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TABLE OF CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.....................................................................................2
CHAPTER 1: DETAIL OF A CASE STUDY CARRIED OUT
1.1 Introduction of glass.......................................................................................3
1.2 History of glass...............................................................................................4-5
1.3 Scope of case study........................................................................................6
CHAPTER 2: THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING GLASS
2.1 The basic process of manufacturing glass....................................................7-11
2.2 Finishing process of glass in SSG SAFETY GLASS SDN. BHD..................12-15
2.3 The process of laminated glass, DGU glass and tempered glass................16-17
CHAPTER 3: THE MACHINERIES AND EQUIPMENT USED
3.1 Name of the machineries and equipment as well function...........................18-28
CHAPTER 4: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROCESS
4.1 Advantages and disadvantage of the tempered glass process....................29-32
4.2 Advantage and disadvantage of the laminated glass process...........33-34
4.3 Advantage and disadvantage of the double glass unit (DGU) process........35
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION.............................................................................36

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, we like to thank to Allah S.W.T, as finally we are able to
finish our assignment group that have been given by our lecturer, Mr Muhammad
Naim bin Mahyuddin , thus for giving us a good guideline for assignment throughout
numerous consultations. We would also like to expand our deepest gratitude to all
those who have directly and indirectly guided us in writing this assignment. Beside
that, we would like to thank to Mr Chia Yong Meng, who is head of operation in SSG
SAFETY GLASS SDN. BHD. for providing us with a good guideline and facilities to
complete this assignment. Otherwise, a lot of thank to our classmate and also to our
own team, that have give a lot of a good cooperation with made valuable comment
suggestions on this proposal which gave us an inspiration to improve our
assignment. Deepest thanks and appreciation to our parents and family for their
spirit, encouragement, constructive suggestion and full of support for the assignment
completion, from the beginning till the end. Lastly, we like to thank to all the people
for their help directly and indirectly to complete our assignment and give us a lot of
ideas so that we can improve our assignment in many way and Alhamdullillah, all the
problem can be settled down and we are able to adapt properly and wisely.

CHAPTER 1: DETAIL OF A CASE STUDY CARRIED OUT


1.1 INTRODUCTION
Glass is a uniform material of arguable phase, usually produced when the
viscous molten material cools very rapidly to below its glass transition temperature,
without sufficient time for a regular crystal lattice to form.
Common glass is silica-based material, biologically inactive, can be formed
into smooth and impervious surfaces. Brittle and will break into sharp shards.
Materials with highly variable mechanical and optical properties that solidify
from the molten state without crystallization, are typically made by silicates fusing
with metal oxide, or phosphorus pentoxide, are generally hard, brittle and transparent
or translucent and are considered to be super cooled liquids rather than true solids.

1.2 HISTORY OF GLASS


From our earliest origins, man has been making use of glass. Historians have
discovered that a form of natural glass - obsidian - formed for instance, within the
mouth of a volcano as a result of the intense heat of an eruption melting sand - was
first used by man as tips for spears.
Archaeologists have found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to
4000 BC; this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads. It was not until
1500 BC that the first hollow glass container was made by covering a sand core with
a layer of molten glass.
Glass blowing became the most common way to make glass containers from the
First Century BC. However, the glass made during this time was highly coloured due
to the impurities of the raw material. It was not until the First Century AD when
colourless glass was produced and then coloured by the addition of colouring
materials.
The secret of glass making came to Britain with the Romans. However, the skills
and technology required to make glass were closely guarded by the Romans and it
was not until the Roman Empire disintegrated that skills for glass making spread
throughout Europe and the Middle East.
The Venetians, in particular, gained a reputation for technical skill and artistic ability
in the making of glass bottles and a fair number of the city's craftsmen left Italy to set
up glassworks throughout Europe.
In Britain, there is evidence of a glass industry around Jarrow and Wearmouth
dating back to 680 AD, while from the 13th Century, there is evidence of there having
been a glass industry in the Weald and the afforested area of Surrey and Sussex
around Chiddingford.
A major milestone in the history of glass occurred with the invention of lead
crystal glass by George Ravenscroft. He attempted to counter the effect of clouding
that sometimes occurred in blown glass by introducing lead to the raw materials used
in the process.
The new glass he created was softer and easier to decorate and had a higher
refractive index, adding to its brilliance and beauty, and it proved invaluable to the
optical industry. It's thanks to Ravenscrofts invention that optical lenses, astronomical
telescopes, microscopes and the like became possible.

The modern glass industry only really started to develop in Britain after the repeal
of the Excise Act in 1845 relieved the heavy taxation that had been enforced. Before
that time, excise duties were placed on the amount of glass melted in a glasshouse
and levied continuously from 1745 to 1845.
Joseph Paxtons Crystal Palace at the Great Exhibition of 1851 marked the
beginning of the discovery of glass as a building material. The revolutionary new
building encouraged the use of glass in public, domestic and horticultural
architecture. Glass manufacturing techniques also improved with the advancement of
science and better technology.
By 1887 glass making developed from traditional mouth blowing to a semiautomatic process when Ashley introduced a machine capable of producing 200
bottles per hour in Castleford, Yorkshire - more than three times quicker than the
previous production methods.
Twenty years later, in 1907, the first fully automated machine was developed in
America by Michael Owens from major glass manufacturers Owens of Illinois, and
used at its factory in Manchester, Illinois making 2,500 bottles per hour.
Other developments followed rapidly, but it was not until the First World War, when
Britain became cut off from essential glass suppliers that glass became part of the
scientific sector. Up until then glass was seen as a craft rather than a precise
science.
Today, glass making is a modern, hi-tech industry operating in a fiercely
competitive global market where quality, design and service levels are critical to
maintaining market share.
Modern glass plants are capable of making millions of glass containers a day
in many different colours, but green, brown and clear remain the most popular.
Few of us can imagine modern life without glass. It features in almost every
aspect of our lives - in our homes, our cars and whenever we sit down to eat or drink.
Glass packaging is used for many products, wines, spirits and beers all come in
glass as do medicines and cosmetics not to mention numerous foodstuffs.
With increasing consumer concern for the environment, glass has again come
into its own proving to be an ideal material for recycling. Glass recycling is good news
for the environment. It saves used glass containers being sent to landfill and less
energy is needed to melt recycled glass than to melt down raw materials, thus saving

energy. Recycling also reduces the need for raw materials to be quarried thus saving
precious resources.

1.3 SCOPE OF CASE STUDY:


The objective of our case study is to learn manufacturing process of glass in
construction. From this topic that was given, we have a site visit to go to the factory
that is produce glasses by manufacturing process and learn from the person in
charge to guide us in this site visit and give us a lot information about the
manufacturing process of glass. Unfortunately, there are only one factory that is
undertake the manufacturing process of glass in Malaysia which located at Pasir
Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. Otherwise, as students we are not allowed to go to their
factory because of some reasons such as unsafe and dangerous environment in the
factory. The manufacturing process of glass also are private and even supplier do not
know the process is it.
So that, we find another factory that is can help and give us information about
this manufacturing process of glass. That is, SSG SAFETY GLASS SDN. BHD.
Factory of glass which located at Lot 3085, Gopeng Industrial Park, 31600 Gopeng,
Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia. Then, we have meet Mr. Chia Yew Meng, 47 years
old, QA Manager of SSG SAFETY GLASS SDN. BHD. As the person in charge to
guide us in this site visit. He explain to us about glass that the factoring was
produced such as tempered glass, laminated glass and DGU glass. He also share
information about source of glass that they obtain which from Pasir Gudang, Johor,
Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. Otherwise, he has shown us the process of glass
in construction and the various machineries and equipment that is required in the
process.

CHAPTER 2: THE PROCESS TECHNIQUE AND SEQUENCES OF


OPERATION:
The basic of Manufacturing process:
Based on four fundamental stages:
Stages
1

instructions
Melting

Description
Material: sand (72%)| soda ash (13%)| Lime (10%) |
Dolomite (4%).
Weighed & mixed in the correct proportions to
produce a mixture known as frit.
Waste broken glass (cutlet) is recycled along with
frit, usually in the proportions of 80% frit and 20%
cutlet.
Melting takes place in a regenerative tank furnace at
1500C
Regenerative - furnace exhaust gases give up much

Forming

of their heat to combustion air.


The molten glass leave the furnace at 1050C.
The forming process must take place in the
temperature range 650C - 1050C.
Below 650C the glass becomes too vicious to bend,
stretch or shape.
Two main forming processes for producing flat glass

Cooling

- rolled process & float process.


Because of the low thermal conductivity of glass - it
does not cool uniformly:
The surfaces cool more rapidly and shrink more
rapidly than the centre.
This produce uncontrolled strain in the glass.
If surface is scratched - glass will disintegrate.
Cannot withstand thermal shock.
Liable to break in use.
Annealing - slow cooling at controlled rata (in a
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controlled atmosphere).
To avoid excessive strain in glass.
Annealing done in an oven (chamber) called lehr.
Glass ribbon will pass on a slow moving conveyor
belt through the annealing lehr.

Finishing

Cutting
Grinding and polishing.
Treatment - toughening, coating.
Packaging, stacking.

Sheet Process
Developed by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company in 1920s.
At 950C molten glass drawn vertically as continuous ribbon by a series of rollers
in a cast iron tower.

Rolled Process
Molten Glass flow from the furnace to the rolling machine along a canal under
carefully controlled temperature conditions.
Forming rollers:
25cm in diameter
Bottom roller - engraved with pattern
Top rollers - smooth
Final thickness controlled by the gap between the rollers.
Water coled rollers extract heat from the glass to fix the pattern and to
prevent glass sticking to rollers.

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Wir
ed-Glass Process
Similar to the rolled process
Machine consist of two independently-driven pairs of water-cooled forming rollers
fed with a ribbon of glass via separate canals from a common melting tank.
1st pair of rollers formed a primary ribbon (bottom portion).
Wire mesh is introduce before 2nd pair of rollers.
At 2nd pair of rollers - top portion of ribbon is introduced forming the final ribbon.
Wire mesh is fed continuously from tolls mounted above the machine.
The final ribbon is supported by water-cooled steel rollers into the annealing lehr.

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Float process
Pilkington Industries (1959)
Produce fire-finish sheet of glass with a perfect flatness.
Eliminating the time consuming grinding and polishing operations.
Melting process will take place in the furnace.
Molten glass will be fed to the float bath.
Gravity keeps the liquid tin very flat.
Molten glass will float on molten tin and spread on the surface of molten tin
forming a flat surface.
Heat applied above the glass surface melts out any irregularities in the glass.
As the ribbon of glass passed through the float bath - the heat is reduced until the
glass is sufficiently hard to be fed on the annealing lehr.
After leaving the lehr, glass will be inspected and cut automatically.

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First, SSG SAFETY GLASS SDN. BHD. Bought and import the glass from supplies
from Malaysia (Pasir Gudang, Johor), Indonesia and Thailand that is produced glass
by manufacturing process.

SSG SAFETY GLASS SDN. BHD. Only undertake finishing process in manufacturing
process of glass :
1) Cutting Process :
Cutting process can be managed by:
a) Glass cutting machine:

First, set up the size of the glass that is required by using CAD.

Then, the cutter machine will operate to cut the glass into desired shape
and size.

This have to be done before the glass is being processed to the next
operation.
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b) Hand skill :

Obtain a glass cutter and some light oil. Glass cutters are about the size of
a pencil and use a diamond or a hardened wheel to mark a score into glass
that it can be broken cleanly along a line.

Then, measure, mark and set the glass over the pattern that is required.
Cutting a freehand shape should be breaking a long lines that run from
edge to edge.

Use several straight lines to cut a sharp curve. Run the cutter to the gentle
curve with a steady hand.

After cut the curve, check the score that is not popping, barely visible and
make sure it runs completely from one edge to the other.

Then, tap the each side of the cut smoothly by using end of cutter.

Next, grasp each side of the cut carefully in hand, then break the glass
along the score.

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2) Eddying Process:

Eddying process is for levelling and remove the surface of the sharp edges of
the glass after cutting process.

Water is required in this process to avoid friction on the surface of the glass.

3) Grinding Process:

Grinding is a material removal and surface generation process used to and


finish components made of metals and other materials.

For instance, to build glazed door that is hinge metal and knob metal should
be install first.

To install the hinge metal and knob metal, the glass should be perforation by
using grinding machine.

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After the glass perforation, material such as metal can be install to the glass,
for example, 90 C glass door pivot hinge for inset door.

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4) Toughened / Tempering Process:

Tempering process is propose to stamp factorys logo and to contrast the


quality of glass.

So, which glass that have stamp factorys logo, it more quality and safe to use.

In tempering process consist of heating and softening.

Heat the glass in a tempering oven. Glass may fed in batches or continuously.
The oven reaches temperature of over 600 C with the industry being 620C.

Toughened process reheating a piece to 690 C (up to it softening point)


then the surface are cooled rapidly.

This process create a state of high compression in the cutter surface of glass
thus increasing tensile strength by four or five times.

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5) After tempering process, there are 2 operation to produced:


i.

Laminated glass.

ii.

Double Glass Unit (DGU) glass

i.

Laminated glass:

There is bonding two piece of glass together with plastic material or a resin
(PVB).

The bonding is achieved by heating the glass layer and the interlayer and
apply pressure.

After bonding the glass, the glass will took into the autoclave at temperature
about 121 degrees Celsius for making the surface of the glass is clear.

Toughened glass can also be used as components of a laminated glass.

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ii.

Double Glass Unit (DGU) glass :

The poly isobutyl (silicon) is applied to the spacer bar to keeps the spacer bar
at place and sticks both panels of glass together separated by a uniform
distance.

6) Packing Process:

After those process is finish, the glass will packed and arranged it based on
their size, types and pattern.

Then, it is ready to delivery and send it to another suppliers.

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Chapter 3: The Machineries and Equipment Used


Tempered Glass Process:
Cutting Process

1. Glass Cutting machine


i.

It is automatic ways.

ii.

Its function is to cut the glass into the size that have been set in
computer according to the clients order.

iii.

Easy to set up, more faster and save energy than the manual ways.

iv.

Use diesel and small knife to make a cut on the glass.

v.

Made in Taiwan.

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2. Cutter Ruler
i.

It is manual ways.

ii.

Its function is to cut the small sizes on the glass.

iii.

Use humans energy and slower than cutting machine.

3. Cutting Knife
i.

It function is to cut the curve shape on the glass.

ii.

Made from steel and lightweight.

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Eddying Process

1. Bavelloni Straight Edger


i.

To remove and smooth the side of mirror that sharp.

ii.

It using clay weel to removing the sharp.

iii.

This machine is long lasting.

iv.

Usually import from overseas.

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Grinding Process

1. Drilling Machine
i.

Drilling machine is to punched a hole for install knob metal.

ii.

It is heavy and easy for maintenance.

iii.

Import from overseas.

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2. Hand Grander
i.

To cut a piece of glass for install the hinge metal. Usually to make a
door glass.

ii.

It is lightweight and easy to keep.

iii.

Produce noisy sound.

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Toughened / Tempering Process:

1. Tempering Machine
i.

To softening the glass and make sure that glass turns to the small
pieces like a sand if they break. It for safety requirement.

ii.

The machine is big, heavy and hard for maintenance.

iii.

It is hot in temperature and dangerous.

iv.

Import from overseas.

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Laminated Glass Process:

1. Lamination Machine
i.

Its function is to cut the glass according to the clients sizes and stick
the PVB in the middle of 2 glass.

ii.

Heavy and hard for maintenance.

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2. PVB
i.

PVB is to stick the 2 of glass layer to form a laminated glass.

ii.

Cloudy in colour.

iii.

Easy to tear and lightweight.

iv.

Made from rubber.

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3. Autoclave
i.

Its function is for clearing the glasss surface that cloudy in colour.

ii.

Big, heavy and hard for maintenance.

iii.

Hard for aflame.

iv.

Import from overseas.

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DGU Glass Process:

1. Spacer Bar
i.

Its function is for stick in the middle of 2 layers glasses and trap heat.

ii.

Lightweight and easy to dented.

iii.

Made from steel.

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2. Silicon Equipment
i.

To tight the 2 layers of glasses from water, air and heat to be admitted.

ii.

Must use humans energy.

iii.

Produced silicon for DGU glass to applied the spacer bar to keeps the spacer
bar at place and sticks both panels of glass together separated by a uniform
distance.

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CHAPTER 4: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE


PROCESS
ADVANTAGES OF TEMPERED GLASS PROCESS:
1.

More

tough

as

compares

glass as a result of

to

normal

its resilient characteristic

and proof dynamics.

Tempered glass can be explained to the safety glass since it is made by


controlled thermal or substance treatment option to improve the effectiveness
of the particular glass.

Being 4 to 5 times stronger than any kind of glass

2.

Machine bavelloni straight edger

Roller clay

is to smooth a sharp sides after

cutting process

This particular safety glass is actually specifically designed in order that it


doesnt emit sharp sides even if that fails.

3.
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Heating process

Softening process

Be specific anti indefinite quantity glass thats produced through the method of
extreme heating system and quick cooling that makes it harder than normal
glass.

4.

Tempered glass causes that to burst into oval formed pebbles when broken.

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DISADVANTAGES OF TEMPERED GLASS PROCESS:


1.

Tempered glass cannot again for cutting, and machining, only before the
tempered glass for processing to the shape of the steel processing again.

All the reject tempered glass will be sent back to the main factory for recycle it
will causes high due cost.

It will take a longer period of time to order and return back to us for the next
process.

2.

When tempered glass though a cooling process it will explosive (bursts) it


mean the tempered glass is not good and tough enough.

3.

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The broken glass must throw away and cant recycle.

4. The tempered glass will be thinning because glass after thermal softening,
after a strong wind make its rapid cooling, make its internal crystal glass gap
smaller, pressure big, so after the tempered glass than in front of the
toughened to thin.

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ADVANTAGES OF LAMINATED GLASS PROCESS:


1.

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered.

In the event of breaking, it is held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl


butyral (PBV), between its two or more layers of glass.

2.

The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken, and its
high strength prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces.

This produces a characteristic spider web cracking pattern when the impact
is not enough to completely pierce the glass.

3. Normally use when there is a possibility of human impact or where the glass
could fall if shattered and also for architectural applications.
4. Does not allow as much sound to get through as does regular glass
5. Laminated glass for windows is that a PVB interlayer can block essentially
most ultraviolet radiation.
6. Protection from adverse weather condition.
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DISADVANTAGES OF LAMINATED GLASS PROCESS:


1. Laminated windows are quite a bit more expensive than regular windows. This
is because they require a lot more steps during the manufacturing process
and they have several layers of material.
2. If other side laminated glass cracks, you must remove both of them (cant be
recycle).
3. You might have to wait a few weeks before your windows are made, which can
leave you vulnerable at the time.

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ADVANTAGES OF DOUBLE GLASS UNITS (DGU) PROCESS:

1. Double glass units retain much more heat in a room during reduce heat loss
and saving energy.
2. They reduce noise penetration and window to increase conform.
3. For summer, with the use of solar control glass, they can reduce heat gain,
glare and fading and increase air.
4. They are harder to break than single glass and the shards normally stay in
place after breakage, increasing security.

DISADVANTAGES OF DGU:
1. Cant be repaired. The space between the two panes of glass traps air,
forming a layer of insulation.
2. During the summer months, trapping heat inside can lead to stuffy and
uncomfortable room.
3. Not a good match for older homes. Double glazed window are modern
looking, so they can clash with older styles.

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION

Glass is a combination of sand and other minerals that are melted together at
very high temperatures to form a material that is ideal for a wide range of uses from
packaging and construction to fibre optics. A form of glass occurs naturally within the
mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form
Obsidian, a hard black glassy type of stone.. Glass, chemically, is actually more like a
liquid, but at room temperature it is so viscous or sticky it looks and feels like a solid.
At higher temperatures glass gradually becomes softer and more like a liquid. It is
this latter property, which allows glass to be poured, blown, pressed and moulded
into such a variety of shapes.
Based on our previous survey, we think laminated glass is the best designated
and more safety to use for windows and doors compared to tempered glass and
DGU. That is why the cost is higher than others. Customers can make a choice
according to its on atheistic view (ceramic printing). Even though the initial cost is
quiet expensive, the cost of maintenance (15-20 years). Glass also come with
transparent on opaque type. Transparent glasses able to make a small area became
larger. However glasses might have certain weakness such as item of low in fire
resistant which cause be danger to the occupier of the building. Otherwise, the glass
that being rejected can be recycle or throw away. At the end, we think the glass is the
best choice of all material in grand, type and price.

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Lastly, we can conclude how the glass process which form tempered glass
process to laminated glass process and to the double glass units (GDU) process. Mr.
Chia give us more knowledge about types of glass, the material that required,
machineries and equipment that is used, from where the glass are import, and the
most importantly is the process of glass to be made as a windows and doors in
construction. We also would like to thank to Mr. Chia and SSG SAFETY GLASS
SDN. BHD. for given us this exciting experience.

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