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E3-222 Micromachining for

MEMS Technology
Module-1
Miniaturization Concepts, Benefits and
Technology common for for MEMS and VLSI

Professor K.N.Bhat
CeNSE / ECE Department
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore -560 012
Email :knbhat@gmail.com
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Module-1
Miniaturization Concepts, Benefits and
Materials for MEMS
Outline:
Need for Miniaturizing mechanical sensors and actuators
Benefits of Micromachining and Scaling for MEMS
Materials for Micromachining and MEMS
Why and how Silicon is the best material for MEMS
Silicon Processes common to VLSI and MEMS

Prof K.N.Bhat

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

This is a Revolution similar to


VLSI in Microelectronics
Deals with
1.Miniaturization and batch processing of
Sensors , Actuators and microstructures
2. Integration of mechanical components with
electronics
Prof K.N.Bhat

Classification of MEMS
MEMS structures and devices can be classified into
four major groups:
Passive (nonmoving) structures
Sensors, which respond to the world, (eg), pressure
Actuators (reciprocal of the sensors), which use
information to influence something in the world. (eg)
pump, valve, Resonating structures, filters etc
Micro-Systems that integrate both sensors and
actuators to provide some useful function
Prof K.N.Bhat

MEMS Categories and Application areas


Application
Areas

Transportation Communications Analytical &


Medical

Categories

MEMS
Infrared
Structures Imagers

MEMS
Sensors

Pressure ,
Acceleration,
& Angular
Rate

MEMS
Actuators

Aerodynamic
Flow Control

Optical & RF
Signal Guides,
Field Emission
Arrays

Micro Filters,
Micro
Channels
& - Mixers
Gas sensors

Acoustic
sensors
Displays, Optical Micro-pumps
switches, & RF
& -Valves
Switches &
Filters
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Batch Processing and miniaturization


Cost Reduction

Batch Processing

Miniaturization

Reliability &
Reproducibility
Low Power operation
Biomedical and
aerospace Applications
Prof K.N.Bhat

Need for Miniaturization of Sensors


(a) Intracranial Pressure (ICP)-15 to 30mmHg
(b) Blood Pressure (BP) 80/120mmHg
monitoring
The size of pressure sensor
to be inserted into the
Ventricle in the brain should
be within 1mm diameter and
it should be biocompatible

Oceanography- CTD
(Conductivity, Temperature & Pressure)
for Marine Engg (NPOL , Kochin)
P=1 bar for D = 10mters of water

.Mapping pressure on
the aerofoil of Aircraft

LCA
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Miniaturized Pressure sensors in automobile


1 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor
MAP sensor measures the absolute (with ref to vacuum)
pressure in the fluid intake to the manifold on a cars
engine. This enables the engine's electronic control unit
(ECU) to determine the air density and determine the
engine's air mass flow rate.
This determines the required fuel metering for optimum
combustion and influence the advance or retard of
ignition timing .
MAP sensor is a piezoresistive
Absolute Pressure sensor
Maximum operation range = 1bar
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2. Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)

(compulsory in USA) for real time sensing exact


pressure inside tire
The Motorola TPM pressure
sensor is capacitive type
and requires C to V
conversion stage uses less
than 0.5A in standby
mode.

Remote sensing module comprises Pressure


sensor, Signal Processor, Temperature Sensor
and RF Transmitter.
Pressure measurement information is displayed
in the cabin of the car
Prof K.N.Bhat

Principle of Operation of Pressure Sensors


Most of the pressure sensors operate based on
monitoring the deflection of a diaphragm using
transducers
Diaphragm: Metal foil anchored all around or any other
material such as Si, SiC, SiO2 , SiN , Diamond .
Transducers: capacitance , piezoresistor, piezoelectric
Silicon Micromachined Piezoresistive Pressure sensor

Prof K.N.Bhat

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Acceleration sensor in automobile


Fast deceleration, during a collision, triggers the air
bag sensors ( accelerometer) which turns on a switch
and heats the propellant, the chemical reaction
produce N2 which inflates the cloth air bag. The air
bag fully inflates in less than 1/20 of a second, and then
it starts deflating, cushioning the impact.

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Silicon Micromachined Capacitive sensor is used as crash sensor

Principle of operation of Accelerometers

Mass supported by a spring anchored


to the frame at the other end

Monitor the displacement x by


capacitive, piezoresistive or
piezoelectric method .
How do we realize this springmass system by silicon
micromachining ? What are the
design considerations ?
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Mcromachined Silicon
accelerometer
Mass

Electrodes
(Cr / Au)

Beam
Si or
PolySi
SiO2 (1 m)
Bulk Si

Prof K.N.Bhat

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Miniaturization of Actuators

Micropumps for l/minute pumping


(1) Drug delivery drug dosage control
(2) Lubricating bearings of gyro motor space application.
Actuation
Mechanism
Pump Diaphragm
Inlet Valve

Pump Chamber
Outlet Valve

Inlet
Valve Threshold
Pressure p (crit) Stroke Volume V

Outlet
Chamber Pressure p
Chamber Volume Vo
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Deformable diaphragm
4mmx4mmx25m

MICRO PUMP

Pyrex
Spacer
layer 4m

Counter
electrode

Inlet check valve

Outlet check valve


pumping rate is 70 micro
liters /min. at 25Hz
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Micropump Animation
Pulse

Fluid

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Micropump Actuation
Pulse

Fluid

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Miniaturization of cantilevers and beams


DNA analysis

RF resonators and filters for


defense and communication
GHz frequency

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Prof K.N.Bhat

SiO2 Cantilever beams: fabricated at CEN IISc Bangalore


by TMAH etching of Si using bulk micromachining : L= 65

m , W= 15 m thickness =0.52 m , Stiffness


k=0.134N/m

Prof K.N.Bhat

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Miniaturization of structures

Microstructures

Field emission tips for high frequency


Vacuum Electron Devices

Micro gears

Micro turbine

Nanometer
size AFM Tip
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Miniaturization of Devices is
important for many Applications
Biomedical : pressure sensors (Intra Cranial Pressure,
blood pressure) ), cantilever beams (DNA analysis),
micropump ( controlled micro dose of drug Delivery)
Aerospace and Automobile: Pressure sensors ,
accelerometers.
Space programs and missiles: Pressure sensors ,
accelerometers, gyro, micropump
Micro fluidics channels and mixers: Chemical analysis
and synthesis and lab on Chip concept
Defense : Explosive detection, gas sensors, pressure
sensors , acceleration sensors and RF MEMS
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Miniaturization approaches
Conventional Micromachining

Silicon Micromachining

Prof K.N.Bhat

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Conventional Micromachining Techniques


Each component must be made piece by piece. Low
price for large production volumes are the result of
mechanization.
Ultrasonic machining, sandblasting, laser ablation and
spark erosion have aided in miniaturization.
Finest details that can be machined are one to two
orders larger than what photolithography makes
possible.
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Silicon Micromachining
Suitable for batch processing similar to
fabrication of ICs.
Production costs of whole production is
independent from number of components
fabricated.
Miniaturization with finest details in the range
of 0.1 to 10m possible based on photo-lithography
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Requirements for MEMS


Microfabrication process used to create the device
must be scalable and suitable for batch processing
to realize a low cost of production.
Material and process must enable integration
between electronic and non-electronic function.
High performance, high-strength and high
reliability materials for mechanical elements.
Materials for transducer elements which permit
power or signal conversion from one physical
domain to another.
Prof K.N.Bhat

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1 atmosphere=1bar= 105 Pa. 1Pascal=1N/m2

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Prof K.N.Bhat

Prof K.N.Bhat

Reference:Peterson K.E. Silicon as a


mechanical material. Proceedings of
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IEEE, Vol. 70, 420-457, 1982.

Mechanical Properties of Silicon


Ratio of Silicon to Steel
2
1

1.66

1.61
0.90

Yield
Strength

Thermal
Youngs
Conductivity Modulus

0.29

Density Hysteresis

Si Crystal same type as Diamond and is


harder than most metals and has higher
elastic limits than steel in both tension and
compression
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Silicon is the best material


Silicon is used as an electronic material in an
already advanced microfabrication technology
Hardness, Young's modulus and yield strength are
comparable to or better than steel
Free from hysteresis, creep and fatigue
Lighter than Aluminum and harder than steel
Miniaturized mechanical devices can be realized
on silicon with high precision and they can be
integrated with electronics
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Silicon is the best material (contd)


Even though brittle, it exhibits higher strength when
miniaturized. Silicon is 100 percent elastic up to its
breaking point. This is what makes silicon the ideal material
to use as the sensing diaphragm. ( other ductile material
suffer from thermally activated deformation processes
such as creep).
Micro-fabrication process ( etching/ Deposition) and
single crystal substrates with low defect density allows
the creation of structures with very fine surfaces and
therefore very high strengths.

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Prof K.N.Bhat

Summary
Miniaturization is required in most of the applications
Miniaturization gives additional benefits
Miniaturization is possible using silicon as the
mechanical element
Silicon allows the use of already existing mature
mcroelectronics technology for miniaturization:
Photolithography to select the regions, change the
conductivity or etch in selected regions of the material
to realize the required mechanical structures, deposit
mechanical structures in the selected regions.
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Basis for Silicon Micromachining


MEMS devices such as pressure sensors,
accelerometers, gyroscopes and Micro pumps can
be realized by micromachining Silicon .
Miniaturization is possible with photolithography
and etching process.
Photolithography defines regions on the material (eg Si)
where machining is done.

Machining includes etching, doping, deposition of thin


films in the patterned regions
Prof K.N.Bhat

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Basic Processes for Si MEMS Technology


Clean room conditions for Process
Silicon Wafer cleaning

Photolithography to define specified regions in the Oxide


Doping the selected regions to realize Electrical elements
Micromachining to realize mechanical components
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Clean Room requirement


IC fabrication areas require class 100 Clean room areas .
Photolithography areas need Class 10 or lower.
Federal standard 209E of the USA classifies the clean room by
the maximum number of particles higher than 0.5m in each
cubic foot of air.

(e.g.) A class 100 clean room has less than 100


particles of size 0.5m and larger per cubic foot.
This is about 3500 particles /m3
This is about FOUR orders of magnitude lower
than that of ordinary room air
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Silicon Wafer Cleaning


Treatment with RCA-1 solution NH4OH : H2O2: H2O
(1:1:5) at 80C for 15-20 minutes to remove any
organic contaminants, DI water rinse and dry in
nitrogen Jet.
Treatment with RCA-2 solution Hcl: H2O2: H2O (1:1:5)
at 80C for 15-20 minutes to remove any metallic
contaminants, DI water rinse and dry in nitrogen Jet .
Dilute HF (1:50 in DI water) dip to remove any native
oxide layer formed during the chemical treatment
followed by rinse in DI water and dry in Nitrogen Jet.

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Prof K.N.Bhat

Thermal Oxidation of Silicon

Si + O2 SiO2
Si + 2H 2O SiO2 + 2H 2
Oxidation takes place by consuming Si. Due to the difference in
density and molecular weight, and oxide of thickness 1nm grows
by consuming 044nm thickness of Si

t ox = 2.2t Si
O2 for Dry.
H2O vapor for
wet by
bubbling N2
through water
bubbler kept
at 95C
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Dry Oxidation
of <100> Si

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Wet Oxidation
of <100> Si

Prof K.N.Bhat

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High Pressure Oxidation


High Pressure Oxidation enables the oxidation
temperature to be dropped by 30C for each
1atmosphere increase in pressure .
(eg ) Wet oxidation at 1200C for 5 hours gives oxide
layer thickness of 2 microns.
By carrying out high pressure wet oxidation at
10 atmosphere pressure, the same thickness of
oxide can be grown at 900C in 5hours.

Prof K.N.Bhat

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Photolithography

(b) UV Light (collimated) exposure


through the Photomask

(a) Spin coat PPR or NPR and bake


Positive PR

Negative PR

( c) Develop

( d) Etch SiO2

(e) Remove Resist


Final image

Photolithography and Pattern Transfer process illustrating the use of


Positive Photo Resist (PPR) and Negative Photo Resist (NPR)

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Doping by Diffusion
An oxide of the desired dopant atoms is deposited on the silicon
wafer surface kept at a high temperature (800C to 1200C) inside a
quartz tube furnace.
Examples of such reaction for diffusion of N-type dopants such as
phosphorous and P-type dopants such as boron from their oxides
are respectively given below.

2P2O5 + 5Si 4P + 5SiO2

2B2O3 + 3Si 4B + 3SiO2


The dopant source can be solid, liquid or gas, the choice depends
upon the ease with which it can be incorporated.
Liquid sources: phosphorus oxy chloride (POCl3) for phosphorous
and Boron tribromide (BBr3) for boron diffusion
Gas Sources: 1% Phosphine (PH3)in H2 or argon for Phosoporus
1% Diborane (B2H6) in H2 or argon

Phosphorus /Boron Diffusion Using Liquid/Gas source


Halide bearing liquid source such as phosphorus oxy chloride (POCl3) is
used for phosphorous diffusion .Ph3 is used in gas source systems

POCl3 for Phosphorus. BBr3 for Boron


Replace the Bubbler with gas cylinder for
gas source option- Phosphine (

4POCl3 + 3O2 2P2O5 + 6Cl2


2PH 3 + 4O2 P2O5 + 3H 2O
2P2O5 + 5Si 4P + 5SiO2

4BBr3 + 3O2 2B2O3 + 6Br2


B2 H 6 + 3O2 B2O3 + 3H 2O

2B2O3 + 3Si 4B + 3SiO2

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Solid Solubility of
impurities in Silicon
The surface
concentration (No)
during the diffusion is
solid solubility limited
when the supply of
dopants is present all
the time

Prof K.N.Bhat

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ND(x) Gaussian or
erfc pro<ile

Diffused layer Doping density


Profile and Location of
NS
Junction xj
x
N(x) = N 0erfc

2 Dt

Junction is formed at Xj when


xj
N 0erfc
= NA
2 Dt

erfc(z)= 1 erf (z)


z

y2

dy =
erf (z)
2

Two dimensional Cross


section showing the PN
Junction
Prof K.N.Bhat

oxide

NA=1015/cm3
x

xj

Oxide window through


which diffusion is done
xj

x
P-silicon

Diffusion from a limited Source gives a


Gaussian doping profile N(x,t)

N(x,t)=

NT
Dt

z2

z=

x
2 Dt

NT is the total number of dopants /cm2 initially


deposited on the surface of the silicon substrate

Prof K.N.Bhat

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Ion Implantation of dopants


In the Ion implantation process dopants are introduced into
semiconductor at room temperature by means of an energetic ion
beam of the dopants. Ion energies in the 50-200KeV range are used
for implantation into silicon.
The implanted dopant profile is Gaussian with its peak located inside
the semiconductor at a distance Rp from the surface, referred to as
the Projected Range, with a standard deviation called as the
Straggle Rp . Implantation is done at 7degrees angle to the normal.

N D (x) =
N(x)

Mask
NT is the total dose /cm2

NA
0

1 x Rp 2
exp[ (
) ]
2 R p
2 .(R p )
NT

N T = N D (x)dx
Rp

xj

Widow in the mask ,


through which N type
dopants are implanted
xj

N+

x
P-silicon

Sheet Resistance, RS

1
1
Rs = =
=
x j q p N A x j q p N T
N T = N A (x)dx = Dose

Four Probe measurement

RS = Ohms/square

V
Rs = (C.F.)
I

Diffused or implanted P-layer


N-Si

C.F. is the correction factor

When the sample size is 50 times the spacing


between the probes, C.F. =4.53
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Prof K.N.Bhat

Summary
Miniaturization

is important for biomedical , aerospace


and military Applications
silicon is best suited for batch processing ,
Miniaturization and Integration with Electronics
Photolithography is the basis for MEMS device
processing using Silicon and several other materials
such as Nitride, quartz, glass, polymers such as SU-8
and compound semiconductors such as SiC, GaN , GaAs
Oxidation, metallization, Dopant Diffusion and
Implantation play very important role in micro and smart
systems
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Prof K.N.Bhat