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EXERCISE CHAPTER 4

1. The following table gives the probability distribution of a discrete random


variable X.
x
P(x)

0
0.03

1
0.17

2
0.22

3
0.31

4
0.15

5
0.12

Find the following probability:


a) exactly 1.
P(x = 1) = 0.17
b) at most 1
P(x 1) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) = 0.03 + 0.17 = 0.20
c) at least 3.
P(x 3) = P(x = 3) + P(x = 4) + P(x = 5)
= 0.31 + 0.15 + 0.12
= 0.58

OR
P(x 3) = 1 P(x 2) = 1
= 1 [0.03+0.17+0.22)]
= 1 0.42
= 0.58
d) 2 to 5.
P(2 x 5) = P(x = 2) + P(x = 3) + P(x = 4) + P(x = 5)
= 0.22 + 0.58
= 0.8

OR
P(2 x 5) = 1- P(x 1) = 1 [P(x = 0) + P(x = 1)]
= 1 [0.2]
= 0.8
e) more than 3.
P(x > 3) = P(x = 4) + P(x = 5) = 0.15 + 0.12 = 0.27

2. The following table lists the frequency distribution of the data collected by a
local research agency.
Number of TV sets
own
Number of families

a)

110

891

329

340

151

76

103

Construct the probability distribution table.


Number of TV
sets own
Number of
families

total

110

891

329

340

151

76

103

2000

P(x)

1
0.055 0.4455 0.1645

b)

0.17

0.0755

0.038

0.0515

Let X denote the number of television sets owned by a randomly


selected family from this town. Find the following probabilities:
i.

exactly 3.

ii.

more than 2.

iii.

at most 2.

iv.

1 to 3.

v.

at least 4.

3. According to a survey 65% university students smokes. Three students are


randomly selected from this university. Let X denote the number of students
in this sample who does not smokes.
a)

Draw a tree diagram for this problem.

Let s = smoke
= not smoke

b)

Construct the probability distribution table.


X

0
1
2
3
2
0.65
3(0.35)(0.65 ) 3(0.65)(0.352)
= 0.2746
= 0.4436
= 0.2389

P(X)
c)

3
0.353
0.0429

Total
1

Let X denote the number of students who does not smoking is


selected randomly. Find the following probability:
i.

at most 1.

ii.

1 to 2.

iii.

at least 2.
OR

iv.

4.

more than 1.

The following table gives the probability distribution of the number of


camcorders sold on a given day at an electronic store.
Camcorder sold
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Probability
0.05
0.12
0.19
0.30
0.18
0.10
0.06
Calculate the mean and standard deviation for this probability distribution.

= 2.98

5. According to a survey, 30% of adults are against using animals for research.
Assume that this result holds true for the current population of all adults. Let
x be the number of adults who agrees using animals for research in a
random sample of three adults. Obtain:
Let A = adults who agree
0.7
0.7
0.7

A
0.3

0.7

0.3
0.3
0.7
0.3

0.7

A
0.3

0.3

0.7

A
4

0.3

a)

the probability distribution of X.


X
P(X)

b)

0
0.33
= 0.027

1
3(0.32)(0.7)
= 0.189

2
3(0.72)(0.3)
= 0.441

3
0.73
0.343

Total
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mean.

= 2.1
c)

standard deviation.

6. In a genetics investigation, cat litters with ten kittens are studied which of
three are male. The scientist selects three kittens randomly. Let X as the
number of female kittens that being selected and construct probability
distribution for X (you may use tree diagram to represent the above event).
Based on the probability distribution obtained, find the:

P(X)

a)

Total

mean.

= 2.1
b)

standard deviation.

7. A box holds 5 whites and 3 black marbles. If two marbles are drawn
randomly without replacement and X denoted the number of white marbles,

W
W
B
W
B
B

a)

Find the probability distribution of X.

P(X)

=
= 0.3571

= 0.5357

b)

Total

Plot the cumulative frequency distribution (CFD) of X.

10.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 X


0

8. The following table is the probability distribution for the number of traffic
accidents occur daily in a small city.
Number of
accidents (Y)
P(y)

a)

0.10

0.20

9a

3a

Find the probability of:


i. exactly three accidents occur daily.

ii.

between one and four accidents occur daily.

9(0.05) + 3(0.05)
= 0.6
iii.

at least three accidents occur daily.

= 1- [P(y = 0) + P(y = 1) + P(y = 2)]


= 1 (0.1 + 0.2 + 9(0.05))
= 1 0.75
= 0.25
iv.

more than five accidents occur daily and explain your answer.

There is no accident more than 5 times


per day
b)

Traffic Department of that small city expects that 5 accidents occur


daily. Do you agree? Justify your opinion.

=2
No, the mean for accident occur daily is only 2.
c)

Compute the standard deviation.


Stdev =

9. The manager of large computer network has developed the following


probability distribution of the number of interruptions per day:
Interruptions(Y)
P(y)

a)

0
0.32

1
0.35

2
0.18

3
0.08

4
0.04

5
0.02

6
0.01

Find the probability of:


i.
more than three interruptions per day.

ii.

from one to five interruptions per day.

iii.

at least an interruption per day.

0.32

b)

Compute the expected value.

c)

Compute the standard deviation.

10. You are trying to develop a strategy for investing in two different stocks. The
anticipated annual return for a RM1, 000 investments in each stock has the
following probability distribution.

Stock A
-100
0
80
150

Returns (RM), X
Stock B
50
150
-20
-100

a)

Find the value of a.

b)

Compute,
i.
expected return for Stock A and Stock B.

ii.

c)

P(x)
0.1
0.3
0.3
a

standard deviation for both stocks.

Would you invest in Stock A or Stock B? Explain.

We should invest in Stock A because it has small spread.


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11.

Classify each of the following random variables as discrete or continuous.


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

The time left on a parking meter.


The number of goals scored by a football player.
The total pounds of fish caught on a fishing trip.
The number of cans in a vending machine.
The time spent by a doctor examining a patient.
The amount of petrol filled in the car.
The price of a concert ticket.

continuous
discrete
continuous
discrete
continuous
continuous
continuous

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TUTORIAL CHAPTER 4
The random variable X represents the number of children per family in a rural;
area in Ohio, with the probability distribution: p(x) = 0.05x, x = 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

1.

Express the probability distribution in tabular form.


ANSWER:
x
p(x)

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

2.

Find the expected number of children per family.

3.

Find the variance and standard deviation of X.


s

4.

Find the following probabilities:


a. P(X 4) = P(4)+ P(5) +P(6)
= 0.2 + 0.25+ 0.3
= 0.75
b. P(X > 4) = P(5) + P(6)
= 0.25 + 0.3
= 0.55
c. P(3 X 5) = P(3) + P(4) + P(5)
= 0.15 + 0.2 + 0.25
= 0.60
d. P(2 < X < 4) = P(3) = 0.15

e. P(X = 4.5) = 0

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