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THE CASALI GUIDES

a guide
for laying
bituminous-polymer
membranes
for roofing

A GUIDE FOR LAYING BITUMINOUS-POLYMER


MEMBRANES FOR ROOFING

CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Introduction
The Casali Group
Technical terms - Glossary
Use of bituminous membranes - Application Procedures
4.1
Reception
4.2
Handling and storage
4.3
Transport
4.4
Preparing the laying surface
4.4.a Structures in r.c., floors in clay-cement mix or pre-compressed concrete
4.4.b Wooden structures
4.4.c Metal structures
4.4.d For all applications
4.5
Laying procedure for polymer- bituminous membranes
4.5.1 Hot laying procedure
Loose laid
Partially bonded
Fully bonded
4.5.2 Cold laying procedure
Self-adhesive membranes
Membranes applied with bituminous glue
4.5.3 Mechanical fixing
4.6
Basic laying rules
4.7
Different types of protection for waterproofing coverings
Heavy protection
Light protection
Self-protection
5. The most frequently used coverings
6. Typical solutions - specifications
flat roofing
sloping coverings
7. Solutions for difficult applications
A
Structural joints
B
Vertical joints
C
Breather vents
D
Drain traps
E
Gutters
9. Practical application of lab tests
10. Notes

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Project developed by the Casali S.p.A Technical Office

Created and coordinated by:


Antoine Melhem, Technical Office Manager
With the collaboration of:
Giorgio Antonini, Sales Manager
Marco Compagnucci, Laboratory & QS Manager
Mauro Moreschi, Marketing Manager
All rights reserved

1.

INTRODUCTION

The Technical Office of Casali S.p.A., an Italian leading Company with many years of experience in the production of materials and solutions
for waterproofing problems, has developed this Guide as a quick reference for designers and operators to some of the roofing problems most
commonly encountered in the field.
In view of the vast range of waterproofing problems in the roofing sector it is obviously not possible to deal with them all.This Guide approaches some of the more common waterproofing situations.
The Casali Servicing Department offers customers an efficient service and is ready to find tailor-made solutions to specific roofing problems.
We hope that this Guide will be helpful to all those who deal with waterproofing problems in the field of roofing day after day.
Casali S.p.A. welcomes any suggestions you may have to improve this Guide which has been created to ensure a service of increasingly high quality.

CASALI, Certified Quality


all over the world

ITALY - AUSTRIA - BULGARIA


BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA - CROATIA
CHILE - CYPRUS - COLUMBIA - CUBA
EGYPT - ESTONIA - GERMANY - GREECE
HOLLAND - IRELAND - LATVIA - LEBANON
LITHUANIA - MALTA - NIGERIA - POLAND
PORTO RICO - CZECH REPUBLIC - ROMANIA
UNITED KINGDOM - RUSSIA - SLOVENIA
SINGAPORE - SLOVAK REPUBLIC
SOUTH AFRICA - SWEDEN - SPAIN
SWITZERLAND - TAIWAN - TURKEY
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

2. THE CASALI GROUP


Casali S.p.A. has been dealing in the field of waterproofing for the building trade
since 1936.
The company started off with rolled bituminous paper felt products but in 1976
turned to the production of torched-on bituminous-polymer prefabricated membranes, an all-Italian invention that in very little time was to be used all over the
world and today still represents the ideal solution for the most common applications such as flat and sloped roofing, bridges and viaducts, below ground applications and roof gardens.
Close liaison with customers and tailor-made solutions to their specific requirements are the cornerstones of Casali's philosophy; strict testing, efficiency and quality are its strong points. In an endeavour to meet these requirements and changing
market needs, Casali keeps ahead of the times with targeted products and services.
In 1992 the Membrane Division (with over 400 different types of prefabricated
membranes) was extended with the introduced of the Synthetics Division for the

production of liquid waterproofing and paints (supplementary or


optional to traditional membranes), treatments and consolidating
products for the building trade, special industrial and sports flooring
and coverings.
The family of Casali products continued to increased over the years,
and in 1995 the Company acquired the French Brand MANTOLAMINA, well-known for its high quality and featuring a copper or aluminium lamina finish that provides a total barrier against exposure to UV
rays, evaporation of plasticizing oils etc. as well as a beautiful finish.

Casali has more than thirty years of experience on


international markets.Thanks to partnerships created for product distribution and marketing, the
Company is present in many countries all over the
world.
Casali S.p.A. is located in Italy.Thanks to its efficient
organisation the Company offers excellent lead
times and prices for projects and products alike.
The two production facilities on an area of 23.000
sq.m. (9.500 sq.m. under roofing) are a stone's
throw from Ancona Airport and just a few kilometres from Falconara Marittima Railway Station and
the Ancona Sea Port.
The experience acquired by Casali S.p.A. on
world markets and products and the introduction
of innovative production systems, allow the
Company to provide tailor-made solutions to
specific roofing problems as well as reliable and
constant quality which is guaranteed by a strict,
round-the-clock monitoring system. In 1996 Casali's Quality
System was awarded UNI EN ISO 9001 certification.

Much of the company's success on the domestic and foreign


markets is however also due to the enormous resources invested
by Casali in R&D that have allowed the company to keep one step
ahead of developments in production techniques, waterproofing
products and the building trade developing its know-how to improve the quality standard of processes and products. Highly qualified
staff and labs equipped with the most modern and sophisticated
equipment bear witness to all this.

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Casali, that can today truly call itself a


Group, represents the ideal combination
between research, design, product and service providing solutions to traditional
requirements as well as to all the newest
market needs.

1
2
3
4
5
6

Romanina Shopping Centre - Rome (Italy)


Ulster Bank - Ireland
FIAT - Italy
Casaforte - Italy
Ritter - Germany
Chicco Artsana - Italy

Below: Divine Love Sanctuary - Rome (Italy)

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3. TECHNICAL TERMS - GLOSSARY


This section provides the definition of some the technical terms used in this Guide.
These terms, which are often used by operators in the sector, are also used in technical specification, directives and test descriptions.
C ov e r i n g
A technological unit that contributes to realizing a specific ambient and use beneath itself with respect to external ambient and use.
D ra i n a ge l a ye r
Directs the flow of runoff water in covering systems. Generally consists of suitably sized washed gravel.
F i l t e r i n g L a ye r
Holds back dusty material without impeding the runoff of rainwater.
L a y i n g s u r fa c e
Suitably prepared surface on which the covering components are applied.
P r i m i n g l a ye r
Layer used to promote adhesion between the laying surface and the components applied on the same, generally by means of a bituminous
primer applied by roller or brush.
P ro t e c t i o n l a ye r
Protects the covering from physical, chemical and mechanical stress. Protection layers may be light or heavyweight or self-protecting according to the intended use.
R o o t s t o p l a ye r
Protects underlayers from the penetrating action of roots on roof garden coverings. Generally consists of a special bituminous membrane
containing a compound treated with chemical root stop additives.
S l o p e l a ye r
A layer normally realised in hollow cement that gives the covering a minimum incline for the runoff of rainwater.

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S t i f fe n i n g L a ye r
Uniformly shares the loads concentrated on the layers below. Generally consisting of a reinforced concrete slab with electrically welded square metal mesh
having a thickness of 4 cm.
Suppor ting element
Element having the function of supporting permanent loads and overloads on the covering.The supporting element may be realised in reinforced concrete, pre-compressed concrete, clay-cement mixes, metal, wood etc.
Thermo-insulating material
Material applied to ensure a particular thermal resistance to the covering as a whole.
Va p o u r b a r r i e r l a ye r
Impedes the passage of water vapour in the covering system. Generally, a bituminous membrane reinforced with aluminium lamina is used.
Va p o u r d i s p e r s i o n l a ye r
This layer allows water vapour to transpire preventing pressure build-up under the waterproofing layer. Generally applied under the vapour barrier with a
breather vent between the two layers.
Ve n t i l a t i o n l a ye r
Helps to regulate temperature and humidity levels, through air exchange.
Wa t e r p ro o fi n g e l e m e n t
Element used to waterproof the covering from rainwater.The waterproofing element may be realised in many different ways, the most common of which
is by means of a double layer of bituminous membrane.
Wa t e r r u n o f f e l e m e n t s
Any element used to direct the flow and drainage of rainwater such as drainage traps, gutters and rain water pipes.

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4. USE OF BITUMINOUS MEMBRANES - APPLICATION PROCEDURE


This section provides useful suggestions on how to use the waterproofing membranes produced by CASALI S.p.A.
Applying a bituminous membrane is simple but certain rules must be followed to ensure that the material is used correctly. In order to ensure state-of-theart results remember that the waterproofing membrane should be applied only by skilled staff in accordance with the proper laying procedures, taking all
the necessary precautions to prevent damage during transport - handling and storage.
4.1) RECEPTION
When checking the material on arrival to ensure that the description on the Delivery Document complies with the material requested, it may be useful to
use the "fiscal" alphanumerical code shown on the invoice together with the description of the product.When reporting non conforming material, please
remember to indicate the data shown on the label on the pallet and/or the number on the roll.This is the only way for customers to ensure a quick and
accurate response.
4.2) HANDLING AND STORAGE
When stored for a lengthy period of time, the membrane must be protected from bad weather conditions, sunlight and excessively low temperatures.
Remember that heavy blows, even on smooth surfaces, may cause tearing, cracking and bending that may compromise the waterproofing efficiency of the
membrane.The lower the temperature, the higher this risk will become.
Pallets should be stacked with care. Black membranes (separated by a rigid plane in order to share the load) must not be stacked by more than two levels.
Slated membranes and self-protected mwmbranes with metal lamina must not be stacked at all.
Materials in stock should be continuously rotated bearing in mind that materials delivered for example in January are designed for application at the weather
conditions experienced during that period. This property of the materials becomes a disadvantage if used for example in July. In addition to the above, an
extra word of warning goes to the slated membranes where different lots may have different shades of the same colour.
Never wind a rope around the middle of the roll when lifting or moving since the rope may bend or fold the roll. For handling purposes, lift or move the
pallet on which the rolls are packaged, removing only the material required for the application.This considerably facilitates operations and work at the site.
If the pallets of membranes are kept in the sun, even for short periods of time, remember to slit the shrink wrapping along the length of the roll at several
points to allow air circulation and prevent hothouse effect overheating of the membrane that might damage the characteristics of the material or blacken
the talc and/or slate.

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4.3) TRANSPORT
During transport, ensure that the pallets are well secured using suitably padded angle bars to impede marks on the rolls. Protect the pallets from tearing,
cuts and heavy impact, above all when temperatures are critical.
4.4) PREPARING THE LAYING SURFACE
4.4.a) Structures in reinforced concrete, clay-cement mix and pre-compressed concrete
- Remove gravel, sand and other matter that might damage the waterproofing membrane or reduce adherence, levelling holes with cement mortar.
- In winter ensure that the laying surface has cured properly, that no ice is present and that the laying surface is clean and dry. Do not apply the product
when temperatures are below 5C.
- If the laying surface does not have an incline of at least 2-4%, lay a sloped layer in cement mortar to ensure water runoff of rainwater.
- Apply by brush or roller a 300 ml/sq.m. coat of DERMAPRIMER along the perimeter and on special points as well as on the adhesion surface of the next
layer.When the primer is dry, start laying the membrane.
4.4.b) Wooden structures
- Apply by brush or roller a 300 ml/sq.m. coat of DERMAPRIMER on all the embossments.When the primer is dry, start laying the membrane.
- Dry lay a polyester reinforced membrane on the wooden laying surface, orthogonal to the incline, securing the membrane with wide-head nails spaced
at 33 cm in staggered lines.
P.S.When overlapping the covering in areas exposed to strong winds, we suggest reinforcing the nails by applying a 300 ml/sq.m. coating of ECOMASTIC
to ensure full adhesion of the separation layer, before laying.
4.4.c) Metal structures
- Ensure that the laying surface has no rough areas that might damage the membrane.
- Apply by brush or roller a 200 ml/sq.m. coat of DERMAPRIMER along the perimeter and on special points as well as on the adhesion surface of the next
layer.When the primer is dry, start laying the membrane.
- Along the line where corrugated plate sheets overlap, lay a strip of elastomeric bituminous membrane at least 50 cm wide torching along one edge and
leaving the other side free, before applying the next layer so as to impede from tearing due to contact with the edge and the nails on the sheets.
4.4.d) For all applications
- Proper design of the covering must include a temperature and humidity study of the system according to the climatic conditions and intended use; the choice and dimensions of the insulation must be decided according to the results of this study following the application of a polyester reinforced vapour barrier
UNDERLAY or an aluminium reinforced + overlay mat vapour barrier VAPOREX, applied as per the procedure described in order to prevent the formation
of condensate on the concave surfaces of the covering and/or in the system itself.

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4.5 LAYING PROCEDURE FOR POLYMER - BITUMINOUS MEMBRANES


Bituminous membranes may be applied by hot or cold laying procedures.
4.5.1) HOT LAYING PROCEDURE
The hot laying procedure consists of torching on the membrane by means of a propane gas blowpipe.The choice of the laying procedure depends on the
characteristics of the laying surface, the incline of the covering and its intended use.
There are three different types of hot laying procedures:
Loose laid
Partialy bonded
Fully bonded
Loose laid
This procedure consists of simply resting the membrane on the laying surfacing and then fully bonding the longitudinal and head
joints, the perimeters, the vertical embossments, the areas close to the joints and drainage etc.The second layer is always fully bonded onto the first layer,
with the sheets staggered sideways by 50 cm and longitudinally by a half roll.
This procedure is used for flat coverings or those with an incline of less than 5% and in particular when the supporting structure is subject to differential
movements that might damage the waterproofing element.The stability of the covering is ensured by heavy protection such as ballasting with gravel, cement
blocks, cement slabs etc.
Partialy bonded
This procedure is used when the waterproofing element is the finishing or top layer, and it is necessary to provide ventilation and vapour pressure control
on the covering. It is extremely important to calculate the wind pulling resistance of the fixing elements accurately. Uniform spot bonding
may be ensured by using a membrane such as GRUVER with holes, suited to the waterproofing element, that guarantees a uniform density of the fixing
points over the entire surface; this laying system may be used for laying surfaces with inclines of up to 30%.
For major inclines, a membrane with holes should not be used and the surface bonded to the laying surface must be at least 50% of the total surface area.
The compound is torched on by means of a propane gas blowpipe on parts of the under surface covered with the polyethylene film.
Even in the case of partial bonding, the perimeter areas, the vertical embossments and critical points must be fully bonded.
The second layer is fully bonded on to the first layer with sheets staggered sideways by 50 cm and longitudinally by half a roll.

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Fully bonded
This procedure consists of bonding the membrane to the laying surface including the lateral and head joints, the perimeter areas, the vertical
embossments, the areas around the joints, drainage etc.The second layer is always fully bonded to the first layer, with the sheets staggered sideways by 50
cm and longitudinally by a half roll.
This laying procedure is used for coverings with rigid supporting elements (clay-cement and reinforced concrete floors), with coverings inclined by more
than 40%, in applications where the waterproofing element is visible and to guarantee the stability of the covering against wind action and that of the vertical walls. In this case, use of a polyester reinforced waterproofing membrane with suitable tear resistance characteristics, is recommended. Flame resistant
insulation should be used.
4.5.2 COLD LAYING PROCEDURE
Cold laying procedures are used above all when bonding is not possible but also on metal laying surfaces which are easy to nail or when the membrane is
laid on flame-sensitive insulation.These are clean systems that do however require highly skilled labour in that there is very little room for error, above all
in the case of single-layer applications.The most commonly used procedures are as follows:
a) Self-adhesive membranes
b) Membranes applied with bituminous glue
a) Self-adhesive membranes
These are special membranes with a bottom self-adhesive layer generally protected by non-stick silicone paper which is removed before laying.
b) Membranes applied with bituminous glue
A layer of bituminous glue (generally solvent-based) is applied, on which the membrane is laid.
4.5.3 MECHANICAL FIXING
As mentioned previously, membranes are fixed mechanically above all in the case of wind exposure, vertical walls and when flame-sensitive materials are
used (above all insulation).The membrane sheets are fixed to the laying surface with flat-head nails and washers.The fixing points are spaced evenly, depending on the type of laying surface, and should be increased at special points and along the perimeters.The nails are fixed under the joint on the longitudinal and head overlaps.This system requires the use of membranes that are highly resistant to tearing and with high dimensional stability (laying membranes with polyester - fibre-glass thread reinforcement).

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4.6 BASIC LAYING RULES


- Check that the sheets are correctly aligned, unrolling them completely and positioning them.
- In the case of flat coverings, always start at the drainage areas, while in the case of highly sloped coverings, the sheets may be placed parallel to the direction of the slope.
- The side joints must be at least 10 cm, while at the head joint should be approx. 15 cm.
- Roll out half of the roll, then torch the under surface of the membrane, which generally is covered by a polyethylene film, with a propane gas blowpipe,
softening the bituminous mass, and fixing first one half and then the other.
- Pass a trowel or spatula over the overlaps, without reducing the thickness of the membrane or exposing the reinforcement.
- The second layer must be fully bonded on to the first layer, staggering the side overlaps by 50 cm and the head overlaps by half a roll.
4.7 DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROTECTION FOR WATERPROOFING COVERINGS
There are three different types of protection for bituminous waterproofing membranes:
- heavy protection
- light protection
- self-protection
Heavy Protection
Flat coverings (having slope of less than 5%) with loose laid waterproofing must be protected by any of the following heavy protections, according to intended use:
- Reinforced concrete cast with electrically welded metal mesh that distributes the loads, over a layer of sand of at least 2 cm.
- Marble or tiled flooring in the case of treadable surfaces
- Cement blocks placed on wide-based plastic support
- Self-blocking elements or similar over a layer of sand
- Bituminous conglomerate or asphalting for surfaces suitable for vehicle traffic
- Green roof system for roof gardens
- Ballasting consisting of 15 mm washed river gravel in layers of 4 - 8 cm depending on wind conditions
For all the solutions proposed, we recommend laying a dividing layer between the waterproofing membrane and the overlying structure in high grammage
polyester TNT (250-300 / sq.m.), bituminous paper felt or polyethylene film etc., according to the application requirements.
Light protection
This type of protection is used for black membranes using aluminium or copper based reflecting paints such as REFLEX AR, REFLEX MR or REFLEX Rame
to prevent the natural ageing of bitumen caused by UV rays and to impede the "crocodile skin" phenomenon that appears on unprotected bitumen. This
treatment is indispensable when thermal insulation is laid under the waterproofing element.

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Remember that this type of protection requires maintenance every 3 - 5 years to restore the reflecting capacity of the paint that may be damaged by atmospheric agents, animal droppings etc.
Self-protection
This protection is applied during production by coating the upper surface with slate chips (e.g. slated DERMABIT 43170) or copper or aluminium covering
(e.g. MANTOLAMINA Al, MANTOLAMINA Cu).
The latter is recommended for non-treadable coverings and/or coverings with particular architectural structure (domes, complex shapes etc.) and gives a
very attractive finish.

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5.

THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED COVERINGS

The following are the most frequently used coverings:


- Non-insulated, non ventilated coverings
- Non-insulated, ventilated coverings
- Insulated, non ventilated coverings
- Insulated, ventilated coverings
- Hot roofing
- Inverted roofing
5.1) CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONS
Correctly designing a covering system means taking into account all the parameters that affect the system as a whole.The "appropriate" solutions are given
below according to the geometry, access level and characteristics of the supporting element.
5.1.a)

Geometry
Flat roofing: this class includes horizontal coverings with slope of less than 5%
Sloped roofing: this class includes coverings with slope between 5 and 50%

5.1.b)

Access level
Non-treadable roofing: coverings to which access is allowed only for maintenance of machinery or the waterproofing membrane
Treadable roofing: coverings for pedestrian traffic, designed for pedestrian traffic loads of 400 kg/sq.m.
Roofing suitable for traffic: coverings for light (<2t per axis) or heavy (>2t per axis) traffic
"Green roof": coverings for roof gardens on which a layer of soil is laid

5.1.c)

Characteristics of the supporting element


Floors in clay-cement/r.c.: floors cast in situ in reinforced clay-cement, floors cast in reinforced concrete etc.
Pre-compressed reinforced concrete: prefabricated elements with metal reinforcement subjected to prior tensile stress.
These elements have a high tensile strength.
Metal sheet plate: Galvanised corrugated sheet plate floors with different profiles.
Wooden structures: trusses ,solid wood beams, planking, panelling etc.

The following diagram provides a quick reference to the choice of the most appropriate solution described by the corresponding specification.

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5.

TIPICAL SOLUTIONS - SPECIFICATIONS

This section develops the solutions described in the two previous diagrams showing the recommended layers for each system.
The recommendations given in paragraph 4 on preparing the laying surface and laying the waterproofing membranes apply to all the specifications.

Important Instructions!
Please note that the typical solutions described are not the only solutions possible: for the same design, the choice of membrane depends on numerous factors such as climatic conditions, temperature and humidity, budget etc. Remember that the materials indicated by the specifications may be changed according
to specific project requirements.

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FLAT ROOFING

A1

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: CORRUGATED SHEET PLATE - FINISH: BLACK PAINTED MEMBRANE - NON TREADABLE-INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent
based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of:
0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at
23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%, applying 200
g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2
kg/.sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of
300B (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at
break 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931).
Fully bond on the underside of the membrane covered with polyethylene
film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal joints of at
least 10 cm and head joints of 15 cm, gluing it to the perimeter embossments
at least 10 cm beyond the thickness of the thermal-acoustic insulation.
Lay the thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications and nail to the metal laying surface. In
the case of wind exposure or slopes exceeding 20%, the first waterproofing
membrane and overlaps must be nailed spacing the nails at 5 nails per sq.m.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER, with mass per unit area
of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109), 119 holes /sq.m..The membrane must be laid with overlaps of at least 10 cm.
Position the double breather vents, for the elimination of excess water vapour,
at the junction points of the thermal insulation. The breather vents must be
positioned at an average of one per 25 sq.m., between the dispersion layer and
the vapour barrier for the main element, while the second element must be
inserted between the insulation and the double waterproofing layer.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound


modified with APAO resins (Amorphe - Poly - Alpha-Olefine) such as DERMABIT-EXTRA 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m., (EN 1849-1), load
at break, long. 800N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal
and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -25C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal
ageing in air (EN 1296) -20C. Fully bond on the underside of the membrane
covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe onto the
flame resistant insulation, making a longitudinal joint of at least 10 cm and a
head joint of at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with
the vertical walls that must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level
when the covering is finished.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with APAO resins (Amorphe-poly-Alpha-Olefine)
such as DERMABIT-EXTRA 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m.,
(EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 800N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1),
flexibility at low temperatures -25C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal ageing in air (EN 1296) -20C.The membrane must be fully
bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas
blowpipe, and making a longitudinal joint of at least 10 cm and a head joint of
at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical
walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the
covering is finished.
Apply two coats of highly reflecting aluminium paint for bituminous membranes such as REFLEX AR, with wet volume mass: 0.94 kg/dm3;; dry volume
residue; 39%; viscosity at 23C with FORD cup No. 3; applying at least 0.130
l/sq.m. per coating by brush or roller or compressed air.

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29

A2

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: CORRUGATED SHEET PLATE - FINISH: SLATED MEMBRANE - NON TREADABLE-INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 200 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2
kg/.sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of
300B (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at
break 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931).
Fully bond on the underside of the membrane covered with polyethylene
film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal joints of at least
10 cm and head joints of 15 cm, gluing the membrane to the perimeter
embossments at least 10 cm beyond the thickness of the thermal-acoustic
insulation.
Lay the thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications and nail to the metal laying surface.
In the case of wind exposure or slopes exceeding 20%, the first waterproofing membrane and overlaps must be nailed spacing the nails at 5 nails per
sq.m.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER, with mass per unit area
of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109), 119 holes /sq.m.. The membrane must be laid with
overlaps of at least 10 cm.
Position the double breather vents for the elimination of excess water
vapour, at the junction points of the thermal insulation. The breather vents
must be positioned at an average of one per 25 sq.m., between the dispersion layer and the vapour barrier for the main element, while the second
element must be inserted between the insulation and the double waterproofing layer.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with SBS copolymers (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene) such as
EXTENSA 40180 cpv., thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m.,
(EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 850N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 50% (EN 12311-1),
flexibility at low temperatures -30C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal ageing in air (EN 1296) -25C. Fully bond on the underside of the membrane covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane
gas blowpipe, onto the flame resistant insulation, making a longitudinal joint
of at least 10 cm and a head joint of at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least 10 cm over
the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with SBS copolymers (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene) selfprotected with slate chips of the colour selected, such as EXTENSA 45180
polyester, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m., (EN 1849-1), load at break,
long. 850N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 50C (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -30C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal ageing in
air (EN 1296) -25C.The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe and making a
longitudinal joint of at least 10 cm and a head joint of at least 15 cm, closing
them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at
least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,
highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least

30

31

A3

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: CORRUGATED SHEET PLATE WITH FLOOR - FINISH: SLATED MEMBRANE - NON TREADABLE-INSULATED

Specifications
Lay the r.c. concrete slab which will act as thermal insulation according to
the design specifications, then carry out the following steps:
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 200 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER, with mass per unit area
of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109), 119 holes /sq.m.. The membrane must be laid with
overlaps of at least 10 cm.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound
modified with SBS copolymers (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene) such as EXTENSA
FIL 40200, thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4.4 kg/sq.m., (EN 1849-1),
load at break, long. 650N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum elongation
at break, long. 40% and trans. 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -20C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal ageing in
air (EN 1296) -10C. Fully bond on the underside of the membrane covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, onto the
laying surface previously prepared, making a longitudinal joint of at least 10
cm and a head joint of at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint
necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum
water level when the covering is finished. In the case of wind exposure or
slopes exceeding 50%, the overlaps must also be nailed in, spacing the nails
at 5 nails per sq.m.

Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with SBS copolymers (Styrene-ButadieneStyrene) self-protected with slate chips of the colour selected, such as
EXTENSA FIL 45200 polyester, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m., (EN
1849-1), load at break, long. 650N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum
elongation at break long. 40% and trans. 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low
temperatures -20C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal
ageing in air (EN 1296) -10C. The membrane must be fully bonded with
sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, and
making a longitudinal joint of at least 10 cm and a head joint of at least 15
cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that
must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering
is finished.
Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,
highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least
300 g/sq.m. with or without air.

32

33

A4

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SLATED MEMBRANE - NON TREADABLE - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER with mass per unit area
of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperature
-10C (EN 1109), 119 holes/sq.m. Lay the membrane with overlaps of 10 cm.

bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas
blowpipe, overlapping the longitudinal joints by at least 10 cm and the head
joints by least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the
vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level
when the covering is finished.
Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,
highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least
300 g/sq.m. with or without air.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as OLYMPIA, thickness 4 mm,
polyester, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m., (EN 1849-1), load at break,
long. 500N, trans. 400N (EN 12311-1), maximum elongation at break, long.
35% and trans. 40% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C
(EN 1109). When the bituminous primer is thoroughly dry, fully bond on
the underside of the membrane covered by polyethylene film by means of a
propane gas blowpipe, onto the concrete slab previously prepared, making a
longitudinal joint of at least 10 cm and a head joint of at least 15 cm, closing
them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at
least 10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with plastomer polymers, self-protected with slate chips
of the colour selected, such as OLYMPIA 45200r, with mass per unit area of
4.5 kg/sq.m., (EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 500N, transverse 400N (EN
12311-1), maximum elongation at break long. 35% and trans. 40% (EN 12311-1),
flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109).The membrane must be fully

34

35

A5

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: BALLASTING WITH WASHED GRAVEL - NON TREADABLE - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
On the laying supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4%
to ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface along the perimeters and at the special points on
the covering and on the sections where the membrane is fully bonded, by
applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer
such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at
450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume
residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.

covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, overlapping the longitudinal joints by at least 10 cm and the head joints by at least
15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls
that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Apply a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300 g/sq.m.)
Lay a 4-5 cm covering of 15 mm rounded washed river gravel.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as MULTIPLAST 40200 polyester, with mass per unit area of 4.4 kg/sq.m. ,thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1),
load at break, long. 500N, trans. 400N (EN 12311-1), maximum elongation at
break, long. 35% and trans. 40% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures
-10C (EN 1109).When the bituminous primer is thoroughly dry, torch the
underside of the membrane covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, loose laying the membrane and making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and transverse overlaps of at least 15 cm, closing them
over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least
10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished. The
membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeters and on the points
treated previously.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with plastomer polymers such as MULIPLAST 40200
polyester, with mass per unit area of 4.4 kg/sq.m., thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1),
load at break, long. 500N, transverse 400N (EN 12311-1), maximum elongation at break long. 35% and trans. 40% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109).The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets
staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside

36

37

A6

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SLATED MEMBRANE - NON TREADABLE - INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass
of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at
23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300
g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER with mass per unit area
of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperature
-10C (EN 1109), 119 holes/sq.m. Lay the membrane with overlaps of 10 cm.
Install breather vents for the elimination of excess water vapour, at the junction points of the thermal insulation.The breather vents must be positioned
at an average of one per 25 sq.m., between the dispersion layer and the double waterproofing layer for the main element, while the second element must
be inserted between the insulation and the double waterproofing layer.
Lay a reinforced aluminium vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2. kg/sq.m.
with longitudinal and transversal load at break. 300N (EN 12311-1), maximum
longitudinal and transverse elongation at break, 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931).The underside of the membrane covered
with polyethylene film must be partially bonded or spot bonded by means of
a propane gas blowpipe, onto the dispersion layer, making longitudinal joints
of at least 10 cm and head joints of 15 cm, including the joint necks with the
vertical walls that must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level
when the covering is finished.
Lay the flame resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER, with mass per unit area of 1.3
kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN
1109), 119 holes sq.m.The membrane must be laid with overlaps of at least 10 cm.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as POLTEX 40180 Polyester,
with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1), load at
break, long. 750N, transverse 550N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and
transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109).The underside of the membrane covered by polyethylene film must be partially bonded or spot bonded by means of a propane
gas blowpipe onto the dispersion layer, making a longitudinal joints of at least
10 cm and head joints of at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint
necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum
water level when the covering is finished.The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeter and at the special points.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with plastomer polymers, self-protected with slate chips
of the colour selected, such as POLTEX 45180 Polyester,, with mass per unit
area of 4.5 kg/sq.m., load at break, long. 750N, transverse 550N (EN 12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1),
flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109).The membrane must be fully
bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas
blowpipe, and overlapping the longitudinal joints by at least 10 cm and the
transverse joints by at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint
necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum
water level when the covering is finished.
Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,
highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least
300 g/sq.m. with or without air.

38

39

A7

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: WASHED GRAVEL - NON TREADABLE - INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface along the perimeters and special points on the
covering and at the points where the membrane is fully bonded, by applying
a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as
DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C:
0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue:
38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Install breather vents for the elimination of excess water vapour, at the junction points of the thermal insulation.The breather vents must be positioned
at an average of one per 25 sq.m. under the vapour barrier layer.
Lay a reinforced aluminium vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2.
kg/sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transversal load at break.
300N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at
break, 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931).
The membrane are loose laid making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm
and head joints of at least 15 cm, closing them over, gluing the membrane
over the perimeter embossments by at least 10 cm above the thickness of
the thermal-acoustic insulation, and torching the underside covered by
polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe.The membrane must
be fully bonded along the perimeters and on the special points previously
treated.
Lay the flame resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and
characteristics as per the design specifications for application of the membrane.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFIL 40200 SP CPV,
with mass per unit area of 4.4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1), load at
break, long. 650N, transverse 450N (EN 12311-1), maximum elongation at
break long. 40% and trans. 45%(EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109). The membrane is loose laid, torching the underside
covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe making
longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15, torching
the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that
must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering
is finished. The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeter and at
the special points.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFIL 40200 SP,
polyester, with mass per unit area of 4.4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1),
load at break, long. 700N, transverse 550N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low
temperatures -10C (EN 1109). The membrane must be fully bonded with
sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe,
making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least
15 cm, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a
propane gas blowpipe, closing them over, including the joint necks with the
vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level
when the covering is finished.
Apply a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300 g/sq.m.)
Lay a 4-5 cm covering of 15mm rounded washed river gravel.

41

A8

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SQUARE R.C. BLOCKS - NON TREADABLE - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface along the perimeters and special points on the
covering and at the points where the membrane is fully bonded, by applying
a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as
DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3; residue at 450C:
0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue:
38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.

side covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe,


making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least
15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls
that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Apply a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300 g/sq.m.)
Lay the flooring consisting of cmxcm r.c.concrete blocks. Place the
flooring on wide-base plastic supports.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFLEX 30160 CPV,
with mass per unit area of 3 kg/sq.m, thickness 3 mm, (EN 1849-1), load at
break, long. 700N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and
transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109).The membrane is loose laid, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe and
making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas
blowpipe, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls
that must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished. The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeter and
at the special points.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFLEX 40180
polyester, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1),
load at break, long. 900N, transverse 700N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low
temperatures -15C (EN 1109). The membrane must be fully bonded with
sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the under-

42

43

A9

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: CONRETE SLAB CAST IN SITU - NON TREADABLE - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 200 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with APAO resins (Amorphe - Poly - Alpha-Olefine) such as
DERMABIT 4170, polyester, thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4
kg/sq.m, (EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 800N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1),
flexibility at low temperatures -20C (EN 1109), recognised by ITC No.
617/03 Technical Agreement. Fully bond on the underside covered by
polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, onto the laying surface prepared previously, with longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head
overlaps of at least 15, closing them over, including the joint necks with the
vertical walls that must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level
when the covering is finished.

blowpipe, and making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of


at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical
walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the
covering is finished.
Apply a protecting and creep layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 300 g/sq.m.)
Cast a concrete floor in situ reinforced with 4 cm, 15x 5 cm square mesh
electrically welded with 6 mm reinforcing rods.

Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous


compound modified with APAO resins (Amorphe - Poly - Alpha-Olefine)
such as DERMABIT 4170, polyester, thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit
area of 4 kg/sq.m, (EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 800N, transverse 650N
(EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break
45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -20C (EN 1109), recognised by ITC No. 617/03 Technical Agreement. The membrane must be fully
bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas

44

45

A10

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY - FINISH: SQUARE CONCRETE BLOCKS - NON TREADABLE - INSULATED (HOT ROOF)

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface along the perimeters and special points on the
covering and at the points where the membrane is fully bonded, by applying
a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as
DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C:
0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue:
38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay a reinforced aluminium vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2. kg/sq.m.
(EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transversal load at break. 300N (EN
12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break, 3%
(EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931). The membrane is loose laid making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head
joints of at least 15 cm, closing them over, gluing the membrane over the
perimeter embossments by at least 10 cm above the thickness of the thermal - acoustic insulation, and torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe. The membrane must be fully
bonded along the perimeters and on the special points previously treated.
Lay the flame resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and
characteristics as per the design specifications for application of the membrane.

underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe and making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of at least
15, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that
must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering
is finished. The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeter and at
the special points.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as EXTENSA
40180 CPV polyester, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm,
(EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 850N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 50% (EN
12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -30C (EN 1109). The membrane
must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the
first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of
a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and
head overlaps of at least 15 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks
with the vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum
water level when the covering is finished.
Apply a dry laid dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300
g/sq.m.)
Lay the flooring consisting of cmxcm square concrete blocks, placing
the flooring on wide-base plastic supports.

Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as EXTENSA-FIL 30200 sp
cpv polyester,, with mass per unit area of 3.3 kg/sq.m, thickness 3 mm, (EN
1849-1), load at break, long. 650N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum
elongation at break long. 40% and trans. 50%(EN 12311-1), flexibility at low
temperatures -20C (EN 1109). The membrane is loose laid, torching the

46

47

A11

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SQUARE CONCRETE BLOCKS - TREADABLE - INVERTED ROOF

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface along the perimeters and special points on the
covering and at the points where the membrane is fully bonded, by applying
a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as
DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C:
0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue:
38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFIL 30200 SP, polyester, with mass per unit area of 3 kg/sq.m, thickness 3.3 mm, (EN 1849-1), load
at break, long. 700N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal
and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109).The membrane is loose laid, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe to
make longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise
at least 10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeter and at the special
points.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with polymers such as DERMAFIL 40200 SP polyester,
with mass per unit area of 4.4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1), load at
break, long. 700N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and
transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109). The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets
staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside
covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making

longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least 15 cm,


closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must
rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Lay the flame resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and
characteristics as per the design specifications.
Apply a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300 g/sq.m.)
to protect the insulation.
Lay the flooring consisting of . cmxcm square concrete blocks, placing the flooring over wide-base plastic supports.

49

A12

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C OR P.R.C - FINISH: R.C. FLOOR - SUITABLE FOR TRAFFIC - INSULATED (PARKING ROOF)

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a concrete slab reinforced with 15x15 cm
square mesh electrically welded with 6/8 mm 5 cm rods, with a slope of
2-4% in cement mortar to ensure water runoff to the drainage.

over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.


Lay the compression resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications.

Apply a dry laid dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT _


> 300 g/sq.m.).
Apply a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT _
> 500g/sq.m.).
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound
modified with APAO resins (Amorphe - Poly - Alpha-Olefine) such as DERMABIT 4170, polyester, thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m,
(EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 800N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -20C (EN 1109), recognised by ITC No. 617/03
Technical Agreement.The membrane is loose laid making longitudinal joints of
at least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15 cm, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe and closing
them over; glue the membrane on to the perimeter embossments that must
rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeters and the special points previously treated.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified APAO resins (Amorphe - Poly - Alpha-Olefine) such as DERMABIT 4170 polyester, thickness, 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m,
(EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 800N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -20C (EN 1109), recognised by ITC No. 617/03
Technical Agreement.The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by
polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal
joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15 cm, closing them over,
including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm

Lay a 2 cm layer of dry sand.


Cast a concrete floor in situ reinforced with 4 cm, 15x 5 cm square mesh
electrically welded with 6/8 mm reinforcing rods. Make longitudinal and
transverse joints _
> 2 cm at intervals of 5 m over the entire thickness of the
flooring.

A13 SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C OR P.R.C - FINISH: BITUMINOUS CONGLOMERATE - SUITABLE FOR TRAFFIC - NON-INSULATED
Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a cement mortar slab with a slope of 2-4%
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFIL 50300 SP, with
mass per unit area of 5.5 kg/sq.m, thickness 5 mm, (EN 1849-1), load at
break, long. 1250N, transverse 1050N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal
and transverse elongation at break 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109). When the bituminous primer has cured, fully
bond on the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane
gas blowpipe to glue the membrane onto the sloping slab prepared previously, making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15
cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that
must rise at least 10 cm over the maximum water level when the covering
is finished.
Lay a 5-6 cm layer of bituminous conglomerate flooring consisting of closed
curve aggregate grading and sharp edged inert material. Compact immediately to compress into the waterproofing.

52

53

A14

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SOIL BED - ROOF GARDEN - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a cement mortar slab with a slope of 2-4%
to ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER with holes, having mass
per unit area of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low
temperatures -10C (EN 1109), 119 holes/sq.m.The membrane must be laid
with overlaps of at least 10 cm.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFLEX 40180 polyester,, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1), load
at break, long. 900N, transverse 700N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal
and transverse elongation at break 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109). Glue on the membrane by partially bonding or
spot bonding the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe over the dispersion layer, making longitudinal joints of at
least 10 cm and head joints of at least 15, closing them over, including the
joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at least 10 cm over the
maximum water level when the covering is finished. The membrane must be
fully bonded along the perimeter and at the special points.

dinal and transverse elongation at break 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low
temperatures -15C (EN 1109). On 5/10/1998, the membrane was awarded
certification after successfully passing the German FLL root propagation
tests under the strictest conditions provided by DIN 4062, lasting 4 years.
The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with
respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene
film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, and overlapping the longitudinal
joints by least 20 cm, closing them over, including the joint necks with the
vertical walls that must rise at least 20 cm over the maximum water level
when the covering is finished.
Dry lay a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300 g/sq.m.).
Lay a 6-8 cm drainage layer consisting of rounded river gravel.
Dry lay a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (250 - 300 g/sq.m.).
Lay the soil bed prepared according to the design specifications.

Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous


compound modified with root stop plastomer polymers such as ERADIX
40200, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m, thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1),
load at break, long. 900N, transverse 900N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitu-

54

55

A15

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SOIL BED - ROOF GARDEN - INSULATED

Specifications
On the supporting structure, lay a cement mortar slab with a slope of 2-4% to
ensure water runoff to the drainage.
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent
based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98
kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30
sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by
brush or roller.
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER with holes, having mass per
unit area of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109), 119 holes/sq.m..The membrane must be laid with
overlaps of at least 10 cm leaving vertical embossments of at least 20 cm beyond
the depth of the soil bed.
Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2 kg/.sq.m. (EN
1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of 300N (EN 12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 3% (EN 12311-1),
vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931). Glue the membrane, by partially bonding or spot bonding the underside covered with polyethylene film by
means of a propane gas blowpipe over the vapour dispersion layer, making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and gluing the membrane to the perimeter
embossments by at least 20 cm.
Lay the thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and characteristics as
per the design specifications
Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER, having mass per unit area of
1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C
(EN 1109), 119 holes/sq.m..The membrane must be laid with overlaps of at least
10 cm leaving vertical embossments of at least 20 cm beyond the depth of the
soil bed.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound

modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFIL 30200 SP, with mass per
unit area of 3.3 kg/sq.m, thickness 3 mm, (EN 1849-1), load at break, long. 700N,
transverse 7500N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN
1109). Fully bond on the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a
propane gas blowpipe on the flame resistant self-protected insulation or lay a
dividing layer in heat resistant high grammage polyester 200-250 g/sq.m. TNT,
making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm, closing them over, including the joint
necks with the vertical walls. On the perimeter embossments, the membrane
must be fully bonded by at least 20 cm beyond the depth of the soil bed.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with root stop plastomer polymers such as ERADIX 50200,
with mass per unit area of 5 kg/sq.m, thickness 5 mm, (EN 1849-1), longitudinal
and transverse load at break 800N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and
transverse elongation at break 50% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109). On 5/10/1998, the membrane was awarded certification
after successfully passing the German FLL root propagation tests under the
strictest conditions provided by DIN 4062, lasting 4 years.The membrane must
be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer,
torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas
blowpipe, overlapping the longitudinal joints by least 20 cm, closing them over,
including the joint necks with the vertical walls.On the perimeter embossments,
the membrane must be fully bonded by at least 20 cm beyond the depth of the
soil bed.
Dry lay a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (200-250g/sq.m.).
Lay a 6-8 cm drainage layer consisting of rounded river gravel.
Dry lay a dividing layer in high grammage polyester TNT (200-250 g/sq.m.).
Lay the soil bed prepared according to the design specifications.

56

SLOPED ROOFING

B1

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: TILES ON SLATED COVERING (UNDERTILE) - SLOPED - INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Install special breather vents for the elimination of excess water vapour, at
the junction points of the thermal insulation. The breather vents must be
positioned between the dispersion layer and the vapour barrier and channelled into special ventilation tiles.

load at break, long. 650N, transverse 450N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at
low temperatures -10C (EN 1109). Lay the membrane in on insulation
sheet by fully bonding the underside covered by polyethylene film by means
of a propane gas blowpipe, and making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10
cm and head overlaps of at least 15 cm, closing them over. If necessary, nail
the sections where the membranes overlap, and seal perfectly.
Lay the masonry or cement tiles on cement mortar seams, directly on the
slated membrane.

Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2


kg/.sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of
300N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at
break 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931).
Glue the membrane, by partially bonding (in strips) the underside covered
with polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of 15 cm, including the joint
necks with the vertical walls that must rise by at least 10 cm over the thickness of the thermal - acoustic insulation.
Lay the flame-resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications. Fix the sheets with
oxidised bitumen and 4 nails per sheet; place wooden slats treated with
DERMAPRIMER of the same thickness between the insulation sheets, nailing
and sealing the wooden slats to the supporting structure.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane parallel to the gutter line, consisting
of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers selfprotected by slate chips in the colour selected, such as DERMAFIL 45200
CPV, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m., thickness 4 mm, (EN 1849-1),

60

61

B2

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SLATED COVERING - SLOPED - INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Install special breather vents for the elimination of excess water vapour, at
the junction points of the thermal insulation. The breather vents must be
inserted under the vapour barrier.
Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2 kg/.sq.m. (EN
1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of 300N (EN 12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 3% (EN 12311-1),
vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931). Glue the membrane by partially
bonding (in strips) the underside covered with polyethylene film by means of
a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head
joints of 15 cm, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise
by at least 10 cm over the thickness of the thermal - acoustic insulation.
Lay the flame-resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications. Fix the sheets with
oxidised bitumen and 4 nails per sheet; place wooden slats treated with
DERMAPRIMER having the same thickness between the insulation sheets,
nailing and sealing the wooden slats to the supporting structure.

ce previously prepared, by partially bonding the underside covered by


polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, and making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least 15 cm, closing
them over. The first waterproofing element may be nailed through to the
overlap area so that the overlaps seal the membrane. The membrane must
be fully bonded along the perimeters and over the special points (projecting
parts).
Lay a second waterproofing membrane layer parallel to the slope line, consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers,
self-protected with slate chips of the colour selected, such as POLTEX 45180
Polyester,, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m., load at break, long. 750N,
transverse 550N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN
1109).The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm
with respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, overlapping the longitudinal
joints by at least 10 cm and the transverse joints by at least 15 cm, closing
them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at
least 20 cm over the maximum water level when the covering is finished.
Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,
highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least
300 g/sq.m. with or without air.

Lay a waterproofing membrane parallel to the slope line, consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as DERMAFIL 40200 SP CPV, thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4.4
kg/sq.m., load at break, long. 650N, transverse 450N (EN 12311-1), maximum
elongation at break long. 40% and transverse 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at
low temperatures - 10C (EN 1109). Lay the membrane on the laying surfa-

62

63

B3

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: WITH MANTOLOMINA - SLOPED - INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Install special breather vents for the elimination of excess water vapour, at
the junction points of the thermal insulation. The breather vents must be
inserted under the vapour barrier.
Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2
kg/.sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of
300N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at
break 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931).
Glue the membrane, by partially bonding (in strips) the underside covered
with polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of 15 cm, including the joint
necks with the vertical walls that must rise by at least 10 cm over the thickness of the thermal - acoustic insulation.
Lay the flame-resistant thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications. Fix the sheets with
oxidised bitumen and 4 nails per sheet; place wooden slats treated with
DERMAPRIMER of the same thickness between the insulation sheets, nailing
and sealing the wooden slats to the supporting structure.

ratures -15C (EN 1109). Lay the membrane in on the laying surface previously prepared, by partially bonding the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, and making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least 15 cm, closing them over.
The first waterproofing element may be nailed through to the overlap area
so that the overlaps seal the membrane.The membrane must be fully bonded along the perimeters and over the special points (projecting parts).
Lay a second waterproofing membrane layer consisting of an elastomer bituminous compound ARMA, reinforced with woven glass fabric, self-protected
by a 99.75 pure tempered copper lamina, such as MANTOLAMINA
**TS/Rame EL,, with mass per unit area of 4.7 kg/sq.m., tensile strength:
600N/5cm, elongation at break: 3% flexibility at low temperatures -5C
(EN 1109), fire reaction class M1.The membrane, which is available in different colours, must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm with
respect to the first layer, torching the underside covered by polyethylene
film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, and regulating the flame with the
membrane of the subgrade. The side joints must cover the entire welding
strip and 1 cm of the lamina, while the head joint is made by removing a strip
of lamina at least 5 cm wide.
*P.S.: the MANTOLAMINA line also includes:
TS/Colour and Aluver: in Aluminium 8/100
Coppermant: in copper 6/100

Lay a waterproofing membrane parallel to the slope line, consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as POLTEX 40180 polyester,, thickness 4 mm, with mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m.,
load at break, long. 750N, transverse 550N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low tempe-

64

65

B4

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: WOOD - FINISH: TILE ON DOUBLE FRAME - SLOPED - INSULATED

Specifications
Dry lay a high mechanical resistance continuous fibre polyester membrane
coated on one side only with bituminous-polymer covering such as UNIVERSAL UNDERLAY, 2 kg/sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with load at break, long. 700N
and transverse 500 N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse
elongation at break 35% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C
/EN 1109). Nail the membrane to the wooden supports torching on longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of 15 cm, by means of a propane gas blow-pipe, including the joint necks with projecting parts that must
be fully bonded at least 10 cm above the finished covering.
Lay the thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications. Fix each sheet with at least 4 nails
or self-tapping screws spacing them with beams about 3 cm higher than the
thickness of the insulation, nailed onto the supporting element, parallel to
the slope.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound, modified with plastomer polymers and self-protected with slate chips
in the selected colour, such as DERMAFIL 45200 CPV, with mass per unit area
of 4.5 kg/sq.m, load at break, long. 650N, transverse 450N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109). Nail the membrane on the beams
torching on longitudinal joints overlapped by at least 10 cm, and closing them
over.
Lay the masonry or cement tiles on a frame of slats and inner slats nailed
and sealed directly onto the membrane.

66

67

B5

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: WOOD - FINISH: TILE ON DOUBLE WOODEN SLATS - SLOPED - INSULATED

Specifications
If the temperature and humidity levels so require, lay a reinforced aluminium
vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2. kg/sq.m. (EN 1849-1) with longitudinal and transverse load at break 300N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal
and transverse elongation at break 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931). Nail the membrane to the wooden laying surface, torching on longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm by means of a propane
gas blowpipe.
Lay the thermal and/or acoustic insulation sheets with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications. Fix each sheet with at least 4 nails
or self-tapping screws spacing them with beams about 3 cm higher than the
thickness of the insulation, nailed onto the supporting element, parallel to
the slope.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound, modified with plastomer polymers and self-protected with natural
slate chips such as ROOFSTAR 40200, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m,
load at break, long. 550N, transverse 400N (EN 12311-1), maximum elongation at break, long. 40%, trans. 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109). Nail the membrane on the beams torching on longitudinal joints overlapped by at least 10 cm, and closing them over.
Nail the wooden slats onto the beams parallel to the gutter line, to support
the tiles.

68

69

B6

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: TILES ON SLATED COVERING - SLOPED - NON INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume
mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay a waterproofing membrane parallel to the gutter line (to the tile) consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers,
self-protected by slate chips in the selected colour, such as DERMAFIL 45200
CPV,, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m, load at break, long. 650N, transverse 450N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation
at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C (EN 1109).
Fully bond on the membrane onto the laying surface previously treated, by
torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane
gas blowpipe, with longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps
of at least 15,closing them over.
Lay the masonry or cement tiles on cement mortar seams, directly on the
slated membrane.

70

71

B7

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: SLATED COVERING - SLOPED - NON INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and
solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD
cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.

Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,


highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least
300 g/sq.m. with or without air.

Lay a waterproofing membrane, parallel to the slope, consisting of a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers such as
DERMAFLEX 30160 CPV, thickness 3 cm, with mass per unit area of 3.3
kg/sq.m, load at break, long. 700N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1),
flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109). Fully bond on the membrane onto the previously prepared laying surface, by torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe and
making longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least
15cm, closing them over. The membrane should be nailed over the overlaps if necessary, ensuring efficient sealing.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane, parallel to the slope, consisting of
a distilled bituminous compound modified with plastomer polymers, selfprotected with slate chips in the selected colour, such as DERMAFLEX
45160 CPV, with mass per unit area of 4.5 kg/sq.m, load at break, long.
700N, transverse 500N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109). The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets
staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside
covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making
longitudinal overlaps of at least 10 cm and head overlaps of at least 15 cm,
closing them over, including the joint necks and the projecting parts where
they must rise at least 20 cm above the level of the finished covering.

72

73

B8

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: R.C./P.R.C./CLAY-CEMENT MIX - FINISH: WITH MANTOLOMINA - SLOPED - NON INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface by applying a coating of oxidised additive and solvent
based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of:
0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 3 at
23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry mass residue: 40% applying 300
g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Lay a waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous compound
modified with plastomer polymers such as POLTEX 40180 polyester, with
mass per unit area of 4 kg/sq.m., thickness 4 mm, load at break, long. 750N,
transverse 550N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -15C (EN 1109).The
membrane must be fully bonded, torching the underside covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, overlapping the longitudinal
joints by at least 10 cm and the transverse joints by at least 15 cm, closing them
over.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane layer consisting of an elastomer bituminous compound ARMA, reinforced with woven glass fabric, self-protected by
a 99.75 pure tempered copper lamina, such as MANTOLAMINA **TS/Rame
EL, with mass per unit area of 4.7 kg/sq.m., tensile strength: 600B/5cm, elongation at break: 3% flexibility at low temperatures -5C (EN 1109), fire reaction
class M1.The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets staggered by 50 cm
with respect to the first layer, torching the section below by means of a propane gas blowpipe, and regulating the flame according to the membrane of the
subgrade. Hammer in flat-head nails under the longitudinal and head joints.
The side joints must cover the entire welding strip and 1 cm of the lamina,
while the head joint is made by removing a strip of lamina at least 5 cm wide.
*P.S.: the MANTOLAMINA line also includes:
TS/Colour and Aluver: in Aluminium 8/100
Coppermant: in copper 6/100

74

75

B9

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: WOOD - FINISH: SLATED MEMBRANE - SLOPED - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
Dry lay a high mechanical resistance continuous fibre polyester membrane
coated on one side only with bituminous-polymer covering such as UNIVERSAL UNDERLAY, 2 kg/sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with load at break, long. 700N
and transverse 500 N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse
elongation at break 35% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C
/EN 1109). Nail the membrane to the wooden supports using a propane gas
blowpipe to torch on longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm and head joints of
15 cm, including the joint necks with projecting parts that must be fully bonded at least 10 cm above the finished covering.
Lay a second waterproofing membrane consisting of a distilled bituminous
compound modified with APAO resins (Amorphe-poly-Alpha-Olefine), selfprotected with slate chips in the colour selected, such as DERMABIT-EXTRA
4 mm SLATED, with mass per unit area of 5.2 kg/sq.m., (EN 1849-1), load at
break, long. 800N, transverse 650N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and
transverse elongation at break 45% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -25C (EN 1109), flexibility at low temperatures after thermal ageing
in air (EN 1296) -20C. The membrane must be fully bonded with sheets
staggered by 50 cm with respect to the first layer, torching the underside
covered by polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe, making a
longitudinal joint of at least 10 cm and a head joint of at least 15 cm, closing
them over, including the joint necks with the vertical walls that must rise at
least 20 cm over the level of the finished covering.
Apply a styrene-acrylic resin based transparent fixative in water emulsion,
highly resistant to UV rays for the slate chips, such as DERMAFIX, with wet
volume mass: 1.3 kg/dm3; dry residue; 48%; spraying on a coating of at least
300 g/sq.m. with or without air.

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77

B10

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE: WOOD - FINISH: TILES ON WOODEN FRAME - SLOPED - NON-INSULATED

Specifications
Prepare the laying surface along the perimeters and at the special points on
the covering and where the membrane is fully bonded , applying a coating of
oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 0.98 kg/dm3 ; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion
time with FORD cup No. 3 at 23C: 30 sec.; dry volume residue: 38%; dry
mass residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
Dry lay a high mechanical resistance continuous fibre polyester membrane
coated on one side only with bituminous-polymer covering such as UNIVERSAL UNDERLAY, 2 kg/sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with load at break, long. 700N
and transverse 500 N (EN 12311-1), maximum longitudinal and transverse
elongation at break 35% (EN 12311-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C
(EN 1109). Nail the membrane to the wooden supports using a propane gas
blowpipe to torch on longitudinal joints of at least 10 cm including the joint
necks with projecting parts that must be fully bonded at least 10 cm above
the finished covering.
Lay the masonry or cement tiles on a frame of slats and inner slats nailed
and sealed directly onto the slated membrane.

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79

7. SOLUTIONS FOR DIFFICULT APPLICATIONS

Difficult points, as operators in this field know, are the real testing ground for laying a state-of-the-art waterproofing membrane.
During laying, the tricky areas are points such as structural joints, drainage traps, ventilation ducts, gutters, etc. requiring the skill of highly qualified staff. Inaccurate
design and laying over these points and failure to check the site works after the application of the waterproofing element may seriously compromise the efficiency
of the waterproofing membrane, giving rise to water infiltration attributed unjustly to the quality of the bituminous membrane used for the roofing.
Waterproofing membranes should be applied only by a specialised company to avoid the risk of expensive repairs at a later date.
This sections describes the preparation and laying procedures for roofing situations most commonly encountered at a work site.

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A) Structural Joints
The "inverted omega" technique is the most commonly used procedure for structural joints.This procedure may be more or less difficult to apply according
to whether the supporting structure is insulated or not.

Structural joint in non-insulated covering


1) Bevel the edges of the joints thoroughly to avoid concentrated
points of tension on the waterproofing element.
2) Insert the membrane of the first waterproofing layer in the joint
forming an Omega and torch off against the joint.
3) Fill the Omega with compressible material (such as a closed cell
polyethylene seam), sealing the joint completely.
4) Fully bond on the second layer of waterproofing, stopping about
5 cm from each edge.
5) Apply a strip of elastomer membrane of at least 50 cm to cover
the the joint, fully bonding it off.

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Structural joint in an insulated covering


1) Bevel the edges of the joints thoroughly to avoid concentrated
points of tension on the waterproofing element.
2) Lay a vapour barrier such as VAPOREX , stopping about 5 cm
from the edge of the joint ensuring that the area close to the
joint is properly sealed.
3) Torch on a strip of bituminous membrane inserting it into the
joint to form an omega as shown by the drawing.
4) Install the insulating sheets.
5) Fully bond on the first waterproofing layer, stopping close to
the joint.
6) Torch on a second strip of bituminous membrane, inserting it
into the omega (see drawing).
7) Fill the Omega with compressible material (such as closed cell
polyethylene seam), sealing the joint completely.
8) Fully bond on a second waterproofing layer, stopping close to
the joint.
9) Apply a strip of elastomer membrane of at least 50 cm to
cover the joint, fully bonding it on.

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B) Vertical Joints

Vertical joint with insulated covering


1) Prepare the vertical and horizontal laying surfaces by applying a
coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer
such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 1.1 kg/dm3;
residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup No. 4 at
25C: 20-25 sec.; dry volume residue: 48%; dry mass residue: 40%
applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
2) Fully bond on a vapour barrier such as VAPOREX, making a 10
cm embossment beyond the thickness of the insulation.
3) Lay the insulating sheets wrapping them with the embossment
of the vapour barrier, as shown by the drawing.
4) Fully bond on the first waterproofing membrane onto the flame
protected insulation.
5) Apply a mineral wool or wooden angle bar at the foot of the
embossment.
6) Torch on a strip of waterproofing membrane cut to size, above
the angle bar, as shown by the drawing.
7) Fully bond on the second waterproofing membrane, folding it up
by at least 20 cm.
8) Coat the vertical embossment with a strip of membrane cut
to size as shown by the drawing, overlapping the second layer by
at least 20 cm.
9) Protect the head of the vertical embossment with a metal flashing,
sealing it externally with sealant.

84

Vertical joint with non-insulated covering


1) Prepare the vertical and horizontal laying surfaces by applying a
coating of oxidised additive and solvent based bituminous primer such as DERMAPRIMER with wet volume mass of: 1.1
kg/dm3; residue at 450C: 0%; effusion time with FORD cup
No. 4 at 25C: 20-25 sec.; dry volume residue: 48%; dry mass
residue: 40% applying 300 g/sq.m. by brush or roller.
2) The first waterproofing layer must be fully bonded, up to the edge
3) Apply mineral wool angle bar at the foot of the embossment.
4) Torch on a strip of waterproofing membrane cut to size, above
the angle bar as shown by the drawing.
5) The second waterproofing membrane must be fully bonded, folding
it upwards by at least 20 cm.
6) Coat the vertical embossment with a strip of membrane cut to
size as shown by the drawing, overlapping the second layer by at
least 20 cm.
9) Protect the head of the vertical embossment with a metal flashing,
sealing it externally with sealant.

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C) Breather vents

Breather vents are fundamental for regulating the humidity level in


coverings.
In areas with very high water vapour levels such as laundries,
swimming pools etc., a part of the humidity passes through the
covering due to the internal and external pressure differences. If
there is no vapour dispersion system, the condensate may attack
the covering compromising performance of the structural elements.
To resolve this problem, breather vents are installed at regular
intervals over the surface to eliminate the excess condensate that
accumulates under the waterproofing membrane.
The number of breather vents is calculated according to the temperature and humidity study, but it is good practice to install one
breather vent every:
- 30-40 sq.m. for areas with low humidity levels
- 20 sq.m. for areas with medium humidity levels
- 12-15 sq.m. for very humid areas
Two installation procedures will be described for breather vents:
installation when the a new waterproofing membrane is laid,
installation on an existing membrane.

87

a) Installing the vent when the membrane is laid


1) Dry lay a vapour dispersion layer such as GRUVER, with mass per unit area of 1.3 kg/sq.m., thickness 1.3 mm (EN 1849-1), flexibility at low temperatures -10C
(EN 1109), 119 holes sq.m.The membrane must be laid with overlaps of at least 10 cm, leaving the vertical embossments at least 10 cm over the thickness
of the thermal-acoustic insulation.
2) Install the main component of the vent.
3) Lay an aluminium reinforced vapour barrier such as VAPOREX 2.2 kg/.sq.m. (EN 1849-1), with longitudinal and transverse load at break of 300N (EN12311-1),
maximum longitudinal and transverse elongation at break 3% (EN 12311-1), vapour resistance factor >200.000 (EN 1931). Lay the membrane by partially
bonding or spot-bonding the underside covered with polyethylene film by means of a propane gas blowpipe over the dispersion layer, make longitudinal and
head joints of at least 10 cm, gluing the membrane to the perimeter embossments at least 10 cm beyond the thickness of the thermal-acoustic insulation.
4) Over the breather vent, make a hole on the vapour barrier with the same diameter as that of the cylinder to be bonded to the flange of the vent.
5) Lay the thermal and/or acoustic insulation with thickness and characteristics as per the design specifications, so that the breather vent is on the edge of the
sheets.
6) Install the second breather vent component.
7) Lay the waterproofing element, torching it on to the vent.
8) Apply a strip of membrane around the neck of the vent, torching it off carefully to seal. Insert the circular flange and dome.

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Place the base over the vapour dispersion layer


GRUVER
Torch on the vapour barrier VAPOREX
Lay the insulation sheet and install the
breather vent on the base
Torch on the double waterproofing layer
Apply a strip of membrane around the breather vent seamit the protection and the dome

89

b) Installing the vent on an existing membrane


1) Make a star-shaped cut on the membrane at the point where the double breather vent is to be installed.
2) Remove a section of the insulation.
3) Make a star-shaped cut on the vapour barrier where the double breather vent is to be installed.
4) Insert the main component with the flange under the vapour barrier, namely under the star-shaped cut that is then closed over flange and sealed
5) Replace the section of insulation previously removed, passing it through the neck of the main component through the hole that you make
6) Insert the second component of the breather vent.
7) Close and torch off the star by applying a 50x50 cm piece of bituminous membrane previously cut to size, making a hole through which to pass the neck
of the breather vent
8) Apply a strip of membrane around the neck of the vent, torching it off carefully to seal; insert the circular flange and the dome.

90

"Star-shaped" cut
Removal of the insulating sheet.
"Star-shaped" cut on the vapour barrier.
Insert the base under the vapour barrier.
Replace the insulation.
Seal the star by applying a section of 50x50 cm
membrane.
Apply a strip of membrane around the vent seam.
Fit the protection and the dome.

91

D)

Drain traps

In this case it is important to have a suitable slope to the


drain ensuring that the trap is installed correctly to prevent
the build up of backwater close to the drain-pipe due to
the increased thickness of the membrane caused by the
overlaps around the drain.
This problem can be resolved by positioned the drain
under the most gradual slope and making a housing whose
thickness corresponds to that of the crown of the drain
trap fitting.
The size of the drain trap depends on the surface to be
covered. For example, a 15 cm diameter drain trap will be
required for an area of 150 sq.m. Use the graph to calculate the diameter according to the surface area to cover.

93

Positioning
1) Apply a coating of DERMAPRIMER to the interior of the housing.
2) Torch on a bituminous membrane flange (see drawing).
3) Insert the main component of the drain trap, torching it on to the flange.
4) Fully bond on the waterproofing element, folding it up inside the drain pipe.
5) Insert the gravel / leaf grid.

94

E) Gutters

In this case, a bridge system must be created between the supporting structure and the gutter, applying the waterproofing membrane loosely in the gutter
to prevent the membrane from tearing due to the different thermal dilation
coefficients of the materials (gutters are often made of copper which at high
temperatures behaves differently to wooden or reinforced concrete roofing).

95

9. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LAB TESTS


exploding the myth of certain "clichs"

Tests known as "standardised" tests involve highly detailed procedures carried out by recognised and competent organisations, at preset test parameters
such as temperature, velocity, humidity etc. using instruments which are in turn calibrated according to standardised procedures.
This means that that changing just one parameter of the procedure will give different and unreliable results in terms of assessing the performance of a product, in that the method is no longer reproducible or comparable with the original method.
This is what happens at the work site when manual tests are carried out, that have nothing at all to do with laboratory tests.
To better explain this, let us consider the flexibility test at low temperatures. Saying that the flexibility of a membrane is -10C means that when a section
of membrane having preset dimensions is wound around a 30 mm diam. chuck, at a constant speed and at a temperature of -10C, the compound should
not present any cracks.
Bending the membrane by hand at the work site, can therefore in no way be compared with the above standardised test since it might lead to an inaccurate evaluation of the material resulting in the choice of another type of product that perhaps "feels right" but is totally unsuited to the application in question.

96

- Flexibility lab test at low temperature

97

People will also often test the "tearing" resistance of the material, by pulling off a section of the membrane!
The purpose of a lab tearing test is to assess the resistance of the membrane to wind action when the membrane is nailed to the laying surface. A dynamometer is used to measure the force required to tear a 20 x 5 cm membrane off the nail.
Here again, pulling off a piece of membrane can in no way be compared to the lab test in that it no way simulates the real strain which the membrane
undergoes during its life.
Bituminous membranes consist of a thermoplastic compound sensitive to temperature variations so that the same test carried out on the same roll at different times of the day (in the morning after having being left outdoors the whole night, or in the afternoon after lengthy exposure to sunlight) may give
a completely different "feel" and lead to inaccurate conclusions on the fitness of the membrane for a particular job.
It must be remembered therefore the choice of a bituminous membrane must be made according to the design specifications as a whole such as ambient
temperature, structural movements, compatibility with surrounding elements etc. The values shown in the data sheet help us to select the product with
the most well balanced characteristics for the best solution.

98

- Lab tearing test

99

NOTES

101

CASALI spa - z.i. C.I.A.F 60020 Castelferretti (AN) ITALY


tel. +39 0719162095 fax +39 0719162098
www.casaligroup.it staff@casaligroup.it