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+Stating Your Opinion

In my opinion,

According to me,

In my view,

To me,

It seems to me that

I believe

From my perspective

To my way of thinking

It appears that

I suppose

I realize

I understand

From my point of view,

I imagine

I think

I feel

Giving Examples
For example,

For instance,

such as

In other words,

that is

namely

as
To illustrate

like
To paraphrase

Comparing
Similar to

As...as

Either...or

In the same way,

Just as

resemble

in common
Neither...nor

also
At the same time

Contrasting
However,

But

On the contrary,

On the other hand,

Although

Though

Alternatively,

Even though

Differ from
Otherwise
Generalizing

Nevertheless
Instead

Generally,

Generally speaking,

In general,

By and large,

Overall,
It seems to me that
All in all,

Essentially,
All things considered
Expressing Certainty
Certainly,

On the whole,
I believe

Basically,
As a rule,
For the most part
Undoubtedly,

Doubtless,

No doubt,

Definitely,

Of course,

Expressing Partial Agreement


More or less,

To some extent,

In a way,

So to speak,

Up to a point,

Almost,

Showing cause
Due to

Because

Because of

Owing to

Therefore,

As a result,

Consequently,

For this reason,

Thus,

So,

Hence,

The reason why

First,

Last

Second,

Lastly,

Firstly,

First of all,

Thirdly,

After

During

While

Simultaneously

After this / that

Afterwards

Following this

Showing effect

thereby
Marking time

Third,
Secondly,

To begin with
Since
When
Adding Information

Eventually,

Then,
Before

At the same time


Meanwhile
As soon as

Furthermore

In addition

Moreover

Similarly

Also
Likewise
Besides
Even

Expressing condition

And
As well as
Too

Whats more

If

Whether

Provided that

So that

In case

Unless

Concluding
To summarize

In conclusion

Lastly,

Finally,

To conclude with,

In short,
Vocabulary-Traders

TannerOne who converts raw hide into leather


CutlerOne who makes or deals in cutting instruments, e.g. knives
Scavenger.One who cleans the street
CharwomenA woman employed to clean inside a building
ConfectionerOne who sells sweets and pastries

CrimpOne who entraps men to serve in the army


CroupierOne who collects the bets and pays out to the winner in the gambling club
JanitorOne who takes care of a building
PoultererOne who sells fowls, ducks, turkeys etc
CashierOne who pays out money at a bank
Teller One who pays out money at a bank
UpholstererOne who makes and sells cushions and covers for motor-cars
UsurerOne who lends money at an exorbitant rate
CartographerOne who draws maps
PhilatelistOne who collects postage stamps
ConjurorOne who performs tricks by sleight of hands
Prestidigitator One who performs tricks by sleight of hands
Juggler One who performs tricks by sleight of hands
FunambulistOne who walks on ropes
AcrobatOne who performs daring gymnastic feats
GrazierOne who pastures cattle for the market
HucksterOne who travels from place to place selling miscellaneous articles
Pedlar One who travels from place to place selling miscellaneous articles
Chapman One who travels from place to place selling miscellaneous articles
Hawker One who travels from place to place selling miscellaneous articles
PotterOne who makes pots, cups etc

TinkerOne who goes place to place mending pots


ShoemakerOne who mends shoes
Cobbler One who mends shoes
ColporteurOne who travels from place to place selling religious articles

PeripateticA teacher who travels from place to place to give instructions


InvigilatorOne who watches over students taking an examination
CuratorA person in charge of museum
AlmonerA hospital welfare officer

LibrarianThe person in charge of library


PrincipalThe head of a college
MayorThe head of a town council or corporation
PawnbrokerOne who lends money and keeps goods as security

ScrivenerOne who draws up contracts and also lends money on interest


ShipwrightOne who builds ships
StevedoreOne who loads and unloads ships
WheelwrightOne who makes wheels for carriages and carts
AuctioneerOne who sells articles at public sales
UndertakerA tradesman who manages funerals

VeterinarianOne skilled in the treatment of diseases of animals


StenographerOne who writes shorthand
PoetOne who writes poetry
NovelistOne who writes novels
AuthorOne who writes books
LexicographerOne who compiles a dictionary
StationerOne who sells paper, ink, pen and other writing materials
TaxidermistOne who preserves the skin of the animals
EthnologistOne well versed in the science of human races
AnthropologistOne who studies the evolution of mankind
PsychologistOne who studies the working of the human-mind
ChandlerOne who makes and sells candles
PlumassierOne who works or deals in feathers for apparel
BursarThe treasurer of a college or a university
PurserAn officer in charge of the stores and accounts on a ship
Vocabulary : Professions
OculistOne who attends to the diseases of the eye

OpticianOne who tests eyesight and sell spectacles


PhysicianOne who attends to sick people and prescribes medicines
DruggistOne who compounds and sells drugs
Pharmacist One who compounds and sells drugs
SurgeonOne who treats disease by performing operations
DentistOne who attends to the teeth

ChiropodistOne skilled in the care of hands and feet


MasseurOne who treats diseases by rubbing the muscles
ObstetricianA physician who assists women in child-birth
Accoucheur A physician who assists women in child-birth
ChauffeurOne who drives a motor-car

EngineerOne who attends to an engine


Doctor One who attends to sick people and prescribes medicines

CaptainThe person in charge of a ship


AdmiralThe commander of a fleet
SculptorOne who carves in stone
LapidaryOne who cuts precious stone
Lapidist One who cuts precious stone

JournalistOne who writes for the newspaper


Reporter One who writes for the newspaper
Correspondent One who writes for the newspaper
CompositorOne who sets type for books

ArchitectOne who draws and plans the design of the building


DraughtsmanOne who draws plans
FloristOne who deals in flowers
FruitererOne who deals in fruits
DroverOne who deals in cattle
CostermongerOne who sells fruits or vegetables
IronmongerOne who sells iron and hardware
HerbalistOne who deals in medicinal herbs
FishmongerOne who deals in fish
FurrierOne who deals in furs
BrazierOne who works in brass
GlazierOne who works in glass
VintnerOne who deals in wines
PlumberOne who works mending water pipes
StokerOne who attends to the fire of steam engine
CooperOne who makes barrels
NavvyOne employed to do excavating works
MillinerOne who makes and sells ladies hats
HaberdasherOne who sells small articles such as ribbons or thread or laces
DraperOne who deals in cloths and other fabrics
MercerOne who deals in silk

JockeyA professional rider in horse races


FarrierOne who shoes horses
OstlerOne who looks after horse in an inn
Hostler One who looks after horse in an inn
GeologistOne who studies rocks and soils

ArchaeologistOne who study the past through the objects left behind
AstronomerOne who studies the stars
PilotOne who flies an aero plane
Aviator One who flies an aero plane

CollierOne who works in a coal-mine


This OculistOne who attends to the diseases of the eye
OpticianOne who tests eyesight and sell spectacles

PhysicianOne who attends to sick people and prescribes medicines


DruggistOne who compounds and sells drugs
Pharmacist One who compounds and sells drugs
SurgeonOne who treats disease by performing operations
DentistOne who attends to the teeth

ChiropodistOne skilled in the care of hands and feet


MasseurOne who treats diseases by rubbing the muscles
ObstetricianA physician who assists women in child-birth
Accoucheur A physician who assists women in child-birth
ChauffeurOne who drives a motor-car

EngineerOne who attends to an engine


Doctor One who attends to sick people and prescribes medicines
CaptainThe person in charge of a ship
AdmiralThe commander of a fleet
SculptorOne who carves in stone
LapidaryOne who cuts precious stone
Lapidist One who cuts precious stone
JournalistOne who writes for the newspaper
Reporter One who writes for the newspaper
Correspondent One who writes for the newspaper
CompositorOne who sets type for books
ArchitectOne who draws and plans the design of the building
DraughtsmanOne who draws plans
FloristOne who deals in flowers
FruitererOne who deals in fruits
DroverOne who deals in cattle
CostermongerOne who sells fruits or vegetables
IronmongerOne who sells iron and hardware
HerbalistOne who deals in medicinal herbs
FishmongerOne who deals in fish
FurrierOne who deals in furs
BrazierOne who works in brass
GlazierOne who works in glass
VintnerOne who deals in wines

PlumberOne who works mending water pipes


StokerOne who attends to the fire of steam engine
CooperOne who makes barrels
NavvyOne employed to do excavating works
MillinerOne who makes and sells ladies hats

HaberdasherOne who sells small articles such as ribbons or thread or laces


DraperOne who deals in cloths and other fabrics
MercerOne who deals in silk

JockeyA professional rider in horse races


FarrierOne who shoes horses
OstlerOne who looks after horse in an inn
Hostler One who looks after horse in an inn
GeologistOne who studies rocks and soils

ArchaeologistOne who study the past through the objects left behind
AstronomerOne who studies the stars
PilotOne who flies an aero plane
Aviator One who flies an aero plane

CollierOne who works in a coal-mine


Vocabulary: Government
DemocracyGovernment of people of the people, for the people and by the people
AutocracyGovernment by a sovereign with uncontrolled authority
Despotism Government by a sovereign with uncontrolled authority
AristocracyGovernment by the nobility
BureaucracyGovernment by the departments of state
OligarchyGovernment by a few
Plutocracy Government by the wealthy
Hierarchy Government by priests or ecclesiastics
Hagiarchy Government by priests
Hagiocracy Government by priests
Theocracy Government by divine guidance
Episcopacy Government of the church by the bishops
Stratocracy Government by a military class
Kakistocracy Government by the worst citizens
AutonomyThe right of self-government

PoliticsThe science of Government


RevolutionA radical change in the Government
ReferendumTo decide the political question by the direct vote of the electorate
InterregnumThe period between two reigns
RegentOne who governs the kingdom during the infancy, absence of the sovereign
ConsortThe wife or husband of the king or queen
CensusAn official numbering of the population
Statistics.Facts and figures
Vocabulary: Marriage

MonogamistOne who has only one wife or husband at a time


BigamistOne who marries second wife or husband while the first legal spouse is alive
PolygamistMan who has more than one wife at a time
PolyandristWoman who has more than one husband at a time
MisogamistA hater of marriage
CelibateOne who vowed to a single or unmarried life
DivorceLegal dissolution of marriage of husband and wife
AlimonyPayment of money allowed to wife on legal separation from the husband
WidowerA man whose wife is dead
DowryThe property that the new wife brings to her husband
WidowA woman whose husband is dead

FiancOne engaged to be married


Fiance One engaged to be married
Betrothed One engaged to be married
Affianced One engaged to be married
TrousseauA brides outfit
BannsProclamation of intended marriage
ElopeTo run away with lover in order to get married
Vocabulary: Character
OptimistOne who looks on the bright side of things
Pessimist One who looks on the dark side of things
PhilanthropistOne who devotes his services for the love of mankind
MisanthropeA hater of mankind
Misanthropist A hater of mankind
MinionOne who becomes the favorite of a distinguished person and serves him
CynicOne who sneers at the believes of his fellow men
SomnambulistOne who walks in his sleep
SomniloquistOne who talks in his sleep
VentriloquistOne who has the art of speaking in such a way that the sounds seem to come from another
person
EgoistOne who delights to speak about himself
AltruistOne who devotes his life for the welfare and interests of other people
FugitiveOne who runs away from justice

RefugeeOne who takes refuge in a foreign country


Alien One who takes refuge in a foreign country
ExileOne who is banished from his country
IncendiaryOne who maliciously set fires to building

KleptomaniacOne who has irresistible tendency to steal


BibiliokleptOne who steals books
IconoclastOne who breaks images and church ornaments
MartyrOne who dies for a noble cause
RecluseOne who retires from society to live a solitary life
Hermit One who retires from society to live a solitary life
VolunteerOne who offers his services of his own free will
ConscriptOne who is compelled by law to serve as a soldier

RecruitA soldier or a sailor newly enlisted


NoviceOne new to anything
Tyro One new to anything
Neophyte One new to anything
ZoophilistA lover of animals

AmateurOne who engages in any pursuit for the love of it and not for any gain
FruitarianOne who feeds on fruits
VegetarianOne who eats only vegetable-foods
CannibalsOne who feeds on human flesh

ItinerantOne who journeys from place to place


PedestrianOne who journeys on foot
PilgrimOne who journeys to a holy place
MendicantOne who goes from placer to place begging alms
Beggar One who goes from placer to place begging alms
DemagogueA leader of people who can sway his followers by his oratory
SophistOne whos reasoning is clever but false
PedantOne who makes a display of his learning
ConnoisseurOne who special skills on judging arts, music etc
RaconteurAn expert at story telling
EavesdropperOne who listens to the conversations of others
PatriotOne who loves his country and serves it
ProphetOne who foretells events
EpicureOne devoted to pleasures of eating and drinking
SybariteOne given up to luxurious living
VoluptuaryOne given up to sensual pleasures and bodily enjoyment
HypocriteOne who pretends to be what he is not
Imposter One who pretends to be what he is not
MountebankOne who pretends to know about everything
Charlatan One who pretends to know about everything
Quack One who pretends to know about everything

MimicOne who imitates the voice and gestures of others


InterpreterOne who translates the speaking of others
LinguistOne who knows many languages
AmbidexterOne who can use both his hands
HostOne who entertains others

Hostess One who entertains others


ChaperonOne who accompanies a young lady to the public places
ProtgOne who is under the protection of others
Ward One who is under the protection of others

Prospectorone who searches for minerals and mining sites


CourierA messenger sent in great haste
CoxswainOne who steers a boat

ContortionistAn acrobat who bends his body into various shapes


MisogamistA hater of marriage
MisogynistA hater of women
ValetudinarianA man who is over anxious about his health

HecklerOne who worries a candidate for an election by awkward questions


CanvasserOne who tries to get votes for the election-candidate
OrthoepistAn authority on pronunciation
IngrateAn unthankful person
EmissaryOne sent out on a mission

AntiquaryA person who collects things belonging to the ancient times


NumismatistOne who collects coins
PredecessorOne who has been before in office
SuccessorOne who takes over an office after another person
AssassinOne who kills political persons
AccompliceA partner in a crime
CoadjutorOne who works along with another person
ContemporaryOne who is living at the same time as another
ObscurantOne who is opposed to intellectual progress
PantophagistOne who eats all kinds of foods
DipsomaniacOne who has irresistible desire for alcoholic drinks
Alcoholic One who has irresistible desire for alcoholic drinks
Teetotaler One who has irresistible desire for alcoholic drinks
Vocabulary: Nature
AmphibiousAt home equally on land and in water
GregariousLiving or moving in flocks or herds
Hibernationthe dormant condition in which the plants and animals pass the winter
Deciduoustrees which lose their leaves annually
RuminantA cud-chewing animals (e.g. a cow)
RodentA gnawing animal e.g. a rat
QuadrupedA four-footed animal
MarsupialsAnimals which carry their young in a pouch e.g. kangaroo
HumusSoil composed largely of decayed vegetable matter
AlluviumSoil washed down or carried away by rivers
InsecticideA preparation for killing insects
ParasiteA plant or animal growing on another
AnnualLasting for a single year
BiennialLasting for two years

PerennialLasting for many years


EmbryoThat part of the seed which develops into the plant
Germ That part of the seed which develops into the plant

RadicleThat part of the embryo which develops into the root


Plumule That part of the embryo which develops into the stem
GerminationThe process by which the young plant begins to grow
TranspirationThe process by which the plants excess water through their leaves
AssimilationThe process by which the plants manufacture food

RespirationThe process by which the plants and the animals breathe


AbsorptionThe process by which the plants take up mineral salts in solution through their roots
StomataTiny opening on the under surface of leaves through which the plants breathe
ChlorophyllThe green coloring matter in the leaves of plants CambiumA slimy substance between
wood and bark of a stem

StipulesA two leaf-like appendages at the base of few leaves


TendrilA spiral shoots of a plant which winds itself round another body for support
PollinationThe process by which the pollen dust is transferred
FertilizationThe entrance of pollen grains into the ovules in the ovary
DibbleAn instrument for making holes in the soil for seeds
NaturalistOne who studies plants and animal life
OffalThe parts of animal killed for foods which are rejected waste
OreRock from which metal is extracted
SpoorThe track of a wild animal
VenisonThe meat of deer
MuttonThe meat of Sheep
InflorescenceA cluster of flowers on a branch
CotyledonThe seed-leaves of the embryo
Mono-cotyledonousPlants with one seed-leaf e.g. corn
Di-cotyledonousPlants with two seed-leaf e.g. lime
RhizomeA thick underground stem
VertebrateAn animal with back-bone
InvertebrateAn animal without back-bone
KernelThat which is in inside of the nuts
Corethe central part of a fruit

FaunaThe animal of a certain region


FloraThe plants and other vegetation of a certain region
ChrysalisThe last through which an insect passes before it becomes a perfect insect
DroughtAbsence of rain for a long timeVocabulary-Nature is the list of words related to Nature.

LegibleWriting that is easy to read

Vocabulary: Opposites
IllegibleWriting that difficult to decipher
LiterateAble to read
IlliterateUnable to read

EdibleFit for eating


Inedible.Unfit fir eating
EligibleFit to be chosen or selected

Ineligibleunfit to be chosen or selected


AudibleLoud enough to be heard
InaudibleNot loud enough to be heard
LegitimateBorn of married parents
IllegitimateBorn of unmarried parents
ImportsGoods brought into a country
ExportsGoods carried out of country
The following words also can be added to the list stated above.
MigrateTo move from one country to another
EmigrateOne who leaves his country to settler in another
ImmigrantOne who comes to a foreign country to settle there
RepatriateTo send back a person to his own country
ExpatriateTo banish for ones country
PatriotismLove of ones country
TariffA list of duties payable on exports or imports
InvoiceThe list of goods dispatched with quantity and price to the purchaser
ConsigneeOne to whom goods are dispatched
Vocabulary: Negatives
ImpenetrableThat which can not be pierced or penetrated
ImpregnableThat which can not be taken by assault
ImpassableThat which can not be passed
InvincibleThat which can be conquered
InvulnerableThat which can not be wounded or injured
IrreducibleThat which can not be lessened

IrreparableThat which can not be repaired or remedied


IrreplaceableThat which can not be replaced in case of loss
InimitableThat which can not be imitated
IneffaceableThat which can not be rubbed out
IndelibleThat which can not be rubbed out

IndestructibleIncapable of being destroyed


InfallibleIncapable of making errors

IncorrigibleIncapable of being redeemed form evil


IncombustibleIncapable of being burnt
InevitableThat which can not be prevented or avoided
InexplicableThat which can be made plain or understood
ImperishableEnduring for all times

ImperviousNot admitting the passage of waters


InanimateNot endued with animal life
IndispensableAbsolutely necessary or that which can not be dispensed with
IrrelevantNot to the point
ImmortalUnable to die

Immovablethat which can not be moved


InaudibleThat which can not be heard
InvisibleThat which can not be seen
AphoniaTotal loss of voice
ContumacyWillful resistant to the lawful authority
AnticA fantastic trick
Vocabulary: Arts
PolytechnicAn institution for the education in the Arts and Sciences
AstronomyThe study of all heavenly bodies and the earth in relation to them
AgricultureThe art of tilling the soil
HorticultureThe art of cultivating and managing gardens
AgronomicsThe Science of land management
GenealogyThe science of family descent
ArchaeologyThe study of ancient building and prehistoric remains
PaleographyThe study of ancient writings
CalligraphyThe art of beautiful hand-writing
MetallurgyThe art of metal working
NumismaticsThe study of coins

MathematicsThe study of numbers


SurveyingThe art of measuring lands
TrigonometryThe science of triangles
TaxidermyThe art of preserving skins
PyrotechnicsThe art of making fire-works
ChromaticsThe science of colors

RhetoricThe art of elegant speech and writing


ElocutionThe art of effective speaking
AstrologyThe art of telling the future by the study of the stars
AnthropologyThe study of mankind

EthnologyThe science which deals with the varieties of human-kinds


AnatomyThe science of the structure of the human-body
PhysiologyThe science which deals with the way in which the human-body works

TechnologyThe scientific study of industrial arts


PsychologyThe study of the human-mind
PhysiognomyThe study of human face
BiologyThe study of living matter
BotanyThe study of plants

ZoologyThe study of animals


GeologyThe study of rocks and soils
OrnithologyThe study of birds
OologyThe study of eggs

OrologyThe study of mountains


PhilologyThe study of languages
EtymologyThe study of origin and history of words
AstronomyThe study of stars
LimnologyThe study of lakes
Vocabulary: Military
AggressionAn unprovoked attack by an enemy
BelligerentsNations carrying on warfare
ConscriptionsCompulsory enrolment as soldiers and sailors
CasualtiesThe killed or wounded in battle
ConvoyA number of ships traveling together under escort for the sake of safety
ContrabandSmuggling of goods and engaging in prohibited traffic
Espionagethe act or the practice of spying
EvacuateTo remove from one place to another to avoid the destruction of war
EmbargoAn order prohibiting the ships to leave the ports
Mobilizeto make troops and ships for war services
InvadeTo enter another country as an enemy
NeutralTaking neither side in a struggle
AlienAn illegal foreigner in a country

InternTo keep citizens in confinement


AmmunitionShells, bombs and other destructive items
Ordnanceheavy guns and army store-items
BayonetA knife fixed on to the end of a gun

ParoleA promise given by the prisoner if given a temporary release


PutteesLong cloths bound round the legs of soldiers from ankle to knee
ReveilleMusic for awakening the soldiers in the morning
ArsenalA place where naval or military weapons are made or stored
ParachuteAn apparatus which opens like an umbrella to enable a person to drop safely from an aircraft
VolleyA shower of bullets

SalvoThe firing of many guns at the same time to mark an occasion


CavalryHorse-soldiers

InfantryFoot-soldiers
FusilladeA number of fire arms discharged continuously
ReconnoiterTo make an examination of enemy territory
ArmisticeAn agreement to stop fighting

CapitulateTo surrender to an enemy on agreed terms


AnnihilateTo reduce to nothing
AmnestyA general pardon of offenders
Battalionthe main division of an army
BesiegeTo surround a place with the intention of capturing it
RecruitA soldier recently enlisted for services
LeaveA soldiers holiday
Furlough A soldiers holiday.
Bulletinofficial report on the progress of the war
DiplomacyThe art of conducting negotiations between nations
GarrisonA body of soldiers stationed in the fortress to defend it
GarrisonThe fortified fortress
BandolierA broad belt worn across the chest with pockets for carrying ammunitions
ConscriptA person who is forced by the law to become a soldier
Guerilla warAn irregular war conducted by scattered bands
ManoeuvreMovement of ships or troops in order to secure an advantage over the enemy
Commandeerto seize for military use
DemobilizeTo release from army
BivouacAn encampment in the open air
BivouacTo camp in the open air without tent
CanteenA place where soldiers can buy drinks and other refreshments
Vocabulary: Literature
DiaryA book in which the events of each day are recorded

DictionaryA book containing the words of a language with their definitions in an alphabetical order
DirectoryA book of names and addresses
LedgerA book of accounts showing debits and credits
EncyclopediaA book containing information on all branches of knowledge
AlbumA book with blank pages for putting pictures etc
CatalogueA list of books in a library

Bibliography A list of books in a library


GlossaryA list of explanation for the important words
MemoirsA written account, usually in a book form, of the interesting experiences of ones life
WatermarkThe trade mark of the maker seen on paper

WiseacreOne who pretends to have a great deal of knowledge


EpitomeA brief summary of book
ExcerptAn extract from a book of writing

CaptionThe heading of the chapter in a book


AxiomA statement which is accepted as true without proof
AgendaA list of headings to be executed in a meeting
JargonLanguage which is confused

ManifestoA declaration of plans put forward by a candidate for an election


ExpurgateTo remove the offensive portions from a book
ExtantStill in use
FrontispieceA picture facing the title of the book
CopyrightThe exclusive right of an author or his heirs to publish or sell copies of his books
ErratumAn error in printing

FacsimileAn exact copy of handwriting or a picture


CriterionA principle by which anything is judged
ExtemporeDelivered without previous preparation
Impromptu Delivered without previous preparation
PrologueA short speech by a player at the beginning of a play
Epilogue A short speech by a player at the end of a play
PlagiarismPassing of another authors works as ones own
EulogyA writing or a speech in praise of a person
Encomium A writing or a speech in praise of a person
AutographA persons own handwriting
AutobiographyA record of ones life written by himself
BiographyThe history of life of a person
ComedyA humorous play having a happy ending
TragedyA play with sad or tragic end
DirgeA mournful song for the dead
ElegyA poem of lamentation especially for the dead
Dialoguea conversation between two persons
SoliloquySpeaking to oneself
LucubrationStudy by night

AlliterationA succession of the same initial letters in a passage


MemorandumA note to help the memory
InventoryA list of articles pr goods available at a time
PerorationThe concluding part of the speech
HarangueA vehement speech indented to excite passions
GesticulateTo make expressive gestures while speaking
HackneyedLanguage that is very much used
EnunciateTo pronounce the words distinctively
DramatistOne who writes a play
Playwright One who writes a play

AcrosticA poem in which the first letters of each line, taken in order, form a name or a sentence
Vocabulary: Universe

Space: Space means the whole universe including the earth.


Outer Space: Outer Space means all space other than the earth. Outer space is vast.

Milky Way: Milky Way is our home galaxy. The Milky Way is faint band of light crossing the night

sky. It consists of stars in the Plane of our Galaxy. Milky Way is a spiral Galaxy about 100,000 light
years in diameter, containing at least 100 billion stars, like our sun.

Galaxy: The cluster or bunch of billions stars. There are about 100 billion galaxies in the universe.

Nebula: Nebula is the cloud of gas and dust in the space. Nebula is the birth-place of stars.

Solar System: Solar System comprises of the sun and the nine other planets which orbit the sun.

The Sun: The Sun is the star at the center of the solar system. The Sun is about 4.7 billion years

old and is composed about 70% hydrogen and 30% helium with other elements making up less than
1%. The Sun is at the distance of about 32,000 light years from the center of the Galaxy. The
diameter of the Sun is 1,392,000km.

Planets: The Planets are large celestial bodies in orbit around a star (SUN), composed of rock,
metal or gas. There are nine planets in our solar system. They are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus and Pluto.

Meteors: Meteor, the flash of light in the sky, popularly known as falling star or shooting star is
caused by a particles of dust. Meteoroid is a piece of rock or metal like substance from space that
reaches the earths surface or the surface of other celestial body.

Satellites: Satellites are small bodies that orbit a large one, either natural or artificial..

The Moon: The Moon is the natural satellite of our earth and is its nearest neighbor in space.

Comets: Comets are small icy bodies orbiting the sun, usually on a highly elliptical path.
Light Year: One light year is the distance light travels in one year at nearly 3, 00, 00 km a second.
This is the speed of the light.

Eclipses: Eclipse is the passage of an astronomical body through the shadow of another.
Lunar Eclipse: The moon is said to be in eclipse when the earth comes between the moon and the
sun and this is called lunar eclipse.

Solar Eclipse: The sun is said to be in eclipse when the moon comes between the sun and the earth
and this is called as Solar Eclipse.

Tides: The tide is rise and fall of sea level due to the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun.
The rise in the water level is called as high tide and the fall is called as low or ebb tide.

Atmosphere: Atmosphere is the mixture of gasses that surrounds the Earth, prevented from
escaping by the pull of the Earths gravity.

Climate: Climate is the weather conditions at a particular place over a period of time.

Deserts: Deserts are arid areas without sufficient rainfall and consequently without vegetations to
support human-life.

Earth-quake: It is the shaking of the earths surface as a result of the sudden release of stresses
built up in the earths crust.

Volcano: Volcano is a vent (small opening) in the earths crust from which molten, rock, lava, ashes
and gases are ejected.

Oceans: Oceans are the great mass of slat water.


River: River is a long water course that flows down a slope along a channel.

Lake: Lake is a body of still water lying depressed around without direct communication with the
sea.