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Point FFT Design Optimization in OFDM systems

Sthanunathan Ramakrishnan, Jaiganesh Balakrishnan and Karthik Ramasubramanian

email: {sthanu,jai,karthikr}@ti.com

AbstractScaling the different stage outputs in an FFT appropriately is crucial for getting a good Signal to Quantization

noise ratio (SQNR) in fixed point FFT design. Traditional designs

have either handled this through Convergent block floating

point technique (CBFP), which has memory, computation and

latency penalties or through time consuming simulations. In this

paper, we consider the special case of FFT design for OFDM

transceivers. We exploit the Gaussian nature of OFDM signals

to predict the bit-growth of the signal through the various

stages of the FFT and propose a technique to scale the signal

appropriately. Additionally, we investigate the quantization error

profile and propose a technique to improve SQNR by exploiting

the presence of null tones at the band edges. With the proposed

techniques, the performance comes close to the CBFP design, with

no increase in complexity compared to existing static designs.

Simulation results illustrating the performance improvements of

the proposed technique are presented.

section V, we obtain the nature of the quantization noise

affecting the FFT outputs and exploit it to get higher SQNR.

Finally simulation results are presented in section VI to

quantify the gains of the proposed technique.

II. O RTHOGONAL F REQUENCY D IVISION M ULTIPLEXING

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a method

where data tones are modulated on orthogonal sub carriers

and transmitted through a channel. The time domain signal

x(t) for one symbol, is generated from the frequency domain

tones X(k) using the IFFT relationship

x(n) =

N

1

X(k) exp

j2kn

N

n = 0 N 1

k=0

I. I NTRODUCTION

Fast fourier transforms (FFT) have been widely used in

various fields for computing the Discrete Fourier Transform

(DFT) of a signal. A lot of work has gone into designing

efficient architectures like radix 2, radix 22 [1], radix 23 [2]

and split radix algorithm. Fixed point FFT designs have largely

used the complex but optimal Convergent Block Floating Point

(CBFP) method [3]or its variants [4]. This method essentially

scales the output of every stage appropriately to maximally

utilise the dynamic range and hence gets the best Signal to

Quantization Noise Ratio(SQNR) for a given number of bits.

The disadvantage of this method is its higher complexity and

latency. Desingers often use simulations to decide the scaling

factors at the expense of increased design time.

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is now

used in a number of wireless systems like WLAN, WiMax,DVB, DAB, UWB and has also been proposed in future

cellular technologies like LTE. In OFDM, the data is sent on

orthogonal tones and an IFFT at the transmitter and an FFT at

the receiver multiplex and demultiplex the data respectively.

Many FFT designs for OFDM systems have also used the

CBFP technique as reported in [5], [3].

In this paper we exploit the statistical property of OFDM

signals and use it to derive a near-optimal scaling scheme. We

also discuss the effects of truncation and rounding and show

ways of increasing SQNR even with the low complexity truncation operation. In section II we present a short introduction

to OFDM. Section III discusses the traditional techniques

for fixed point design and points out their advantages and

disadvantages. In section IV, we derive the statistics of the

OFDM signal as it passes through different stages of the

coefficient at that frequency are recovered using an FFT on the

time domain signal.

X(k) =

N

1

x(n) exp

j2kn

N

k = 0...N 1

n=0

gaussian distributed due to the central limit theorem. This

implies that the Peak-to-average ratio (PAR) of OFDM signals

is high. OFDM has become hugely popular due to its inherent

ability to combat multipath and to scale to higher data rates.

Higher data rates typically imply higher constellations for a

given channel bandwidth and hence higher SNR requirement

from the system. This makes the problem of fixed point FFT

design more challenging as higher SQNR is needed to realise

these systems while keeping the implementation complexity

and latency low. Design cycle times also need to be kept low

to ensure that systems can be productized quickly to keep pace

with market dynamics.

III. T RADITIONAL FFT DESIGN

Many architectures like radix-2, radix-4, radix-22 or radix2 or a mix thereof can be used for FFT design in OFDM

systems. An example signal-flow graph representation for

an 8 point FFT with radix 2 implementation is shown in

figure 1. Pipelined architectures are prefered for their low

latency, high processing element utilization and low memory

requirements. A radix r pipelined FFT stage, using single path

delay feedback, operating on an N th order FFT needs N/r

memory elements, r adders and one multiplier and generates

3

2, the matrix is given by

1 0

0 1

T =

1 0

0 1

Fig. 1.

on to the next stage (an N/r FFT) for further processing [1].

In fixed point design, the usual technique to optimally scale

the outputs at different stages is the Convergent Block Floating

Point method (CBFP) [3]. In this method each of the N/r

output streams are assigned a scale factor so as to optimally

utilise the bit-widths before passing on to the next stage. At

the end of all the stages, each FFT output has an associated

scale factor like a floating point representation. To get it back

to fixed point, the common exponent is extracted and all the

outputs are quantized to the desired bit-widths. The advantages

of this method are that it gives the best SQNR for the bitwidths allocated. But this method has a penalty in terms of

memory and latency. Each stage needs N/r memory elements

in full precision to store the outputs of the stage, before the

scale factor for that block can be computed and the outputs

scaled. For example, in a 128 point radix 4 FFT design, this

would introduce an extra overhead of 32+8+2 = 42 memory

elements. This reduces the effectiveness of a pipelined design

and increases the latency through the FFT. There have been

some variants where this memory requirement is traded-off

for more complicated butterfly stages that equalise the scale

factors on the input data on the fly [4]. Due to the increased

complexity of CBFP, traditional fixed point designs have relied

on simulations to fix the scaling requirement at each stage.

IV. S TATISTICS OF THE INTERMEDIATE SIGNALS

To design a static scaling scheme,we need to know how

the signal behaves as it passes through multiple stages of the

FFT. In a Nyquist-sampled OFDM system, the time domain

samples at the receiver are independent and are Gaussian

distributed as shown in section II. Now let the signal at the

output of butterfly stage m be Sm (n), S0 (n) = x(n) and

Sf inal (n) be the FFT output. Any FFT architecture using a

radix r structure takes in r inputs and gives out N/r sets of

r data values that are then processed independently. In each

butterfly itself, the operation is performed on r inputs to give

r outputs. The output of stage m can be expressed in terms of

the input Sm1 (n), a transformation matrix T , which performs

some operation on the inputs, a twiddle factor matrix Ttw , a

diagonal matrix containing the appropriate twiddle factors for

the input set, as Sm = Ttw T Sm1 . Note that since Ttw is a

diagonal matrix containing complex exponentials, it is unitary.

The matrix T depends on the radix r used to implement the

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

For a radix 22 FFT, each stage has two butterflies and let the

corresponding matrices be T1 and T2 . The output is given by

Sm = Ttw T2 T1 Sm1 It can be seen that

1 0 1

0

1 1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 0 0

1

T1 =

1 0 1 0 T2 = 0 0 1 j

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 j

These transformations are orthogonal transformations and

given that the input to the FFT is zero mean i.i.d Gaussian, the

output of every stage is also zero mean iid Gaussian. To show

this, it is enough to show that if the input has a correlation

matrix of the form 2 I, then the output also has a similar

form. Assume that the input Sm1 is iid with variance of

2

. Then the variance of the output is given by

m1

H

E[Sm Sm

]

=

=

=

H

H

Ttw T E[Sm1 Sm1

]T H Ttw

2

H

Ttw T T H Ttw

m1

2

rm1 Ir

(1)

(2)

(3)

the identity matrix of order

r. So the rms value of the output

of a stage increases by r. A radix 22 stage can be considered

as a cascade of two stages where,

at each stage the rms value

one butterfly stage can be simply extended to all the outputs

of a particular stage. In other words, given that the output of

one stage of the FFT is iid gaussian, the output of the next

stage is also iid with the variance increasing by a factor of r.

Note that the twiddle factor multiplication does not affect the

scaling as its a unitary transformation.

In appendix VIII, it is shown that for any given number of

bits, there is a certain rms value that gives the best SQNR. The

exact rms value at which the SQNR is maximised depends on

the Peak-to-Average ratio (PAR) of the signal. The PAR of

an OFDM signal in turn typically depends on the number of

tones used to generate the OFDM signal. At the input of the

FFT, the best SQNR for the given number of bits is typically

assured by the use of an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) block.

To retain the same rms value at different stages

of the FFT, all

we need to do is to scale the signal down by r. Note that this

scaling need not be precise, as the SQNR degrades gradually

from the peak. For a radix 4 architecture, the optimal scaling

factor is 2 and hence is trivial to implement.By choosing the

same number of bits at every stage and using the above scaling

before quantizing, the SQNR contribution from each stage is

made equal. This is essentially due to the fact that the above

scaling factor makes the operation in each stage a unitary

transformation. When each stage gives the same SQNR, then

i

at the input) and let Wm

denote an mth order FFT of the noise

th

affecting the i stage. Let Q(k) denote the quantization noise

affecting the k th tone at the FFT output, then

log2 N

Q(k) =

i=0

Fig. 2.

SQNR requirement.1

For radix 2 stage or the individual butterflies of a radix

22 stage, a lower complexity method, referred to as SubOPtimally Static scaled FFT (SOPS FFT), can be employed

where the input is scaled down by 2 for every two stages.

Note that this method is static and hence does away with large

simulation times and has no additional complexity. In section

VI, it is shown that the performance of SOPS FFT is close to

that of the CBFP.

Many OFDM systems are implemented with a 2x or 4x

oversampling to relax filtering requirements on analog filters.

In this case, the independence assumption in section IV is not

true. However, adjacent input samples affect the FFT output

only in the last stage. Hence for a 2x FFT the independence

assumption is true till the last but one stage and for a 4x FFT,

till the last but two stages. So for a 2x FFT, the scaling by 2

should be done once every two stages, untill the last but one

stage, and a scaling by 2 should be done for the last stage.

V. E FFECT OF QUANTIZATION NOISE

Quantization noise gets added at different points in the FFT.

For simplicity, we assume that the noise gets added at the end

of every stage. We will illustrate the case of a radix-2 FFT but

the analysis can be extended for other cases as well with some

modifications. For example in a radix 2 FFT, as shown in figure

2, the quantization noise at the output of every stage passes

through a lower order FFT before affecting the output. In the

example shown, the quantization noise at the input affects the

output through an 8-point FFT. The quantization noise at the

second stage passes through 4 point FFT before affecting the

output. The quantization noise in subsequent stages go through

lower order FFTs and finally the quantization noise at the

output affects the signal directly.

Let wi denote the vector of quantization noise affecting the

th

i stage output (i = 0 corresponds to the quantization noise

1 The output of the last few stages of the FFT may not be gaussian as the

FFT outputs would be close to the constellation points. This means that the

PAR of those outputs would be lower. So the SQNR vs signal rms curve would

further increase beyond 0.2 and would fall at a higher rms value (as against

the SQNR of a gaussian signal shown in figure 8). So the proposed method

does not get the best SQNR for the last stages but it does not degrade the

performance. In practice this is insignificant as our simulation results indicate.

W iN (

2i

k

)

2i

(4)

using the Decimation-in-Frequency method. The Quantization

noise at the DC tone in the FFT output is the sum of the DC

value of the quantization noises added in the different stages.

The Quantization noise at the first tone(k = 1) in the FFT

output is the sum of the first tone of the input(i = 0) stage

quantization noise and the DC tones of other stages(i > 0

quantization noise and so on. To obtain quantization noise

statistics, let us assume that the quantization noise at any stage

and index is independent of quantization noise at any other

index or stage. For simplicity we assume that the noise process

is also identically distributed although the results can easily

be extended to the cases where the quantization noise sources

at different stages have different mean and variances. Let the

mean and variance of the individual quantization noise samples

in wi for any stage i be and 2 respectively. Then

i

(k)]

E[WM

M (k)

(5)

The above equation just reflects the fact that the mean of the

FFT output is the same as the FFT of the mean of the input,

which is just a non-zero value at DC and zero elsewhere.

i

i

(k) E[WM

(k)]|2 ]

E[|WM

= M 2

(6)

The above equation shows that the variance of the FFT output

is identical for all tones due to the i.i.d assumption and the fact

that the FFT is an orthogonal transformation. M represents the

processing gain of the FFT. The Quantization noise power is

given by

E[Q2 (k)]

2

log2 N

N

N

k

+

=

(

)

2 (7)

i

i

i

2

2

2

i=0

i=0

log2 N

The equation shows that the variance is same for all the

output tones of the quantization noise, but the mean is different

for different tones thereby causing a different noise power

profile. Now let us consider the two most common quantization schemes - truncation and rounding. Both truncation

and rounding have the same variance but their mean values

are different. Suppose b fractional bits are either truncated or

rounded to the nearest integer, it can be shown that the mean

and with rounding is 0.5

error with truncation is 0.5 0.5

2b

2b

The quantization noise power profile at the FFT output for

a 16 point FFT is plotted in figure 3 for both truncation and

rounding, based on equation 7, assuming 2 fractional bits at

every stage before rounding/truncating to an integer. The plot

shows that the quantization noise is high near the DC tones

while it significantly smaller near the edge tones. The trend is

the same for rounding as well, but the difference between edge

tone and DC tone is smaller due to the lower mean for the

4

2

140

Stage number is i

truncation

rounding

120

<13,i+1,tc>

BF 1

Noise Pwr

100

<13,i1,tc>

14 bits

<13,i+1,tc>

BF 2

80

Twiddle

factor

60

<13,0,tc> Stage 1

40

<13,2,tc> Stage 3

<13,4,tc>Stage 5 <13,6,tc>

x

radix 2

stage

<14,6,t>

20

Twiddle

factor

0

10

15

Tone index

Fig. 5.

Fig. 3. Theoretical plot of Quantization noise power over tones at the output

of a FFT

Plot of Mean absolute value of error vs tone index

0.4

Truncation

Rounding

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Tone Index

Fig. 4.

stage as well as quantization of twiddle factors. To get a more

realistic view of the quantization noise impact at the receiver,

we took a 128 pt FFT design as in figure 5 and plotted

the quantization noise at the output with both truncation and

rounding. The plot in figure 4 shows a high quantization noise

near the DC tone as expected. But the quantization noise again

increases near the highest tones and gives near U-shape to the

spectrum. This is due to twiddle factor quantization and other

factors that we have disregarded in our simple analysis.

A. Rotated FFT

In almost all OFDM systems, there are a number of zero

tones at the band edges to prevent spectral leakage to adjacent

bands.For example, WLAN has 12 guard tones, 6 on eitherside

of the spectrum. Also oversampling at the receiver introduces

null tones at high frequencies. At the receiver, These zero

tones fall in the low quantization noise region of the U-shaped

curve, while the desired tones fall in the high quantization

noise region. This causes a degradation in the SQNR of the

desired tones. So for systems with oversampling or with guard

tones, an easy way to increase SQNR would be to cyclically

easily accomplished by multiplying the inputs by (1)n , so

that the FFT outputs are cyclically shifted by N/2 tones. We

call this method as Rotated FFT (R-FFT) and this method

can be used to improve the performance of any FFT design

that uses truncation and achieve performance gains without

the additional complexity due to rounding 2 . In section VI,

we demonstrate the gains due to this method when applied in

tandem with the earlier proposed methods.

VI. S IMULATION RESULTS

The simulations were performed for an 802.11a/g system,

oversampled by a factor of 2. There are a total of 128 tones,

with 52 data tones, 12 guard tones which are zero and 64

zero tones due to oversampling. The modulation mode used

is 54 Mbps, where the transmitted symbols are chosen from a

64 QAM constellation. A legacy 128 point FFT design, based

on a radix 22 architecture for all stages but the last stage,

is chosen as the starting point for evaluating our proposals.

The input for each stage is 13 bits and the final FFT output

is 14 bits. The legacy fft, shown in figure 5, increases the

number of integer bits by 2 for every radix 22 stage which is

the worst case bit growth possible. 3 The SOPS technique is

now applied to this design by modifying the scale factor (or

equivalently the number of integer bits) at the different stages,

while retaining the same complexity. The block diagram of the

new design is shown in 6. The Rotated-SOPS (R-SOPS) FFT

is obtained by modifying the SOPS FFT to include the trivial

multiplication of the inputs by (1)n . The CBFP FFT uses

13 output bits at every stage and uses the CBFP algorithm

to obtain the scaling factors for each output. The final FFT

outputs are again converted to fixed point by extracting a

common scale factor for all outputs. The comparison is done

based on the cdf of the SQNR and the cdf was obtained from

1000 simulation runs.

Figure 7 compares the performance of fixed-point-input

floating-point-output, CBFP (rounded), SOPS (truncated),

2 rounding requires an extra adder. Multiplication by (1)n can be absorbed

into the FFTs first stage and will only cause a control overhead. Even if a

separate adder is needed for multiplying the input by -1, it still needs to be

done only at the input and not at every stage.

3 The format for the numbers is as follows:13,1,tc means a twos

complement number with 13 total bits and 1 integer bit

5

2

Stage number is i

90

16 bits

80

<13,(i+1)/2,tc>

<13,(i1/2),tc>

14 bits

<13,(i+1)/2,tc>

70

BF 2

SQNR (dB)

BF 1

Twiddle

factor

60

50

40

<13,0,tc> Stage 1

<13,1,tc> Stage 3

i=1

i=3

<13,2,tc>Stage 5 <13,3,tc>

x

i=5

8 bits

radix 2

stage

30

<14,4,t>

increasing

bitwidth

20

Twiddle

factor

Fig. 6.

Fig. 8.

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

s

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

1

legacy fft

fixed in float out

SOPS trunc

SOPS round

RotatedSOPS

CBFP

0.9

0.8

VIII. A PPENDIX

CDF of SQNR

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

45

Fig. 7.

50

55

60

SQNR in dB

65

70

75

Rounding was employed in CBFP to compare the proposed

designs against the best possible design. The figure shows a

significant performance gain of about 16 dB with the R-SOPS

FFT compared to the legacy design. Note that the rotated

SOPS (R-SOPS) design is 1.5 dB better than the rounded

SOPS design, although only truncation is employed in R-SOPS

design. This can be explained using figure 4, where the error

profile for the rounding case near the DC tones is higher than

the error profile for the truncation case at the edge tones. The

rotated SOPS design also performs within about .5 dB of the

CBFP design. It must be borne in mind that rotation gives such

large gains because the signal is oversampled by a factor of 2.

For Nyquist sampled systems, the gains due to rotation would

be smaller. The SQNR curves were similar for all modulation

modes and in the presence of multi-path.

VII. C ONCLUSION

In this paper we have presented a technique to design

a fixed point FFT that does not require highly complex

block floating point implementation. We have investigated the

quantization error profile at the output of FFT and based on

this have proposed a technique to improve the SQNR. A legacy

128 point FFT design has been modified according to these

principles and shown to achieve near-CBFP performance.

signal has a probability density function (pdf) that is approximately a complex Gaussian. Let us assume that for both I

and Q, the full-scale fixed-point range is [-1, 1) and that the

I and Q are each quantized to N-bit signed twos-complement

representation. In the following, we derive the expression for

the SQNR that results from the quantization and clipping, as

a function of the RMS signal level and the number of bits

The mean-squared error due to loss of precision at the LSB

is given by q2 = 2 /12 = 22N /3, where = 2N +1 is

the bin-width of each of the N possible quantized levels.

Using the Gaussian assumption for the pdf of the signal,

the mean-squared error due to clipping at +/-1 is given as

2

2

v

(v 1)2 e 2s2 dv

(8)

c2 =

2s2 v=1

The above integral can be simplified using complementary

error function and the composite SQNR can be written as

10log

(s2 + 1)erfc

s2

1

2s

2s

e

2

212

s

22N

different bit-widths. From the figure, it can be observed that

for a given bit-width, as the signal RMS level increases, the

SQNR improves upto a certain point , but beyond that it starts

decreasing steeply. Therefore, the signal RMS level has to be

chosen appropriately to get the best SQNR.

R EFERENCES

[1] S. He and M. Torkelson, A new approach to pipeline fft processor, in

Proc. IEEE IPPS, 1996.

[2] S. He and M. Torkelson, Designing pipeline fft processor for ofdm

(de)modulation, in Proc. IEEE International symposium on signals and

systems, 1998.

[3] E.Bidet, C.Joanblanq, and P.Senn, A fast single chip implementation

of 8192 complex points fft, in Proc. IEEE Custom integrated circuits

conference, 1994.

[4] T.Lenart and V.Owall, A 2048 complex point fft processor using a novel

data scaling approach, in Proc. IEEE International symposium on circuits

and systems, 2003.

[5] S. H. Park, D. H. Kim, D. S. Han et.al, Sequential design of a complex

8192 point fft in ofdm receiver, in IEEE AP-ASIC, 1999.

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