When a certain mass of fluid in a particular
 Is that portion of the universe, an atom, a state passes a series of process and return to its
galaxy, a certain quantity of matter, or a initial state.
certain volume in space, that one wish to
study. It is a region enclosed by specific
boundaries, which may be imaginary,
either fixed or moving.

 Two types of systems are considered in

thermodynamics analyses: SYSTEM OF UNITS:
Isaac Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion- states that if an
unbalanced force acts in a body:
 Closed system (or control mass) :consists
of a fixed amount of mass. No mass can • The body will accelerate in the direction of the
enter or leave a closed system, but energy, unbalanced force.
on the other hand, may cross the boundary • The acceleration will be proportional to the
in the forms of heat or work. unbalanced force and inversely proportional to
the mass of the body.
Note: The mass of a closed system is fixed (but not
necessarily the volume. a α F/m
 Open system (or control volume) consists
of a properly selected region in space a = F (gc) / m
enclosing a device which involves mass F=m a / gc
flow such as a compressor, turbine, heat
exchanger, etc ... Both energy and mass may English SI
cross the boundary of a control volume, Lbf Kgm – m / s2 or N
which is called the control surface.
W =mg
F = Unbalanced Force ENG MKS SI
m= Mass of Substance, Lbm , Kgm Lbf Kgf N
a = observed or local gravitational acceleration
gs= standard gravitational constant
gc= proportionality constant Example:
 What is the weight of a 66kgm man @ standard
@ gc= proportionality constant condition in Kgf?

Eng Specific Volume, Density & Specific Weight

32.2 Lbm–Ft /Lbf–s2
Density ρ,- of any substance is it s mass (not
MKS weight) per unit volume.
9.8066kgm – m / kgf – s2
1 kgm – m / N – s2 Eng MKS SI
lbm / ft3 kgm / m3 or kgm / L kg / m3
@ gs= standard gravitational constant
Mass density of water @ sea level when it is @ std
ENG MKS SI Temp. and Press ( STP)
32.2 ft / s2 9.8066 m/ s2 9.8066 m/ s2
ρ= 62.4 lbm / ft3 = 1 kgm / L = 1000 kgm / m3
 1 kgf = 9.0866 N = 2.2 lbf
Specific volume – volume per unit mass
Note: use std. gravitational acceleration ( gs ) if the
observed grav. Acceleration ( a ) not given v=V/m=1/ρ


 general classifications: ENG MKS SI

Intensive property- is one that is 1ft3 = 7.481 gal` = 28.31 cm3

independent of the mass of the substance. 1000 L = 1 m3

– Pressure, density, specific volume, Weight Density / Specific weight Γ – force exerted by
specific weight, specific gravity, gravity per unit volume.
temperature, Specific Internal Energy.
Extensive property- is the one that is Γ = m g / V gc
dependent on the magnitude of the mass of Γ = ρ g / gc
the substance.
– Mass, Weight, Volume, Energy
lbf / ft3 kgf / m3 N / m3
Mass & Weight
Specific gravity ( SG) / Relative Density (RD) – is the
Mass , m – is the quantity of matter in a body. ratio of the mass density of a substance to the mass
Weight W – the force exerted by gravity on a given density of an equal volume of water
 Basis: 4C Temp of water at its max. density

SG = ρsubs / ρwater

= msubs / mwater
Absolute pressure when it is greater than Atmospheric
= Γsubs / Γ water Pressure

= W subs / Wwater Pabs = Patm + Pg

Absolute pressure when it is less than Atmospheric
Pressure – is the normal force exerted by the fluid per Pressure
unit area of the surface.
Pabs = Patm - Pv
Lbf / in2 (psi) kgf / cm2 N / m2 (Pa)

Some values
 Units @ absolute value:
 1 Patm = 101.325 kpa
 = 14.7 psi
 = 760 mmHg
 = 29.92 inHg
 = 1.033 kg/cm2

1 BAR = 100 kpa

The Absolute Pressure (Pabs)

 Graphical Representation of Pabs


condition Pv


Abs Zero condition P=0 T=0 V=0