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Basic Sentence Patterns

Subject + Verb
I swim. Joe swims. They swam.
Subject + Verb + Object
I drive a car. Joe plays the guitar. They ate dinner.
Subject + Verb + Complement
I am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick.
Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
I gave her a gift. She teaches us English.
Subject + Verb + Object + Complement
I left the door open. We elected him president. They named her Jane.

Testimonial - a formal statement testifying to someone's character and qualifications.

Repetition - the action of repeating something that has already been said or written.
Emotional Words
1. joyous
2. fortunate
3. overjoyed
ADJECTIVE is a kind of word that modifies a noun.
I like blue skies and fluffy clouds.
ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT is a clause or phrase that modifies an adjective or adds to the meaning of the adjective. It is a
noun clause or a prepositional phrase.
She was hesitant to tell her parents.
SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS can be one or more words. They come after a linking verb, like: is, are, was, become, seem,
grow, taste, smell, and feel.
Whales are beautiful.
OBJECT COMPLEMENTS can also be one or more words. They follow a direct object and modify it. They will describe the
object or rename it. It can be a noun, an adjective, or a group of words that act like a noun or adjective.
That should keep them happy.
Arts - the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or
sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power.
Hebrew - is one of a large group of languages, called `Semitic', spoken throughout the Middle East and North Africa. The name
was first used as late as 1781 by a German scholar, A.L. Schlzer. He aimed to subdivide languages into related groups
according to their similarities, and he named them after the three people who survived the Flood: the sons of Noah. One of
them, Shem, whose name is the origin of `Semitic', was the father of Eber (Genesis 10:21). Eber's name is given in the Bible as
the origin of `Hebrew' (Ivrit).

The Countrys Good Son

Minn New Thein
Lin Aungs mother had a shop in the Mingaladon market, where she sold slippers. Lin Aung helped his mother in the
shop during his school holidays. As the Mingaladon market was an army market, soldiers could be seen shopping there daily. It
was more crowded on Sundays. Many soldiers could be seen moving about busily. It was Sunday, and Lin Aung was sitting in
front of the shop; Younger Brother, do you have real Sin-kye No. 9? A young man, wearing trousers, entered and asked him.
Quickly Lin Aung took a pair of Sinkye No. 9 slippers and showed them. How much are these slippers, Young Brother?
Twenty -one Kyats, Elder Brother. Can I take only the right side slipper and pay you ten Kyats and fifty pyas? The young
mans question made Lin Aungs eyes become wide. If he sold only the right side, how could he sell the left side? And why did
he want only one slipper? You cant do that. If I sell only the right side, the one left in the shop will become useless. Yes, but
I want only the right side. But wait, Ill go and look for a partner. Lin Aung was left behind, looking at the back of the young
man, who walked away, limping. Soon, the young man came back. He had another young man with him. The first young man
asked Ling Aung for the slippers, and gave the left side slipper to the young man who had come with him. He lifted the leg of
his trouser and put on the slipper. Then he nodded with satisfaction. Only then did Lin Aung understand. They were buying and
sharing one pair of slippers. The first young man had a false left leg, and second young man had a false right leg. So everything
was all right because there was one who wanted only the right side, and another who wanted only the left side. Lin Aung was
sorry to see the condition of the two young men. They were quite young, and they each had a leg missing. Dont you feel sad
that you have only one leg? Lin Aung as inquisitive and asked them. Why should we be sad? the first young man smiled.
We are soldiers who offered even our own lives for our country. We are proud to lose a leg in protecting our country. When
Lin Aung heard the first young mans answer, he respected them. They were very different from the young drug addicts about
whom he had often read in the newspapers. They were wasting their lives and killing themselves. These young men were the
countrys good sons who were protecting the country from its enemies. Their aims and intentions were as different from those
of the addicts as east from west, north from south. Although these young men had one leg missing, they still wanted to serve
their country. The two young soldiers told Lin Aung that they planned to work in the disabled soldiers cooperative shop. I
respect you and honor you. You good sons of the country are the jewels of our country. When I grow up, I will try to be a good
son of the country like you. The two young soldiers smiled to hear Lin Aungs words. We admire your intention. Our
countrys future will really be bright if there were more young people in our country with the same aim and intention as yours.
All right, we will go now. The two young soldiers said goodbye to Lin Aung and went away. Lin Aung was filled with the
desire to become a good son of the country.


NOT always wealth, not always force,

A splendid destiny commands;
The lordly vulture gnaws the corse
That rots upon yon barren sands.
Nor want nor weakness still conspires
To bind us to a sordid state;
The fly, that with a touch expires,
Sips honey from the royal plate.


There are two Persian brothers, Ali Baba and Cassim. Cassim is married to a rich wife, while Ali Baba works hard to support
himself and his own family.
One day, Ali Baba is cutting firewood in the forest, cursing his poor fortune, he caught sight of an approaching band of thieves,
saddled with loot. Frightened, he hides in a tree, and watches as the Captain of the Thieves opens a magical portal in a boulder
by reciting the words "Open Sesame!" (The actual phrase differs depending on translation.) They entered, and the portal closes
behind them. Ali Baba assumes they are hiding their goods in the cavern.
After they leave the cavern, no longer saddled with their loot, the Captain uses the same words to close the portal before the
band departs. Once they disappear, Ali Baba raids the cave himself, and discovers it packed wall to wall with valuables. He
collects as much gold as his mules can carry, and brings it back home to his wife. It is enough wealth to last a lifetime.
Ali Baba's wife borrows a scale from Cassim's wife to measure the gold before Ali Baba hides it, and the latter woman uses a
trick (she puts wax on the scale to capture the gold) to determine what they are measuring.
Cassim and his wife insist Ali Baba tell them of his secret, and he complies. Cassim sets out for the cavern himself, and is
equally amazed. Unfortunately, he forgets the magic words, so is stuck inside the cavern. When the 40 thieves arrive again, they
kill him, cut his body into quarters, and hang him up in the cave to scare anyone else who may trespass.
Concerned when Cassim does not return, Ali Baba investigates to discover the corpse, which he takes home. He works with
Cassim's wife - promising to marry her himself after a period of mourning - and Cassim's maid, Morgiana, to bury Cassim
without drawing any attention to the situation. To this end, Morgiana blindfolds a cobbler named Baba Mustapha, and brings
him to a non-descript room so he can sew Cassim's body back together without recognizing the house or family.
Meanwhile, the thieves find the body missing, and realize someone else knows about the cave. The Captain dispatches one of
them to infiltrate the town and listen for news of some strange deaths. That thief eventually meets Baba Mustapha, and learns
that he had recently stitched up a body. The thief blindfolds the cobbler, who is able to reproduce his path to the house, which
the thief then marks with white chalk so he can find it again with the rest of the band.
Morgiana, however, spots the mark and senses that something is wrong. To foil the plan, she marks a handful of neighboring
houses with chalk as well.
When the thieves return to find they have been duped, the Captain kills the man who had found the house, and sends another
thief to find it. A blind-folded Baba Mustapha again leads to Ali Baba's house, and the thief marks it this time with red chalk.
However, Morgiana catches on and does the same thing to other houses.
The robbers are confused again that night, and the Captain murders the second man before deciding to handle the task himself.
He repeats the same process with Baba Mustapha, but this time memorizes the location himself rather than using chalk.
Then he returns to the house disguised as an oil merchant in need of lodging for the night. The other thieves are hidden in oil
jars carried by mules; only one jar actually has oil in it. They plan to sneak out once Ali Baba is asleep, and kill him.
Once again, Morgiana is not fooled; when she goes out to borrow some oil, she discovers the men in the jars, and boils oil from
the final jar, killing them with it. The Captain investigates later that night, and escapes before he can be killed.
Morgiana tells Ali Baba what happened, and they bury the corpses. In gratitude, Ali Baba grants Morgiana her freedom. (In
some versions, this does not happen until later.)
The danger is not over yet, though; the captain wants revenge. He disguises himself as a merchant and befriends Ali Baba's son
so that he is invited for dinner. Morgiana senses something fishy, and hatches a plan. She and another servant perform for the
men; during her dance, she stabs him.
When Ali Baba learns the truth, he is so grateful that he gives Morgiana his son's hand in marriage. Ali Baba is now the only
living soul who knows the cave's secret words, so he passes it along only to his sons and they live happily in prosperity.

He lay on the bunk in his cell, smoking a cigarette. The day had been hot, but now, with the dusk falling, a pleasant breeze had sprung up and was coming in
from the courtyard, along the corridor, and into his cell. The old prison was very much like the ones in cowboy movies. The door of his cell, as well as the
one at the end of the corridor were steel frames with iron bars less than twenty centimetres apart; too close for even the thinnest man to squeeze through, but
ample for a cat. One could see through the bars, talk with the guards and the prisoners in the other cells, and be disturbed by someone snoring at night, and
the barred doors made the prison airy.
It was much better than the foreign prisons he had read about, with solid doors, peepholes, and electric bulbs burning the whole night long. Although the
local revolution modelled itself on the Russian one to some extent, it did not have the means to imitate Lubyanka. The revolution was also milder in other
respects. A political prisoner usually had done something against the regime, be it only grumbling in public. The interrogations were mostly carried out
without torture. Although no public or journalists were admitted to the more serious political trials, the prisoner had the right to defend himself, and, in case
of a death sentence - these, unfortunately, were rather common and mostly undeserved - the condemned man had the right to appeal to the President,
although in most cases it only delayed the execution by a few days.
The prisoner finished his cigarette, put it out in an empty sardine tin which served him as ashtray, sat on his bed, and looked at the door again. The spaces
between the bars were fine, even for the largest cat to pass through, and the door at the end of the corridor was the same. In the small rectangular cobbled
courtyard where they took their daily walks and where they shot condemned prisoners at dawn, a couple of skinny young trees, hardly more than saplings,
grew by the wall on the right, a few of the thin branches reaching the top of the wall; nothing to support a man, but good enough for a cat. It was not the
wall where they shot people; that one was opposite it, at right angle to the door. On days following an execution, of which they had heard every word and
shot through the barred doors, walking in a circle during their daily exercise, they would look furtively for traces of blood on the cobblestones or bullet
marks on the wall, but there weren't any; the courtyard would be thoroughly hosed down as soon as the body was taken away, and the holes in the wall
plastered over and whitewashed. The prisoner, himself a likely candidate for an execution, thought calmly that an old mattress or two propped against the
wall would spare them the need for constant repairs, but in a backward country one could not expect a revolution to bring instant efficiency.
His decision to change into a cat rather than some other small creature in case an escape became necessary due to a death sentence or a long prison term was
reached after considerable reflection. A mouse or a rat would run too great a risk in a town with a lot of cats, and even if it got out of the town safely, the
distance to the border - some twenty kilometres - might be too much for it, and the danger still there: wild cats, foxes, coyotes, snakes, hawks by day and
owls by night. As a cat, he would only need a couple of days to reach and cross the border and change back into man, and it was just as well. The Indian
witch-doctor had warned him that if it took too long, the animal body would start taking over the human mind; he would find it increasingly difficult and
finally impossible to change back, and spend the rest of his life as an animal with an animal's mind. When he died, his body would also remain that of an
animal, which would not be the case if he died shortly after the metamorphosis.
It would be fastest and easiest to cross the border as a bird, preferably of prey so as to be safe of predators; but, apart from the fact that farmers sometimes
shot at birds of prey, he wasn't sure about flying. On both previous occasions, the first under the witch-doctor's guidance and, after his return from the
expedition, on his own, he changed into mammals, a monkey and a fox. This time, with so much at stake, he didn't want to introduce new and unknown
A dog would not be able to get over the wall, and might be shot on suspicion of hydrophobia. A cat was best.
Behind the wall with the two trees was a large garden which he knew well. It surrounded the now confiscated villa of his friend the judge who had placed
most of his money in a Swiss bank before escaping to Miami when the revolution broke out. The judge had had problems with old regime as well by always
trying to be just and fair, but he knew it wouldn't help him with the new one. The judge had tried to talk him into leaving together, keeping a seat for him on
the little chartered plane until the last moment, but he decided to stay, see what would happen, and even offer his services to the revolution if it turned out
well. It showed signs of doing so for a while and then degenerated into a dictatorship backed by terror, and he had just about decided to follow his friend the
judge into exile when he was arrested. They did not have anything against him as an anthropologist but he had also been a friend of the judge and that was
enough nowadays. But there were fascinating things to be still discovered in anthropology and primitive magic, and he already knew enough not to let
himself be shot in the prime of life.
Something the witch-doctor once told him stirred uneasily in his memory. It was right after his first, successful, change into a monkey and back. He was
bubbling with enthusiasm about the possibilities, and the old witch-doctor, his face lined and wise, listened to him quietly and then said:
"Well, not quite. The possibilities are indeed great but not unlimited; no magic can change one's destiny beyond a certain extent. A warrior who is to be
killed in battle will not escape his fate by changing into an animal; he will still be killed by an arrow, and the hunter might even turn out to be the same man
who was supposed to kill him in battle." But the prisoner dismissed the unease without much difficulty. He was a Westerner, and destiny to him was not all
that rigid; one could shape it to a much greater extent than the primitive fatalistic tribes imagined.
There were steps in the corridor and the sergeant, accompanied by a soldier with a rifle, stopped by his door and unlocked it.
"The captain wants to see you in his office," he said.
"Is it the sentence already?" the prisoner thought as he walked between the two soldiers. It was quite possible. His interrogation ended almost two weeks
before, and the military courts worked fast.
The captain got up from behind his desk when the prisoner was brought in. There was another man there, a civilian in a sober grey suit, standing, with his
hands behind his back, a little to one side of the captain's desk. He looked like an official visitor, probably of a high rank.
The captain took from the desk a document with a large seal and several signatures and began to read it aloud. It was the death sentence. The prisoner has
been found guilty of cooperation with the old reactionary regime, of anti-revolutionary propaganda, and of failing to prevent the escape of one of the
oppressors of the people (his friend the judge). He had three days in which to submit an appeal to the President of the Republic if he so wished.
He signed a statement that the sentence has been announced to him and that he understood it. He said that yes, he would like to avail himself of the
opportunity to appeal to the President, in the hope that the President's generosity and kindness would make him reduce the sentence. By all means, the
captain said kindly; he would have paper and pen delivered to his cell that very evening.
Back in his cell, the prisoner began to prepare for the metamorphosis. It was mainly mental. He had to bring himself - this would take two or three days into the state of absolute belief that at the end of that period he would change into a cat. Very few people could do it, and it was only after he had been with
the tribe for some weeks that the witch-doctor began to suspect that this white man who came from a different world to learn their customs might be one of
them. The physical part of the preparation was easy - actually easier in prison than outside. It consisted mainly of eating very little, practically fasting
towards the end, and of not doing anything to distract the mind from its task. The final part - the silent incantations, the spells, the names of gods - were
merely means to finally plunge the mind so deeply into the conviction that the body followed suit.
When the block of writing paper, the fountain pen, a candle, and an extra packet of cigarettes were brought to him with his supper, he thanked the guard and
asked whether he could have just plain bread, preferably dry, and weak tea, or even just water, for the next couple of days, explaining that his stomach was
upset and that diet was the best thing for it. The guard asked whether he would like to see the doctor. No, he said, it was nothing; he's always had a nervous,

sensitive stomach, and today, what with the death sentence, it was quite entitled to act up a little. But the whole thing was a misunderstanding and he was
confident that the President, who was a just and wise ruler, would put it right as soon as he has read his appeal.
He finished the appeal the same evening, leaving the couple of corrected drafts in the writing block to show how hard he had worked on it, and gave the
final copy, together with the writing block, the pen, and the remainder of the candle to the sergeant, who promised to give the petition to the captain first
thing in the morning. He estimated that he now had at least four days at his disposal - two for the letter to reach the president and two more for the rejection
to arrive - and four days were more than enough.
He went to bed early and before falling asleep lay there for a long time with his eyes closed imagining himself as a cat: passing through the iron bars,
climbing a tree, crossing the garden, travelling through fields and woods, perhaps catching a bird or a mouse if hungry, and drinking from streams. When he
finally fell asleep he managed to get a lot of this into his dreams as well. In the morning he was already feeling light-headed, in a sort of trance, already
beginning to feel and think like a cat. A couple of times he even stretched and yawned like one. It was a familiar feeling. His second metamorphosis had
been easier than the first - the witch-doctor told him that one improved with practice - and he felt that this one was going to be a success too.
On the third night he was ready. He had slept through most of the afternoon and awoke at dusk feeling fresh and strong. The prison was slowly settling for
the night. Someone was snoring lightly in one of the cells. The guard on duty was seated behind the table at the end of the corridor, reading a paper and
smoking a cigarette. He sat sideways to the corridor, glancing at it only from time to time. Even if he noticed a cat slinking along the corridor towards the
courtyard door he might wonder what it was looking for, but it was extremely unlikely that he would fire at it, and if he did, even less likely that he would
hit it.
The prisoner undressed except for his underwear and, once under the blanket, removed his vest and underpants as well. The blanket was coarse and not very
clean, and it was a little chilly to lie there naked, but he did not want to have to disengage himself from the underwear afterwards.
The prison was silent now, with the snores from a cell at the end of the corridor barely audible.
He pulled the blanket over his head and closed his eyes. In the double darkness, of the cell and the blanket, silent incantations began to flow. To their
rhythm, his mind gradually reduced everything to the world of a small, four-legged animal. Time was passing but he didn't know how much. He became
dizzy for a while, with strange but well-remembered sensations passing through his body. Then the flow of incantations and trance gradually slowed down,
stopped, settled. His skin did not feel the coarseness of the blanket any more. He was also warmer. He moved his limbs cautiously. His claws bit into the
blanket and he retracted them.
He crawled slowly towards the edge of the blanket, peered out, and listened. The prison was dark and quiet. The cell now loomed large and tall, and the bed
was high above the floor. He could see much better in the dark than he did before. He listened a little longer, then jumped down and hid under the bed. He
noticed the colour of his fur: it was grey, with dark stripes, and a light, almost white belly.
The bars of the cell would now let him through without any difficulty. He peered into the corridor. The guard, in profile, was nodding over his paper.
Silently, he passed through the bars of the door, glided along the corridor, passed between bars again, turned right, out of sight, and crouched under the wall.
There was a full moon shining onto the deserted courtyard. His sight was very keen. He moved along the wall and climbed the first of the two trees. A
branch took him right to the top of the wall. He looked at the garden on the other side of the wall for a while. It was as he remembered it except that it was
rather neglected. He wondered whether anyone lived in the villa now - perhaps one of the new officials - or whether it was still unoccupied. He jumped into
the garden.
Now the most difficult part was behind him. He moved among some trees, then began to cross a large moonlit stretch of the lawn towards some bushes at
the back of the garden where there was a low easily passable slat fence, behind which the countryside was practically beginning.
He did not see the large tall shape of the dog detach itself from the shadow of the villa; noticed it only after it had covered half the distance between them,
loping fast and silently, trying to cut him off from the fence. He hissed and took off. The dog chasing him was a large hound, obviously trained not to growl
or bark while attending to business. Their paths were converging. He saw that he might have difficulty reaching the fence before the dog caught up with
him, but any change of direction might waste precious moments. If the worst came to the worst he could turn around and counterattack, using his teeth,
claws, screech, and spittle to confuse the dog and reach the fence.
With a dozen yards still to go, he heard the shuffle of the dog's feet right behind him and felt its breath on his neck. He leaped and, turning around in midair, gave the most frightening screech he was capable of, and struck. His claws ripped one side of the dog's face just as the dog hit him with one shoulder,
with all its weight and speed behind the impact. The cat rolled over, regaining his footing almost at once, but for one brief moment the scruff of his neck
became exposed and he felt the teeth go in. The he was flying through the air being shaken left and right while the teeth were going in deeper. Then, very
clearly, he felt his neck snap.
The captain stood in his office, but facing the desk this time, without his pistol, and between two soldiers. The official who had been present at the reading
of the prisoner's sentence sat behind the desk.
"I am sorry to see that the psychiatrist's report pronounces you perfectly sane, captain," he said. "We were very satisfied with your work to date, and saw a
good career for you in the service of the revolution. It is all the more sad having to tell you that your situation looks hopeless. If there are two things that the
president hates more than anything else it is people taking the law into their own hands and sadism. The prisoner's naked body was found in the garden of
your villa. The wounds in the neck were inflicted with some pointed though not particularly sharp tool like a pick or a pitchfork. Your dog can't be blamed
for it because the size of the wounds is such that an animal with teeth large enough to inflict them would have to be larger than the victim, and we don't
have any lions or tigers around here. The only logical explanation is that you took the prisoner from his cell at night and murdered him in your garden by
repeatedly stabbing him in the neck and then breaking it."
"But the guard on duty that night..."
"Is also under arrest. He either participated, or had fallen asleep, or you drugged him or bribed him or talked him into keeping quiet; we shall find out
which. In the meantime the president is disgusted with the whole thing and unless you can come up with some really convincing proof of your innocence, I
wouldn't like to be in your shoes, captain."

Quarter 3
Submitted to:
Submitted by:

Sir Christian Bartolome

Glomy Rose Corpuz
8 - Argon