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# Diseo de Sistemas Elctricos I:

Residencial
(Sistema PV)

## Dr. Lionel R. Orama Exclusa, PE

Photovoltaic Technology-PV

15/11/2007

## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Photovoltaic Technology-PV

15/11/2007

## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations
Energy
Power vs. Energy
In a DC System:
Power = Voltage x Current
Energy = Power x Time of use
Example:
V=12V, I=6A, t=5hr
P=V x I=12Vx6A=72Watts
E=P x t=72Wx5hr=360Wh=0.36kWh
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## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations

15/11/2007

## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations
Daily radiation @ 18.6 deg inclination

800

for January

600

400

200

10

12

14

15/11/2007

## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations

Compare yearly average: 5.5 at LMM Inter. Airport; 4.1 at Mayagez (26% less)
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## Why is the Radiation important?

Ex: Kyocera Model KC170GT

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Diseo Renovable
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Determine your energy consumption demands

Determine the sun hours available per day
Size the PV module array
Size the Battery bank (if necessary)
Size the Inverter and specify any other
components

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## Energy Demand (AC)

Run by an Inverter

15/11/2007

Watts

Hrs/W
k

Wh/Wk

10

## Energy Demand (DC)

Description of DC

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Watts

Hrs/Wk

Wh/Wk

11

Inverter
Efficiency

Appliance

ac

Refrigerator

dc

Qty
10

VA
300

Watts
(VA)
Mult. by
1.15 for
AC

Hr
s.

Hrs.
Per
Day

3,450

24

82,800

Days
7

Days
Per
Week

Avg.
Watt
Hrs./Da
y

579,600

82,800

Lights
Column

647

744

12

8,929

62,500

Freezers

300

1,380

24

33,120

231,840

Total
watt-hr
per day
124,849

correcti
on
factor
1.25

Corrected
watt-hr per
day
156,061

pag21

7
8,929
7
33,120

Batteries
Efficiency

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12

Minimum value of

Winter

## Corrected load in Watthrs per day

Watts needed to be
generated at maximum
Sun capacity
Power produced by
each PV module
(ratings)
Minimum amount of
modules needed for the
application
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Yearly Average

3.37

# modules

4.09

156,060.75

156,060.75

46,308.83

38,156.66

370

370

125.36

103.25

## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Amount of modules
needed for the
application

126

Yearly average of

13

## Battery Bank Sizing

Amount of Watt-hrs
per day from pag19

124,848.60

## Total days of energy

needed from batteries

873,940.20

To maintain life
expectancy of batteries,
preceeding number is
divided by 50%

## Selected batteries watthr capacity

Number of
batteries required

# batteries
356

the days needing
batteries

1,747,880.40
1,747,880.40

## Preceeding number is multiplied by

a temperature factor affecting
battery capacity (1.0 in Puerto Rico)

4920

355.26

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required

## Main Equipment Cost

PV components Approximate costs:
Modules - \$5/W
Bateries - \$3/W/day
Inverters - \$0.7/W





## 1000W system with 2 days of storage:

\$5000 for modules
\$4000 for batteries
\$700 for a 2kW inverter
Total=\$9,700 in equipment alone

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


15/11/2007

## INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

15

Pay Back
If produce 5kWh daily, 30 days/mo
Monthly savings=\$27
Simple Payback is 30years
Without batteries would be 18years




## How to make it work?

Tech. Breakthroughs
If Silver Cell technology reduces
75% in module cost
Simple Payback would be
6years

Government incentives

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