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PICTURE

Group 8
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:

1811K(1538C, 2800F)

3134K (2862C, 5182F)

Boiling point:
Density near r.t.: 7.874g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.:
6.98g/cm3
Heat of fusion
: 13.81kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 340kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.10J/(molK)

Iron(Fe)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Iron is an enigma it rusts easily, yet it is


the most important of all metals. 90% of all
metal that is refined today is iron.
Most is used to manufacture steel, used in
civil engineering (reinforced concrete,
girders etc) and in manufacturing.
Stainless steel is very resistant to corrosion.
It contains at least 10.5% chromium. Other
metals such as nickel, molybdenum,
titanium and copper are added to enhance
its strength and workability. It is used in
architecture, bearings, cutlery, surgical
instruments and jewellery.
Cast iron contains 35% carbon. It is used for
pipes, valves and pumps. It is not as tough
as steel but it is cheaper. Magnets can be
made of iron and its alloys and compounds.
Iron catalysts are used in the Haber process
for producing ammonia, and in the Fischer
Tropsch process for converting syngas
(hydrogen and carbon monoxide) into liquid
fuels.

Biological Role/Application
Iron is an essential element for all forms
of life and is non-toxic. The average
human contains about 4 grams of iron. A
lot of this is in haemoglobin, in the blood.
Haemoglobin carries oxygen from our
lungs to the cells, where it is needed for
tissue respiration.
Humans need 1018 milligrams of iron
each day. A lack of iron will cause

Iron is an essential element for all forms


of life and is non-toxic. The average
human contains about 4 grams of iron. A
lot of this is in haemoglobin, in the blood.
Haemoglobin carries oxygen from our
lungs to the cells, where it is needed for
tissue respiration.
Humans need 1018 milligrams of iron
each day. A lack of iron will cause
anaemia to develop. Foods such as liver,
kidney, molasses, brewers yeast, cocoa
and liquorice contain a lot of iron.

PICTURE
Group 8
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase :
Solid
Melting point : 2607K(2334C, 4233F)
4423K (4150C, 7502F)

Boiling point :
Density near r.t. : 12.45g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. : 10.65g/cm3
Heat of fusion
: 38.59kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization : 619kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity : 24.06J/(molK)

Ruthenium (Ru)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Ruthenium is one of the most effective


hardeners for platinum and palladium,
and is alloyed with these metals to
make electrical contacts for severe
wear resistance. It is used in some
jewellery as an alloy with platinum.
Ruthenium is used in platinum and
palladium alloys to make wearresistant electrical contacts. In this
application, only thin-plated films are
used to achieve the necessary wearresistance. Because of its lower cost
and similar properties compared to
rhodium,the use as plating material
for electric contacts is one of the
major applications. The thin coatings
are either applied by electroplating or
sputtering.
Ruthenium dioxide and lead and
Biological
bismuthRole/Application
ruthenates are used in thickfilm chip resistors. These two
Rutheniumapplications
has no known
biological
electronic
account
for
role.
Ruthenium(IV)
oxide
is
highly
50% of the ruthenium consumption.
toxic.
Ruthenium plays an important role in
the novel Arctic Drift by Clive Cussler.
Ruthenium is found to be a catalyst in
a very important new industrial

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and


bismuth ruthenates are used in thickfilm chip resistors. These two
Rutheniumapplications
has no known
biological
electronic
account
for
role.
Ruthenium(IV)
oxide
is
highly
50% of the ruthenium consumption.
toxic.
Ruthenium plays an important role in
the novel Arctic Drift by Clive Cussler.
Ruthenium is found to be a catalyst in
a very important new industrial
process, but very little of the metal is
known to remain on Earth, and the
search for a new deposit in Canada is
a vital part of the plot.

PICTURE
Group 8
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase :
Solid
Melting point:
3306K(3033C, 5491F)
Boiling point:
5285K (5012C, 9054F)
Density near r.t.: 22.59g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.:
20g/cm3
Heat of fusion
: 57.85kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 378kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 24.7J/(molK)

Osmium (Os)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Osmium has only a few uses. It is used to


produce very hard alloys for fountain pen
tips, instrument pivots, needles and electrical
contacts. It is also used in the chemical
industry as a catalyst.
Because of the volatility and extreme toxicity
of its oxide, osmium is rarely used in its pure
state, and is instead often alloyed with other
metals. Those alloys are utilized in high-wear
applications. Osmium alloys such as
osmiridium are very hard and, along with
other platinum group metals, are used in the
tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and
electrical contacts, as they can resist wear
from frequent operation. They were also used
for the tips of phonograph styli during the
late 78 rpm and early "LP" and "45" record
era, circa 1945 to 1955. Although very
durable compared to steel and chromium
needle points, osmium alloy tips wore out far
more rapidly than competing but costlier
sapphire and diamond tips and were
discontinued.
Biological
Role/Application
Osmium
has been
used role.
in
Osmium tetroxide
has no known
biological
The
fingerprint
detection
and
in
staining
fatty
metal is not toxic, but its oxide is volatile
tissue
for toxic,
optical
and electron
microscopy.
and very
causing
lung, skin
and eye
damage.
The only known clinical use of osmium
appears to be for synovectomy in arthritic
patients in Scandinavia. It involves the
local administration of osmium tetroxide
(OsO4) which is a highly toxic compound.
The lack of reports of long-term side
effects suggest that osmium itself can be

sapphire and diamond tips and were


discontinued.
Osmium
has been
used role.
in
Osmium tetroxide
has no known
biological
The
fingerprint
in staining
fatty
metal is notdetection
toxic, butand
its oxide
is volatile
tissue
for toxic,
optical
and electron
microscopy.
and very
causing
lung, skin
and eye
damage.
The only known clinical use of osmium
appears to be for synovectomy in arthritic
patients in Scandinavia. It involves the
local administration of osmium tetroxide
(OsO4) which is a highly toxic compound.
The lack of reports of long-term side
effects suggest that osmium itself can be
biocompatible, although this depends on
the osmium compound administered. In
2011, osmium(VI) and osmium(II)
compounds were reported to show
anticancer activity in vivo, it indicated a
promising future for using osmium
compounds as anticancer drugs.

PICTURE
Group 8
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point
Boiling point
Density near r.t.: 40.7g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Molar heat capacity

Hassium (Hs)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Since only small amounts of hassium


have been made, it has no commercial
use. Its current use is for scientific study
only.

Biological Role/Application

Hassium has no known biological role.

PICTURE
Group 9
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1768K(1495C, 2723F)
Boiling point:
3200K (2927C, 5301F)
Density near r.t.: 8.9g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.:
8.86g/cm3
Heat of fusion
: 16.06kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 377kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 24.81J/(molK)

Cobalt (Co)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Cobalt, like iron, can be magnetised and


so is used to make magnets. It is alloyed
with aluminium and nickel to make
particularly powerful magnets.
Other alloys of cobalt are used in jet
turbines and gas turbine generators,
where high-temperature strength is
important.
Cobalt metal is sometimes used in
electroplating because of its attractive
appearance, hardness and resistance to
corrosion.
Cobalt salts have been used for centuries
to produce brilliant blue colours in paint,
porcelain, glass, pottery and enamels.
Radioactive cobalt-60 is used to treat
cancer and, in some countries, to irradiate
food to preserve it.

Biological Role/Application
Cobalt is an essential trace element, and
forms part of the active site of vitamin
B12. The amount we need is very small,
and the body contains only about 1
milligram. Cobalt salts can be given to
certain animals in small doses to correct
mineral deficiencies. In large doses cobalt
is carcinogenic.

Cobalt is an essential trace element, and


forms part of the active site of vitamin
B12. The amount we need is very small,
and the body contains only about 1
milligram. Cobalt salts can be given to
certain animals in small doses to correct
mineral deficiencies. In large doses cobalt
is carcinogenic.
Cobalt-60 is a radioactive isotope. It is an
important source of gamma-rays. It is
widely used in cancer treatment, as a
tracer and for radiotherapy.

PICTURE
Group 9
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
2237K(1495C, 2723F)
Boiling point:
3968K (2927C, 5301F)
Density near r.t.: 12.41g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.:
10.7g/cm3
Heat of fusion
: 26.59kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 493kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 24.98J/(molK)

Rhodium (Rh)

USES OF ELEMENTS

The major use of rhodium is in catalytic


converters for cars (80%). It reduces
nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases.
Rhodium is also used as catalysts in the
chemical industry, for making nitric acid,
acetic acid and hydrogenation reactions.
It is used to coat optic fibres and optical
mirrors, and for crucibles, thermocouple
elements and headlight reflectors. It is
used as an electrical contact material as it
has a low electrical resistance and is
highly resistant to corrosion.
Rhodium finds use in jewelry and for
decorations. It is electroplated on white
gold and platinum to give it a reflective
white surface at time of sale, after which
the thin layer wears away with use. This is
known as rhodium flashing in the jewelry
business.
Biological Role/Application
Rhodium has no known biological role. It is
a suspected carcinogen.
Rhodium has also been used for honors or
to signify elite status, when more
commonly used metals such as silver,
gold or platinum were deemed
insufficient. In 1979 the Guinness Book of
World Records gave Paul McCartney a
rhodium-plated disc for being history's all-

Rhodium has no known biological role. It is


a suspected carcinogen.
Rhodium has also been used for honors or
to signify elite status, when more
commonly used metals such as silver,
gold or platinum were deemed
insufficient. In 1979 the Guinness Book of
World Records gave Paul McCartney a
rhodium-plated disc for being history's alltime best-selling songwriter and recording
artist.

PICTURE
Group 9
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point : 2719K(1495C, 2723F)
Boiling point : 4403K (2927C, 5301F)
Density near r.t.: 22.56g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.:
19g/cm3
Heat of fusion
: 41.12kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization : 564kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity : 25.10J/(molK)

Iridium (Ir)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Iridium is the most corrosion-resistant


material known. It is used in special alloys
and forms an alloy with osmium, which is
used for pen tips and compass bearings. It
was used in making the standard metre bar,
which is an alloy of 90% platinum and 10%
iridium. It is also used for the contacts in
spark plugs because of its high melting
point and low reactivity.
Iridium and especially iridiumplatinum
alloys or osmiumiridium alloys have a low
wear and are used. Osmiumiridium is used
for compass bearings and for balances.
Their resistance to arc erosion makes
iridium alloys ideal for electrical contacts for
spark plugs, and iridium-based spark plugs
are particularly used in aviation.
Pure iridium is extremely brittle, to the point
of being hard to weld because the heataffected zone cracks, but it can be made
more ductile by addition of small quantities
of titanium and zirconium (0.2% of each
apparently works well).
Biological Role/Application
Iridium has no known biological role, and
has low toxicity.
Iridium has been used in the radioisotope
thermoelectric generators of unmanned
spacecraft such as the Voyager, Viking,
Pioneer, Cassini, Galileo, and New Horizons.
Iridium was chosen to encapsulate the
plutonium-238 fuel in the generator
because it can withstand the operating

Iridium has no known biological role, and


has low toxicity.
Iridium has been used in the radioisotope
thermoelectric generators of unmanned
spacecraft such as the Voyager, Viking,
Pioneer, Cassini, Galileo, and New Horizons.
Iridium was chosen to encapsulate the
plutonium-238 fuel in the generator
because it can withstand the operating
temperatures of up to 2000 C and for its
great strength.
Another use concerns X-ray optics,
especially X-ray telescopes. The mirrors of
the Chandra X-ray Observatory are coated
with a layer of iridium 60 nm thick.

PICTURE
Group 9
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
Boiling point:
Density near r.t.: 37.4g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
Heat of fusion
:
Heat of vaporization:
Molar heat capacity:

Meitnerium (Mt)

USES OF ELEMENTS

At present it is only used in research.

Biological Role/Application

Meitnerium has no known biological


role.

Meitnerium has no known biological


role.

PICTURE
Group 10
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1728K (1455C, 2651F)
Boiling point:
3003K (2730C, 4946F)
Density near r.t.: 8.908g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
7.81g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 17.48kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 379kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:26.07J/(molK)

Nickel (Ni)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Nickel resists corrosion and is used to plate


other metals to protect them. It is,
however, mainly used in making alloys
such as stainless steel. Nichrome is an
alloy of nickel and chromium with small
amounts of silicon, manganese and iron. It
resists corrosion, even when red hot, so is
used in toasters and electric ovens. A
copper-nickel alloy is commonly used in
desalination plants, which convert
seawater into fresh water. Nickel steel is
used for armour plating. Other alloys of
nickel are used in boat propeller shafts and
turbine blades.
Nickel is used in batteries, including
rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries and
nickel-metal hydride batteries used in
hybrid vehicles.
Nickel has a long history of being used in
coins. The US five-cent piece (known as a
nickel) is 25% nickel and 75% copper.
Finely divided nickel is used as a catalyst
for hydrogenating
vegetable oils. Adding
Biological
Role/Application
nickel to glass gives it a green colour.
The biological role of nickel is uncertain.
It can affect the growth of plants and has
been shown to be essential to some
species.
Some nickel compounds can cause
cancer if the dust is inhaled, and some
people are allergic to contact with the
metal.

The biological role of nickel is uncertain.


It can affect the growth of plants and has
been shown to be essential to some
species.
Some nickel compounds can cause
cancer if the dust is inhaled, and some
people are allergic to contact with the
metal.
Nickel cannot be avoided completely. We
take in nickel compounds with our diet. It
is an essential element for some beans,
such as the navy bean that is used for
baked beans.

PICTURE
Group 10
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1828.05K(1554.9C,2830.82F)
Boiling point:
3236K (2963C, 5365F)
Density near r.t.: 12.023g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
10.38g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 16.74kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 358kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.98J/(molK)

Palladium (Pd)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Most palladium is used in catalytic


converters for cars. It is also used in
jewellery and some dental fillings and
crowns. White gold is an alloy of gold
that has been decolourised by alloying
with another metal, sometimes
palladium.
It is used in the electronics industry in
ceramic capacitors, found in laptop
computers and mobile phones. These
consist of layers of palladium
sandwiched between layers of ceramic.
Finely divided palladium is a good
catalyst and is used for hydrogenation
and dehydrogenation reactions.
Hydrogen easily diffuses through
heated palladium and this provides a
way of separating and purifying the gas.
Biological Role/Application

Palladium has no known biological


role. It is non-toxic.
Hydrogen easily diffuses through
heated palladium; thus, it provides a
means of purifying the gas. Membrane
reactors with Pd membranes are
therefore used for the production of
high purity hydrogen. Palladium is a

Palladium has no known biological


role. It is non-toxic.
Hydrogen easily diffuses through
heated palladium; thus, it provides a
means of purifying the gas. Membrane
reactors with Pd membranes are
therefore used for the production of
high purity hydrogen. Palladium is a
part of the palladium-hydrogen
electrode in electrochemical studies.
Palladium(II) chloride can oxidize large
amounts of carbon monoxide gas, and
is used in carbon monoxide detectors.

PICTURE
Group 10
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
2041.4K (1768.3C, 3214.9F)
Boiling point:
4098K (3825C, 6917F)
Density near r.t.: 21.45g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
19.77g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 22.17kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 510kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.86J/(molK)

Platinum (Pt)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Platinum is used extensively for


jewellery. Its main use, however, is in
catalytic converters for cars, trucks and
buses. This accounts for about 50% of
demand each year. Platinum is very
effective at converting emissions from
the vehicles engine into less harmful
waste products.
Platinum is used in the chemicals
industry as a catalyst for the production
of nitric acid, silicone and benzene. It is
also used as a catalyst to improve the
efficiency of fuel cells.
The electronics industry uses platinum
for computer hard disks and
thermocouples.
Platinum is also used to make optical
fibres and LCDs, turbine blades, spark
plugs, pacemakers and dental fillings.
Platinum compounds are important
Biological
Role/Application
chemotherapy
drugs used to treat
cancers.
Platinum has no known biological role. It
is non-toxic.
In the laboratory, platinum wire is used
for electrodes; platinum pans and
supports are used in thermogravimetric
analysis because of the stringent
requirements of chemical inertness.
Platinum is used as an alloying agent for
various metal products, including fine

Platinum has no known biological role. It


is non-toxic.
In the laboratory, platinum wire is used
for electrodes; platinum pans and
supports are used in thermogravimetric
analysis because of the stringent
requirements of chemical inertness.
Platinum is used as an alloying agent for
various metal products, including fine
wires, noncorrosive laboratory
containers, medical instruments, dental
prostheses, electrical contacts, and
thermocouples.

PICTURE
Group 10
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
2041.4K (1768.3C, 3214.9F)
Boiling point:
4098K (3825C, 6917F)
Density near r.t.: 21.45g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
19.77g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 22.17kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 510kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.86J/(molK)

Darmstadtium (Ds)

USES OF ELEMENTS

At present, it is only used in research.

Biological Role/Application

Darmstadtium has no known biological


role.

Darmstadtium has no known biological


role.

PICTURE
Group 11
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1357.77K (1084.62C,
1984.32F)
Boiling point:
2835K (2562C, 4643F)
Density near r.t.: 8.96g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
8.02g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 13.26kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 300.4kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:24.440J/(molK)

Copper (Cu)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Historically, copper was the first metal to


be worked by people. The discovery that
it could be hardened with a little tin to
form the alloy bronze gave the name to
the Bronze Age.
Traditionally it has been one of the
metals used to make coins, along with
silver and gold. However, it is the most
common of the three and therefore the
least valued. All US coins are now copper
alloys, and gun metals also contain
copper.
Most copper is used in electrical
equipment such as wiring and motors.
This is because it conducts both heat and
electricity very well, and can be drawn
into wires. It also has uses in
construction (for example roofing and
plumbing), and industrial machinery
(such as heat exchangers).
Biological
CopperRole/Application
sulfate is used widely as an
agricultural poison and as an algicide in
Copper is an essential element. An adult
water purification.
human needs around 1.2 milligrams of
Copper compounds, such as Fehlings
copper a day, to help enzymes transfer
solution, are used in chemical tests for
energy in cells. Excess copper is toxic.
sugar detection
Genetic diseases, such as Wilsons
disease and Menkes disease, can affect
the bodys ability to use copper properly.

(such as heat exchangers).


Copper sulfate is used widely as an
agricultural poison and as an algicide in
Copper is an essential element. An adult
water purification.
human needs around 1.2 milligrams of
Copper compounds, such as Fehlings
copper a day, to help enzymes transfer
solution, are used in chemical tests for
energy in cells. Excess copper is toxic.
sugar detection
Genetic diseases, such as Wilsons
disease and Menkes disease, can affect
the bodys ability to use copper properly.
Unlike mammals, which use iron (in
haemoglobin) to transport oxygen
around their bodies, some crustaceans
use copper complexes.

PICTURE
Group 11
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1234.93K (961.78C,
1763.2F)
Boiling point:
2435K (2162C, 3924F)
Density near r.t.: 10.49g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
9.320g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 11.28kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 254kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.35J/(molK)

Silver (Ag)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Sterling silver contains 92.5% silver. The


rest is copper or some other metal. It is
used for jewellery and silver tableware,
where appearance is important.
Silver is used to make mirrors, as it is the
best reflector of visible light known,
although it does tarnish with time. It is
also used in dental alloys, solder and
brazing alloys, electrical contacts and
batteries. Silver paints are used for
making printed circuits.
Silver bromide and iodide were important
in the history of photography, because of
their sensitivity to light. Even with the
rise of digital photography, silver salts
are still important in producing highquality images and protecting against
illegal copying. Light-sensitive glass
photochromic lenses) works on similar
principles. It darkens in bright sunlight
and becomes transparent in low sunlight.

Biological Role/Application

Silver has no known biological role.


Chronic ingestion or inhalation of silver
compounds can lead to a condition
known as argyria, which results in a
greyish pigmentation of the skin and
mucous membranes. Silver has
antibacterial properties and can kill
lower organisms quite effectively.

Silver has no known biological role.


Chronic ingestion or inhalation of silver
compounds can lead to a condition
known as argyria, which results in a
greyish pigmentation of the skin and
mucous membranes. Silver has
antibacterial properties and can kill
lower organisms quite effectively.
Silver stains are used in biology to
increase the contrast and visibility of
cells and organelles in microscopy.
Camillo Golgi used silver stains to study
cells of the nervous system and the
Golgi apparatus.

PICTURE
Group 11
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1337.33K (1064C,
1947.52F)
Boiling point:
3243K (2970C, 5378F)
Density near r.t.: 19.30g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
17.31g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 12.55kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 342kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.418J/(molK)

Gold (Au)

USES OF ELEMENTS

Most mined gold is stored as bullion. It is


also, however, used extensively in
jewellery, either in its pure form or as an
alloy. The term carat indicates the
amount of gold present in an alloy. 24carat is pure gold, but it is very soft. 18and 9-carat gold alloys are commonly
used because they are more durable.
The metal is also used for coinage, and
has been used as standard for monetary
systems in some countries. Dentists
sometimes use gold alloys in fillings, and
a gold compound is used to treat some
cases of arthritis.
Gold nanoparticles are increasingly being
used as industrial catalysts. Vinyl
acetate, which is used to make PVA (for
glue, paint and resin), is made using a
Biological
Role/Application
gold catalyst.
Gold has no known biological role, and
is non-toxic.
Metallic and gold compounds have been
used for medicinal purposes historically
and are still in use. The apparent
paradox of the actual toxicology of the
substance suggests the possibility of
serious gaps in the understanding of the
action of gold in physiology.
Gold (usually as the metal) is perhaps

Gold has no known biological role, and


is non-toxic.
Metallic and gold compounds have been
used for medicinal purposes historically
and are still in use. The apparent
paradox of the actual toxicology of the
substance suggests the possibility of
serious gaps in the understanding of the
action of gold in physiology.
Gold (usually as the metal) is perhaps
the most anciently administered
medicine (apparently by shamanic
practitioners) and known to Dioscorides.

PICTURE
Group 11
Family: Transition Metals

DESCRIPTION

Phase:
Solid
Melting point:
1337.33K (1064C,
1947.52F)
Boiling point:
3243K (2970C, 5378F)
Density near r.t.: 19.30g/cm
when liquid, at m.p.:
17.31g/cm
Heat of fusion
: 12.55kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 342kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity:25.418J/(molK)

Roentgenium (Rg)

USES OF ELEMENTS

At present, it is only used in research.

Biological Role/Application

Roentgenium has no known biological


role.

Roentgenium has no known biological


role.