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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILPPINES

1338 ARLEGUI STREET, QUIAPO MANILA

STUDY OF WASTE WOOD ASH


AND SAW DUST AS AN
ADMIXTURE FOR CONCRETE
MIX DESIGN

QUIMSON, JAY CHRISTIAN J.


PEREZ, CHARLENE
MACAM, HENDRICK
MANTALA, PAOLO
MULINGBAYAN, MARKO

DECEMBER 2015

ABSTRACT
Technology in concrete has been developing in many ways to enhance the quality and
properties of concrete. One of the technological advances in improving the quality of concrete is
by using admixtures. Admixture is a substance added during or before mixing the concrete,
typically so as to improve its properties.
This study is conducted to evaluate the possibility of incorporating waste wood ash and
palochina saw dust as an admixture for concrete mix design. This study will evaluate the
compressive strength of the concrete containing waste wood ash, palochina saw dust, and both
waste wood ash and palochina saw dust. The behavior of fresh and hardened concrete was
investigated with various amounts of waste wood ash and palochina saw dust. The average
compressive strength of concrete cylinder samples with the dimension of 150mm in diameter and
300mm in height were taken for strength comparison. The mixes were prepared with fibercement ratio of 5%, 10%, 15% and 25%. Water-cement ratio of 0.68 was chosen for this mix
design.
Compressive test will be done on hardened concrete with the Universal Testing Machine
at a loading rate of 5kN/sec to determine the compressive load of each specimen. The result of
the experiment showed that the addition of natural fibers will increase the compressive strength
of the concrete, but the increase in strength is up to certain amount of fiber.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
Introduction
The usage of concrete is very wide. It is one of the most important construction materials.
We cannot deny the fact that concrete has become part of our everyday life. It is comparatively
economical, easy to make, offers continuity and solidity and indeed, it plays the role of
developing and improving our modern society.
Concrete is a composite material which is made of filler and a binder. Typical concrete is
a mixture of fine aggregates (sand), coarse aggregates (rock), cement, and water. Because of its
convenience, it is not only used in building construction but also in other areas such as road
construction, harbors, bridges and many more.
Due to its wide range of application and effectiveness, new technology arises in order to
develop and enhance the quality and properties of the concrete. There are lots of researches done
in order to enhance the concretes workability. One of the technological advances done is by
using admixtures. Admixtures were added to fresh concrete in small qualities, typically so as to
improve its properties.
Here in Philippines, there are also lots of researchers who are continuously studying and
researching in order to develop the technology of concrete. Philippine is abundant of natural
resources, natural resources coming from water and land. It has become the livelihood of many
Filipinos. There are many furniture making establishments that make use of woods coming from
the forest. Cutting these woods using mechanical equipment generates residues. Burning these
woods in factory furnaces will also generate residues.
Since Philippines are one of the countries who widely used concrete in construction,
these residues may turn into something useful. Concrete is a brittle material, it is high in

compression strength but less in tensile strength and the tendency of the concrete is to crack.
These residues include waste wood ash and saw dust that can be added to enhance the concretes
workability.
Conceptual framework
The figure below will guide the research to attain the objectives of this study

INPUT
MATERIALS
WASTE
WOOD ASH
PALOCHINA
SAW DUST
SPECIFICATIO
N
ACI MIX
DESIGN
METHOD
ASTM
PROCEDUR
ES FOR
CONCRETE
AGGREGAT
ES

PROCES
S
PHYSICAL AND
MECHANICAL
TEST OF
AGGREGATES
NORMAL
CONCRETE +
(5%, 10%, 15%,
25%) WASTE
WOOD ASH
NORMAL
CONCRETE +
(5%, 10%, 15%,
25%) PALOCHINA
SAW DUST
ASTM C143-78
(SLUMP TEST)
ASTM C31-84
(CURING OF TEST
SPECIMEN)
ASTM C39-86
(COMPRESSIVE
STRENGHT TEST)
EVALUATION

Research Paradigm

OUTPUT
RECOMMEN
DED
DESIGN
FOR WASTE
WOOD
ASH/SAW
DUST IN
CONCRETE
MIX DESIGN

Statement of the Problems


This research is intended to answer the following questions:
1. What will be the effect in workability and consistency in the concrete mixture if wood ash or
saw dust is mixed
2. What are the differences in terms of strength in plain concrete and concrete containing wood
ash or saw dust?
3. Does the concrete containing wood ash or saw dust reduce or prevent cracking?
4. What percentage of wood ash and saw dust (5%, 10%, 15%, and 25%) that will be added to
the concrete mixture that will increase the compressive strength of the concrete?
5. Which of the two (waste wood ash and palochina saw dust) can be best mix with concrete to
enhance and increase the strength of concrete?

CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Background of the Study
Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile
strength, and such is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension. The elasticity of
concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as
matrix cracking develop. Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, as it matures
concrete shrinkage and tension. Concrete which is subjected to long duration forces is prone to
creep.
Since concrete is relatively brittle material, steel reinforcement has been used to
overcome this problem. Steel reinforcement is assumed to carry all tensile loads. But the problem
with employing the steel in concrete is that over time steel corrodes due to the ingress of chloride
ions and/or carbonation. Although some measures are available to reduce corrosion of steel in
concrete such as corrosion inhibitive admixtures and coatings, a better and permanent solution
may be to replace the steel with a reinforcement that is less environmentally sensitive.
Various types of admixture (organic and inorganic) have been incorporated into the
concrete mixture. Studies regarding the use of waste wood ash shows that it has potential for use
in numerous other materials including Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM), low- and
medium- strength concrete, masonry products, materials for road base and blended cements.

Scope and Limitations

This research is intended to study the possibility of using waste wood ash and saw dust as
admixture and study the behavior of the concrete, its durability and resistance to cracks. It limits
its scope to physical research of compressive strength of concrete. Specifically, it aims to
determine the compressive strength of the concrete containing wood ash and saw dust and
evaluate if there is a significant effect in the concrete mixture.
The study is limited to the use of waste wood ash and palochina saw dust.
Waste wood ash of 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.25% and 75.0% (by weight of cement) and Palochina saw
dust of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 25% (by weight of cement) are prepared. A concrete mix with 0% waste wood
ash or saw dust is also prepared. This will total to 27 specimens. Concrete cylinder is 150mm in diameter
and 300mm high. Molds of this shape are filled with fresh concrete and set aside from 18 to 24 hours,
demolded, and cured for 3 days in the curing tank, and then tested in the laboratory using the Universal
Testing Machine at a specified loading rate of 5KN/s.

In this study, a cement-aggregate ratio of 1:3 will be adopted with the maximum size of
aggregate of 19mm in diameter. Water-cement ratio of 0.68 will be adopted for all concrete
mixes.
This study will not evaluate flexural and split tensile strength of the concrete. It will not
also evaluate the cost and estimate of the output.

Significance of the Study


This study will provide knowledge or records that can be useful in the development and
innovation of new technology in the future field of Civil Engineering.
This will provide necessary information that students of Civil Engineering can be used in
their future research. This will also encourage others to study other alternative materials
that can be used in construction.
To the government agencies that they may utilize different source of admixtures in their
infrastructures mainly in their concrete buildings, highways and bridges.
To the businessmen and entrepreneurs that they may use this research to the construction
industry
To the local government units that may generate livelihood and more jobs since this
research needs to collect saw dust from furniture making establishments.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter discussed the research methodology, project design, project development,
operation and testing procedures and also the evaluating procedures that will be used for this
research.
Research Method
This research will be using the ACI Mix Design Standard for normal concrete in
computing the design mix: volume of water, the weight of cement, sand and gravel, and the
ASTM standards for the physical and mechanical testing of fine and coarse aggregates.
Experimental method will be used in this study to investigate and evaluate the effect of
waste wood ash and saw dust when added to normal concrete in different percentage. There will
be a series of trials that will be conducted in this research. If the first trial failed to attain the
objective of this research, another trial will be conducted until the objectives were attained.
Every trial will have the same design mix as computed based on the ACI standards, the
admixture-cement ratio; which is the independent variable in this research will be the one that
will be evaluated.
This research attributed the change in workability, consistency and compressive strength
to the effect of the admixture - cement ratio in the concrete mixture in different percentage.
Quality Test of Fine and Coarse aggregates

The fine and coarse aggregates will be tested first to determine the physical and
mechanical properties; the specific gravity, moisture content, water absorption, abrasion, unit
weight and the fineness modulus of sand that will be needed for the design mix.
Proportioning the trial mix based on ACI Mix Design Method for normal concrete
Choice of slump
If slump is not specified, a value appropriate for the work can be selected in the table
below:
Choice of slump
Slump

Type of construction
Reinforced foundation walls and footings
Plain footings, caissons and substructure walls
Beams and reinforced walls
Building columns
Pavements and slabs
Mass concrete

(mm)
25-75
25-75
25-100
25-100
25-75
25-50

(inches)
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-3
1-2

*Slump may be increased when chemical admixtures are used, provided that the admixture-treated concrete has the
same or lower water-cement or water-cementitious material ratio and does not exhibit segregation potential or
excessive bleeding.

Choice of maximum size of aggregate


Large nominal maximum sizes of well graded aggregates have less voids than smaller
sizes. When high strength concrete is desired, best results may be obtained with reduced nominal
maximum sizes of aggregate since these produce higher strengths at a given water-cement ratio.
In this research, the maximum size of the aggregates will be , approximately 19mm in
diameter.
The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete required to produce a given slump is
dependent on: the nominal maximum size, particle shape, and grading of the aggregates.
Estimation of mixing water and air content
Mixing water Quantity in kg/m3(lb/yd3) for the listed Nominal
Maximum Aggregates Size

Slump

9.5mm

12.5m

19mm

(0.375i

(0.75in.

n.)

25mm
(1in.)

37.5m
m

(0.5in.)
)
(1.5in.)
Non-Air-Entrained PCC
199
190
179
166

100m

50mm

75mm

(2in.)

(3in.)

154

130

113

m
(4in.)

25-50

207

(1-2)
75-100

(350)
228

(335)
216

(315)
205

(300)
193

(275)
181

(260)
169

(220)
145

(190)
124

(3-4)
150-175

(385)
243

(365)
288

(340)
216

(325)
202

(300)
190

(285)
178

(245)
160

(210)

(6-7)
Typical entrapped

(410)
3

(385)

(360)

(340)

(315)

(300)

(270)

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.3

0.2

148

142

122

107

air (percent)

Air-Entrained PCC
175
168
160

25-50

181

(1-2)
75-100

(305)
202

(295)
193

(280)
184

(270)
175

(250)
165

(240)
157

(205)
133

(180)
119

(3-4)
150-175

(340)
243

(325)
228

(305)
216

(295)
202

(275)
190

(265)
178

(225)
160

(200)

(6-7)

(410)

(300)

(270)

Mild Exposure
Moderate

4.5

(385)
(360)
(340)
(315)
Recommended Air Content (percent)
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

6.0
5.5
Exposure
Severe exposure
7.5
7.0
Selection of water-cement ratio

5.0

4.5

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

6.0

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

Water cement ratio for Normal Concrete


28-Day Compressive Strength

Water-cement ratio by weight

in MPa (psi)

Non-Air-Entrained

Air-Entrained

41.4 (6000)
34.5 (5000)
27.6 (4000)
20.7 (3000)
13.8 (2000)

0.41
0.48
0.57
0.68
0.82

0.40
0.48
0.59
0.74

Cement content
The cement content will be computed based on the below formula:

Estimation of coarse aggregate content


Aggregates of essentially the same nominal maximum size and grading will produce
concrete of satisfactory workability when a given volume of coarse aggregate, on an oven-dryrodded basis, is used per unit volume of concrete.
Volume of coarse aggregate per unit of volume of concrete
Nominal

Fine Aggregate Fineness Modulus

Maximum
Aggregate Size
9.5mm(0.375inches)
12.5mm(0.5inches)
19mm(0.75inches)
25mm(1inches)
37.5mm(1.5inches)
50mm(2inches)

2.40

2.60

2.80

3.00

0.50
0.59
0.66
0.71
0.75
0.78

0.48
0.57
0.64
0.69
0.73
0.76

0.46
0.55
0.62
0.67
0.71
0.74

0.40
0.53
0.60
0.65
0.69
0.72

Estimation of coarse aggregate content


With the quantities of water, cement, and coarse aggregate established, the remaining
material comprising the m3 of concrete must consist of fine aggregate and whatever air will be
entrapped. The required fine aggregate may be determined on the basis of either weight or
absolute volume.
First Estimate of mass of fresh concrete
Nominal Maximum size of
aggregate, mm
9.5
12.5
19
25
37.5
50
75
150

First estimate of concrete unit mass, kg/m3


Non-air-entrained concrete
Air-entrained concrete

Adjustments for aggregate moisture

2280
2310
2345
2380
2410
2445
2490
2530

2200
2230
2275
2290
2350
2345
2405
2435

The aggregate quantities actually to be weighed out for the concrete must allow for
moisture in the aggregates. Generally, the aggregates will be moist and their dry weights should
be increased by the percentage of water they contain, both absorbed and surface. The mixing
water added to the batch must be reduced by an amount equal to the free moisture contributed by
the aggregate.
Collection and Preparation of Raw Materials
Cement
Locally produced Type 1 Portland cement will be used in the investigation of composite
materials. The table below shows the chemical composition of typical Type 1 Portland cement
Chemical composition of Portland cement
Constituent
Lime (CaO)
Silica (SiO2)
Alumina (Al2O3)
Iron Oxide (Fe2O3)
Magnesia (MgO)
Sulfur Trioxide (SO3)
(P2O5)
(N2O)
Loss of ignition

Percentage by weight
62.561
19.757
5.591
3.393
1.233
2.382
0.078
0.019
2.144

Water
In the production of concrete, water plays an important role. The water that will be used
should not contain any substance that might affect the hydration of cement and affect the
durability of concrete. Generally, drinking water from the tap will be used for the concrete mix.
Fine and Coarse aggregates
The aggregate component of a concrete mix occupies 60 to 80 percent of the volume of
concrete, and heir characteristics influence the properties of concrete. The coarse aggregates that
will be used have an approximately 19mm in size. The gravel is then first passed through sieves

to get the desired maximum 19-mm diameter gravel. The sand and gravel are kept in the
laboratory to dry before being used.
Waste Wood Ash/Saw Dust
The collected waste wood ash and saw dust must be dried at room temperature to ensure
that the moisture content is 0 since the place of obtaining these are somewhat humid.
Test Specimens
The cement composites for testing will be prepared in the form of cylinders with
dimensions of 150mm in diameter and 300mm high for compression test. 27 specimens will be
used for testing.
distribution of specimen

Slump Test
A slump test is performed on all batches to measure the workability of the fresh concrete
in accordance with ASTM C 143-78 (slump test of Portland cement concrete). This test is used to
monitor the consistency of the mixture from batch to batch.
Curing of test specimens

Specimens are cured in accordance with ASTM C 31-84, standard method of making and
curing concrete test specimen in the field. The specimens will be cured in water tank before
testing.
Compressive Strength Test
The ASTM C 39-86, standard method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete
specimens for plain concrete is also applies to concrete containing waste wood ash and saw dust.
In this method, a concentric compressive force is applied to the ends of a 150mm diameter
concrete cylinder with a height of 300mm at a constant rate of 5kn/sec until failure will occur at
the load P. the compressive strength fc in N/mm2 (MPa) will be calculated by
Compressive strength

Where:
P = ultimate compressive load of concrete (KN)
A = surface area in contact with the plates (mm2)