Anda di halaman 1dari 33

# Queueing Systems



Goals:


## Introduction to Principles for Reasoning

about Process Management/Scheduling



2

Queueing Model


Discussion


## If a bus arrives at a bus stop every 15

minutes, how long do you have to wait
at the bus stop assuming you start to
wait at a random time?

Discussion


## The mean value is (0+15)/2 = 7.5 minutes

What assumption have you made about the
distribution of your arrival time?

Discussion


## The mean value is (0+15)/2 = 7.5 minutes

What assumption have you made about the
distribution of your arrival time?
The above mean assumes that your arrival time to
the bus station is uniformly distributed within [0, 15]
6

## Queuing Theory (M/M/1 queue)

Server

ARRIVAL RATE
(Poisson process)

Input Queue

SERVICE RATE

## the distribution of inter-arrival times between two consecutive arrivals is

exponential (arrivals are modeled as Poisson process)
service time is exponentially distributed with parameter

M/M/1 queue


The M/M/1 queue assumes that arrivals are a Poisson process and the
service time is exponentially distributed.
Interarrival times of a Poisson process are IID (Independent and Identically
Distributed) exponential random variables with parameter

Arrival times:

## - each interarrival i follows

an exponential distribution

2
t

Arrival rate

Service rate
CPU

Appendix: exponential
distribution


If is the exponential random variable describing the distribution of interarrival times between two consecutive arrivals, it follows that:

A(t ) = P{ t} = 1 e


cumulative distribution

function (cdf)

## The probability density function (pdf) is:

d
t
a(t ) = A(t ) = e
dt

Arrival rate

Service rate
CPU

t
Probability to have the first
arrival within is 1-e-

Queueing Theory


## M/M/1 queue model:





Poisson arrival with constant average arrival rate (customers per unit time)
Each arrival is independent.
Interarrival times are IID (Independent and Identically Distributed) exponential
random variables with parameter
What are the odds of seeing the first arrival
before time t?

P{ t} = 1 e t
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_distribution
for additional details



(t )
n!

11

## Analysis of Queue Behavior

n
t
e (t )
Probability n customers arrive within time interval t is:
n!

Do you see any connection between previous formulas and the above one?

12

## Analysis of Queue Behavior

n
t
e (t )
Probability n customers arrive in time interval t is:
n!

Do you see any connection between previous formulas and the above one?

Consider the waiting time until the first arrival. Clearly that time is more
than t if and only if the number of arrivals before time t is 0.

P( > t ) =

(t )
0!

= e t

P( t ) = 1 P( > t ) = 1 e t
13



## The average number L of customers in a stable system is equal to the average

arrival rate times the average time W a customer spends in the system


It does not make any assumption about the specific probability distribution followed by the
interarrival times between customers

= arrival rate

Lq = Wq

L=W

##  number of customers in the system

In words average number of customers is arrival rate times average waiting time
14

## Analysis of M/M/1 queue

model

= <1

Server Utilization:

mean time Ws a customer spends in the server is 1/, where is the service rate.

## According to M/M/1 queue model, the expected number of customers in the

Queue+Server system is:

L=

Quiz: how can we derive the average time W in the system, and the average
time Wq in the queue?


15

## Analysis of M/M/1 queue

model
Quiz: how can we derive the average time W in the system, and the average time
Wq in the queue?
 Use Littles theorem

1
W =

Wq =

Littles Law!

2
Lq =
1

16

## Copyright : Nahrstedt, Angrave, Abdelzaher

Hamburger Problem


## 8 Hamburgers are processed by Joe on average every unit

1.

Av. time hamburger waiting to be eaten? (Do they get cold?) Ans = ????

2.

Queue

17

## Copyright : Nahrstedt, Angrave, Abdelzaher

Hamburger Problem


## 8 Hamburgers are processed by Joe on average every unit

1)

2)

How long is a hamburger waiting to be eaten? (Do they get cold?) Ans = 7/8
time units
How many hamburgers are waiting in queue to be serviced? Ans = 49/8

Queue

18

server?
=3

=2

19

server?
=2

=3

66%
20

system?
=3

=2

21

system?
=3

=2

1 = 1/(3-2)= 1
W =

22

queue?
=3

=2

queue?
=3

=2

Wq =
= .66 =.66
3 2

24

=3

=2

=3

=2

2 .662

Lq =
=
=1.33
1 1.66
26

Interesting Fact


## As approaches one, the queue length

becomes infinitely large.

27

## Until Now We Looked at Single

Server, Single Queue
ARRIVAL RATE

Server

Input Queue

SERVICE RATE

28

## Sum of Independent Poisson Arrivals

ARRIVAL RATE 1

ARRIVAL RATE 2


Server

Input Queue

SERVICE RATE

If two or more arrival processes are independent and Poisson with parameter i,
then their sum is also Poisson with parameter equal to the sum of i

= 1+ 2

29

## As long as service times are

exponentially distributed...
SERVICE RATE 1
Server
ARRIVAL RATE

Combined =
1+
2
Input Queue

Server
SERVICE RATE 2
30



## B) Same Queue for Servers

Quiz: if WA is waiting time for system A, and WB is waiting time for system
B, which queuing system is better (in terms of waiting time)?

31




P = 2/4 = 0.5

0.25 seconds
32








## Scenario B;  x=2 & u=4

Xt = x1 + x2+x3 = 6
Ut = U1+U2+U3 = 12

## P = 6/(3*4) = 6/12 = 0.5

Wq = p/(Ut-Xt) = 0.5/(12-6) = 0.5/6 = 0.0833
seconds
33