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THE NOUN

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Clasification of nouns.
Number.
Gender.
Case.
Word formation.
I.

CLASIFICATION OF NOUNS.

According to their form, nouns can be:


a. simple nouns: book, table, man etc.
b. compound nouns: bathroom, bookcase, father-in-law etc.
According to their meaning, nouns can be:
a. proper nouns: John, Danube etc.
b. common nouns: boy, table etc.
c. collective nouns: cattle, police, group etc.
Nouns can also be:
a. countable (those that can be counted): 1 book 2 books
b. uncounable (those that cant be counted): flour, milk, cheese etc

II.

THE NUMBER

1. COUNTABLE NOUNS:
a. most nouns add s : girl girls
b. nouns ending in s, -z, -x, -ch. sh add es:
bus buses
buzz buzzes
box boxes
watch- watches
brush - brushes
but: some nouns double the final consonant:
quiz - quizzes
c. nouns that end in Y preceded by a consonant change y in i and add es:
lady ladies
but: boy - boys
d. nouns that end in o preceded by a consonant add es:
potato potatoes
e. nouns that end in o preceded by a vowel add s:
studio studios
EXCEPTIONS:
in abreviations: photo photos
auto autos
kilo kilos
piano pianos
some nouns ending in -o can take either es or s:
buffalo-buffalos / buffaloes

mosquito-mosquitos / mosquitoes
volcano-volcanos / volcanoes
zero-zeros / zeroes
tornado-tornados / tornadoes etc.
f. nouns ending in f / -fe change f / -fe in v and add es:
leaf leaves
wife wives.
EXCEPTIONS:
Some nouns add s :
Belief Beliefs
Safe-Safes
Proof-Proofs
Roof-Roofs
Chief-Chiefs
Cliff cliffs
Some nouns have double form:
Dwarf-Dwarfs / Dwarves
Handkerchief-Handkerchiefs / Handkerchieves
Hoof-Hoofs / Hooves
Scarf-Scarfs / Scarves
2. THE PLURAL 0F COMPOUND NOUNS:
a. most compound nouns form the plural by adding -s to the final word:
classroom classrooms
forget-me-not forget-me-nots
grown-up grown-ups
horce race horce races
merry go-round - merry go-rounds
b. some compound nouns formed of a noun and a preposition add s to the first word:
looker-on lookers-on
mother-in-law mothers-in-law
passer-by - passers-by
c. the compound nouns that have as the first word man or woman form plural for both
nouns :
man-singer men-singers
woman-doctor - women-doctors.

3. IRREGULAR PLURALS:
man men
woman women
foot feet
goose geese
tooth teeth
mouse mice
louse lice
ox oxen
child children
brother brotheren (sens religios)
deer deer
sheep sheep

salmon salmon
trout trout
fish fish
duck duck (rae slbatice) ducks
(domestice)
barracks barracks
headquarters headquarters
means means
series series
species species
works (uzin) - works

This is an army barracks.


These are army barracks.

4. FOREIGN PLURALS:
1.

-us / -i

2.

-um / -a

3.

-is / -es

4.

-us / -uses

5.

-us / -uses
-i

6.

-a / -as

7.

-a / -as
-ae

8.

-um / -ums

9.

-um / -ums
-a

10.

-on / -ons

Stimulas stimuli
Bacillus bacilli
Addendum addenda
Datum data
Stratum - strata
Basis bases
Analysis analyses
Thesis theses
Crisis crises
Circus circuses
Bonus bonuses
Campus - campuses
Cactus cactuses cacti
Genius geniuses (oameni de
geniu) genii (spirite, duhuri)
Arena arenas
Diploma diplomas
Era eras
Dilemma - dilemmas
Formula formulas formulae
Antenna antenas antenae
Vertebra vertebras - vertebrae
Museum museums
Album - albums
Curriculum curriculums curricula
Medium- mediums - media
Sanatorium Sanatoriums
Sanatoria
Demon demons

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

-on / -ons
-a
-o / -os
-o / -os
-i
-ix / -ixes
-ices
-ex / -exes
-ices
-eau / -eaus
-eaux

Lexicon lexicons
Automaton automatons
automata
Soprano - sopranos
Libretto librettos libretti
Appendix appendixes (n
anatomie) appendices (n cri)
Index indexces (cuprinsuri)
indices (indici, n matematic)
Plateau plateaus - plateaux

2. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS:
2.1. NOUNS THAT TAKE ONLY A SINGULAR VERB:
a. mass nouns: blood, cofee, milk, bread, butter etc.;
b. subject of studies: chemistry, economics, history, mathematics, physics etc.;
c. languages: Chinese, Spain, French etc.;
d. games: billiards, chess, tennis etc.;
e. diseases: measels, mumps, cancer etc.;
f. natural phenomena: darkness, fog, gravity, light etc.;
g. some abstract nouns: accommodation, advice, anger, applause, assisstance, business,
damage, education, evidence, housework, homework, information, knowledge, music, news,
peace, progress, shopping, work etc.;
h. some collective nouns: baggage, furniture, jewllery, luggage, money, rubbish etc..
e.g. The news is very exciting.
Your information is incorrect.
Where is your money?
2.2. NOUNS THAT TAKE ONLY A PLURAL VERB:
these are objects which consist of two parts:
a. garments: pyjamas, trousers etc.;
b. tools: scissors etc.;
c. instruments: binoculars, compasses, spectacles etc.;
d. nouns such as: clothes, ashes, barracks, congratulations, earnings, outskirts, people,
premises, surroundings etc.
3.1. MANY UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS CAN BE MADE COUNTABLE by adding a partitive:
a piece of paper / cake / information / advice / furniture.
A glass / bottle of water;
A jar of jam;
A rasher of bacon;
A box / sheet of paper;
A packet of tea;
A slice / loaf of bread;
A pot of yoghurt;
A pot / a cup of tea;
A kilo / a pound of meat;
A tube of toothpaste;

A bar of chocolate / soap;


A bit / piece of chalk;
An ice cub;
A lump / piece of sugar;
A bag of flour;
A pair of trousers;
A game of soccer;
An item / a piece of news;
A drop / a can of oil;
A can of Coke;
A carton of milk;
A block of wood;
A flash / a bolt of lightning;
A clap / peal of thunder;
A bit / an amount of interest;
A fit of passion;
A word of advice;
An attack of fever etc..

3. COLLECTIVE NOUNS:
they reffer to a group of people: army, audience, class, club, committee, company, council,
crew, crowd, headquarters, family, jury, government, press, public, staff, team etc.
These nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb depending on whetherwe see a group as
a whole or as individuals.
e.g: The team was the best in the country. ( the team as a group)
The team were all given medals. (each member separately as individuals.)
4.. SOME NOUNS HAVE A DIFFERENT MEANING IN THE PLURAL:
colour
compass
custom
damage
effect
glass
ground
letter
manner
minute
pain
premise
quarter
receipt
scale
scrap
spectacle

COLOURS DRAPEL
Compasses - compas
Customs - vam
Damages despgubiri
Effects efecte, haine
Glasses ochelari
Grounds teren n jurul unei
cldiri
Letters scrisori
Letters literatur, litere
Manners - moduri
manners maniere, purtare
Minutes minute
minutes - proces-verbal
Pains dureri
Pains - osteneal
Premises premise
Premises local, imobil
Quarters sferturi, cartiere
Quarters locuin,
cantonament
Receipts chitane
Receipts -ncasri
Scales solzi, game muzicale Scales balan
Scrap bucele, fragmente
Scraps resturi de mncare,
deeuri de metal
Spectacles spectacole
Spectacles ochelari
Colours - culori
Compasses - busole
Customs - obicei
Damages avarii
Effects - efecte
Glasses - pahare
Grounds motive

term

Terms perioade, termene,


trimestre.

Terms - termeni, relaii,


condiii.