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Judul Asli: Areas+Volumes+MHD.pdf

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Introduction

In Civil Engineering works, areas and volumes

determination finds very wide applications. Area

determination is required for: long bridges, dams, reservoirs, etc., the area of

catchments of rivers is required

Volume Determination is also required in: Earthworks that involves excavation and removal and

dumping

of earth and balancing of cut and fill

Determination of the capacity of bins, tanks, and reservoirs,

and

In checking the stockpiles of coal, gravel, and other material

Introductioncontd

Determination of such parameter varies widely

depending upon the terrain, instruments present

together with many other factors.

Therefore different techniques are involved in their

determination.

This section involves the study of techniques

involved in areas and volumes determination

together with the applications in development of

Mass Haul Diagrams ( to be explained later)

Areas

Area determination can de determined through

different techniques depending upon the shape of

the boundary of the tract and

accuracy required.

The area of a tract of land is determined from its

plan that may be enclosed by straight, irregular or

combination of straight and irregular boundaries.

Areas determination-Straight

boundaries

First approach-Mathematical Equations

Subdividing the figure into standard shapes like triangle,

trapezium, semi-circle, rectangle etc.

Then determining the area of such standard shapes

using known expressions like formula for area of triangle

etc.

Cont..

Triangular equation

i) Area = [S(S-a)(S-b)(S-c)]

where; S = (a+b+c)

Rectangular equation

i)

Area = a x b

Trapezium equation

i)

Area = (a + b) x h

b

B

b

c

A

= (b x h)

B

h

A

a

c0

Assigning a co-ordinate to each vertex of the figure

and then determining the area using appropriate

formula

The co-ordinates can be in either measured

distances from a reference line or as Eastings and

Northings.

Area deter.

Co-ordinate method

boundaries

Irregular boundaries can be replaced with straight

boundaries using give and take lines, and then

calculated using either of straight boundary

techniques.

This is a mechanical instrument used for determination

of areas of a plan.

Irregular

A polar planimeter

Irregular

Approximate method/ Calculation

Such approximate methods are either

Trapezoidal rule or

The total area = d/2 x [(O1 + O7 + 2 (O2 + O3 + O4 + O5+O6)]

Simpsons rule.

The total area = d / 3 [O1 + O7 + 4 (O2 + O4 + O6) + 2 (O3 + O5)]

Examples-Straight boundaries

Co-ordinate method

Example

Determine the area enclosed by the figure ABCD given

the co-ordinates as shown below:

Co-ordinate

Eastings and northings

Find the area of the following traversed piece of

land

Example-Irregular boundaries

Approximate methods

A tract of land has three straight boundaries AB, BC, and

CD. The fourth boundary DA is irregular. Measured

lengths are as shown. Determine the area.

To understand the cross section of the roads, it is

important to understand the process involved in

route alignment.

We will discuss the highlights of route alignment

process in the next section before going into

determination of areas of cross section

Cross-section development

process

CS

5

CS

1

CS

2

CS

3

CS

4

CS

6

CS

7

CS

8

Cross-section development

process- Contd

An accurate plan (say a topographical map) on which a

proposed route is to be designed is produced.

A centreline of the route is then defined as a set of

rectangular co-ordinates at each interval of say 10m to

30m.

Ground levels are obtained along the centreline and at

right angles of the centreline

The levels at centreline are the ground levels

and added to the existing ground levels. This

determines the areas of cut or fill

Cross-section development

process- Contd

Cross-section development

process- Contd

Additional information on the road width, camber

and side slope is added leading to the formation of

a cross section at decided intervals along the

centreline.

The cross sections at each interval is then

determined and necessary calculations can be

done.

Possible Cross-Sections

Area calculation

Area calculation depend on the type of crosssection under considerations

The types considered are

Two level cross-section

Three level cross section

Part cut part fill cross section

Multi-level cross section

Level Cross section

Area = h(b + nh)

Area = b/4(h1 + h2) + (w1 +w2)*h/2

The same formula as two level section is used. The slope

of the terrain varies.

Area = b/4(h1 + h2) + (w1 +w2)*h/2

Co-ordinate method

Area determination through co-ordinate method

can be applied to and cross-section regardless of

the shape of the section.

The co-ordinates for different points are given in

form of elevation/level and offset from the center

line.

Refer an extract from text book

Volume determination

Volume determination can be done through:

From cross-sections of roads

From Contours

From spot heights

sections

Methods applied;

Average areas

Vol. = {[A1 + A2 + A3 + A n+1 + An] / n} . L

Vol. = D/2 {(A1 + An) + 2(A2 + A3 + A n-1)}

Prismoidal method

SECTIONS

Example calculation

Calculate, using the prismoidal formula, the cubic contents of an embankment of which

the cross-sectional areas at 15m intervals are as follows :

Distance (m)

Area (m2)

0

11

15

42

30

64

45

72

60

160

75

180

90

220

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

=15 / 3 (11 + 220 + 4 ( 42 + 72 + 180 ) + 2( 64 + 160))

V = 5 ( 231 + 1176 + 448 )

V = 9275 m3

V = 9630 m3

Vol. = D/2 {(A1 + An) + 2(A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 + A6 )}

V = 15/2 {(11 + 220)+ 2 (42 + 64 + 72 + 160 + 180) }

V = 9502.5 m3

The volume can be estimated by either end area method or prismoidal method. The distance

D is the contour interval, and for accuracy this should be as small as possible. If required,

the prismoidal formula can be used by treating alternate areas as mid area.

Example:

The areas within the underwater contour lines of a reservoir are as

follows:

Calculate the volume of water in the reservoir between 172 m and

184 m contours.

Contour (m)

184

182

180

178

176

174

172

Areas (m2)

3125

2454 1630

890

223

110

69

Answer:-

Volume =

2/2 [3125+69 + 2(110 + 223 + 890 + 1630 + 2454)]

= 13808 m3

This method is useful in the determination of volumes of large open excavations for

tanks, basements, borrow pits, and for ground levelling operations such as playing fields and

building sites. Having located the outline of the sites, divide the area into squares or rectangles

or triangles. Marking the corner points and then determine the reduced level. By substracting

from the observed levels the corresponding formation levels, a series of heights can be found.

The volume per square = {[ha + hb + hc + hd] / 4} 1 x b

where;

ha, hb, hc and hd are the side spot height

l and b are the side dimensions

Figure 1 shows a rectangular plot, which is to be

excavated to the given reduced level. Assuming

area is subdivided into square method, calculate

the volume of earth to be excavated ( Excavated

level = 10.00m )

25.5 m

A(16.54m)

B(17.25m)

D(16.32m)

E(12.95m)

G(16.17m)

H(15.84m)

Solution:

Station

Reduced

Level

F(15.55m)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

16.54

17.25

15.40

16.32

12.95

15.55

16.17

15.84

13.38

I(13.38m)

n

= 83.21

16

C(15.40m)

Excavated

Level

Depth Of

excavated

(hn)

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

Total

6.54

7.25

5.40

6.32

2.95

5.55

6.17

5.84

3.38

No. Of

Rectangles

(n)

Product

( hn x n )

1

2

1

2

4

2

1

2

1

16

6.54

14.50

5.40

12.64

11.80

11.10

6.17

11.68

3.38

83.21

= 5.2 m

30.0 m

= 3978 m3

Figure 1 shows a rectangular plot, which is to be

excavated to the given reduced level. Assuming

area is subdivided into triangle method, calculate

the volume of earth to be excavated ( Excavated

level = 10.00m )

25.5 m

A(16.54m)

B(17.25m)

D(16.32m)

E(12.95m)

G(16.17m)

H(15.84m)

Solution:

Station

Reduced

Level

F(15.55m)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

16.54

17.25

15.40

16.32

12.95

15.55

16.17

15.84

13.38

I(13.38m)

n

= 123.99

24

C(15.40m)

Excavated

Level

Depth Of

excavated

(hn)

No. Of

Rectangles

(n)

Product

( hn x n )

6.54

7.25

5.40

6.32

2.95

5.55

6.17

5.84

3.38

2

3

1

3

6

3

1

3

2

24

13.08

21.75

5.40

18.96

17.70

16.65

6.17

17.52

6.76

123.99

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

Total

= 5.17 m

30.0 m

= 3955 m3

Are diagrammatic representation of earthwork

volumes along a linear profile

horizontal stationing is plotted along the X-axis

net earthwork values are plotted along the Y-axis

Uses

Mass-haul diagrams (MHD) are used to compare the

economy of various methods of earthwork distribution

on road or railway construction schemes.

MHD-Explanations on handout

Use of MHD

When combined with longitudinal profile MHD can

help us to find:

The distances over which cut and fill will balance.

Quantities of materials to be moved and the direction of

movement.

Areas where earth may have to be borrowed or wasted

and the amounts involved.

The best policy to adopt to obtain the most economic

use of plant.

Definitions

Haul

expressed in station metres.

Station metre(stn m)

Freehaul Distance

Distance which the contractor has offered to haul the materials without

extra charge

Overhaul Distance

Waste

is the material excavated from cuts but not used for embankment fills

Borrow

from roadway excavation but from elsewhere

Definitions

Limit of Economic Haul

Limit of economical haul is the maximum overhaul

distance plus the free haul distance. When this limit is

reached it is more economical to waste and borrow

material.

Example

Overhaul = 10 p per stn m (i.e. 10 p per m3 per 100m)

Borrow = 30 p per m3

Limit of economic haul:- Calculate

An Earthwork Profile is a plot of the net earthwork

along a roadway or airstrip

Net cut values are plotted above the X-axis

(positive Y value)

Net fill values are plotted below the X-axis

(negative Y value)

Presents a picture of the earthwork requirements

A Mass Haul Diagram is a continuous curve

representing the cumulative volume of earthwork

along the linear profile of a roadway or airfield

the vertical coordinate is a plot of the cumulative

earthwork from the origin to that point

upward sloping curves (rising left to right) indicate

a cut

downward sloping (falling left to right) curves occur

in a fill section

peaks indicate a change from cut to fill and valleys

occur when the earthwork changes from fill to cut

The accumulated volume of earthwork at the

horizontal axis (Y=0) is 0

When a horizontal line intersects two or more

points along the curve, the accumulated volumes at

those points are equal

A negative value at the end of the curve indicates

that borrow is required to complete the fill

A positive value at the end of the curve indicates

that a waste operation will be the net result

Diagram manually:

Compute the net earthwork values for each station,

applying the appropriate shrink factor

Net cuts have a positive value, net fills have a negative value

The value at the first station (origin) = 0

cumulative value to that point, i.e., the value at i = net

cut/filla+b+c+i

Diagram manually:

Identify the resulting balanced sections, which are

bounded by points that intersect the X-axis

Draw a horizontal line midway between the peak or

valley and the X-axis. The scale length of that line is

the average length of haul within that balanced

section

Determine earthwork volumes within each

balanced section

Determine whether there is an overall balance,

waste or if borrow is required

Refer an extract from textbook

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