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Diseo de Sistemas Elctricos I:

Residencial
(Sistema PV)

Dr. Lionel R. Orama Exclusa, PE

Photovoltaic Technology-PV

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INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Photovoltaic Technology-PV

15/11/2007

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations
Energy
Power vs. Energy
In a DC System:
Power = Voltage x Current
Energy = Power x Time of use
Example:
V=12V, I=6A, t=5hr
P=V x I=12Vx6A=72Watts
E=P x t=72Wx5hr=360Wh=0.36kWh
15/11/2007

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations
Radiation
Radiation is an issue

15/11/2007

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations
Radiation
Daily radiation @ 18.6 deg inclination

800

Mayagez Area Daily


radiation @ 18.6 degrees
for January
Radiation (W/m^2)

600

400

200

10

12

14

Hour (1=6am 12=6pm)


Total radiation
Beam radiation
Diffuse radiation
Reflected radiation

15/11/2007

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

PV-Considerations

Compare yearly average: 5.5 at LMM Inter. Airport; 4.1 at Mayagez (26% less)
15/11/2007

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Why is the Radiation important?


Ex: Kyocera Model KC170GT

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INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Diseo Renovable
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Determine your energy consumption demands


Optimize your power system demands
Determine the sun hours available per day
Size the PV module array
Size the Battery bank (if necessary)
Size the Inverter and specify any other
components

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INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Energy Demand (AC)


Description of AC Loads
Run by an Inverter

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Watts

Hrs/W
k

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Wh/Wk

10

Energy Demand (DC)


Description of DC
Load

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Watts

Hrs/Wk

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Wh/Wk

11

Energy Audit-Total for buildings


Inverter
critical loads
Efficiency

Load Evaluation Form

Appliance

ac

Refrigerator

dc

Qty
10

VA
300

Watts
(VA)
Mult. by
1.15 for
AC

Hr
s.

Hrs.
Per
Day

3,450

24

82,800

Days
7

Days
Per
Week

Avg.
Watt
Hrs./Da
y

579,600

82,800

Lights
Column

647

744

12

8,929

62,500

Freezers

300

1,380

24

33,120

231,840

Total
watt-hr
per day
124,849

Load
correcti
on
factor
1.25

Corrected
watt-hr per
day
156,061

pag21

7
8,929
7
33,120

Batteries
Efficiency

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INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

12

Solar Array Sizing


Minimum value of
solar radiation

Solar Array Sizing Worksheet


Winter

Corrected load in Watthrs per day


Watts needed to be
generated at maximum
Sun capacity
Power produced by
each PV module
(ratings)
Minimum amount of
modules needed for the
application
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Yearly Average

3.37

# modules

4.09

156,060.75

156,060.75

46,308.83

38,156.66

370

370

125.36

103.25

INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007

Amount of modules
needed for the
application

126

Yearly average of
solar radiation

13

Battery Bank Sizing


Amount of Watt-hrs
per day from pag19

124,848.60

Total days of energy


needed from batteries

873,940.20

To maintain life
expectancy of batteries,
preceeding number is
divided by 50%

Selected batteries watthr capacity

Number of
batteries required

Battery Sizing Worksheet


# batteries
356

Watt-hrs needed during


the days needing
batteries

1,747,880.40
1,747,880.40

Preceeding number is multiplied by


a temperature factor affecting
battery capacity (1.0 in Puerto Rico)

4920

355.26

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INEL 4407 L.R.Orama 2007Minimum number of batteries 14

required

Main Equipment Cost


PV components Approximate costs:
Modules - $5/W
Bateries - $3/W/day
Inverters - $0.7/W





1000W system with 2 days of storage:


$5000 for modules
$4000 for batteries
$700 for a 2kW inverter
Total=$9,700 in equipment alone





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15

Pay Back
If produce 5kWh daily, 30 days/mo
Monthly savings=$27
Simple Payback is 30years
Without batteries would be 18years




How to make it work?


Tech. Breakthroughs
If Silver Cell technology reduces
75% in module cost
Simple Payback would be
6years

Government incentives

Living in remote areas


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