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Essentials of Physical Anthropology, Eighth Edition


Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, and
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Focus Questions
 hat do physical
W
anthropologists do?
Why is physical anthropology a
scientific discipline, and what is
its importance to the general
public?
Dr. Russell Mittermeier, president
of Conservation International, holding
an indri (the largest of the living
lemurs) at a wildlife reserve in
Madagascar.

2
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Introduction
to Physical
Anthropology

Cristina G. Mittermeier

One day, perhaps during the rainy season some 3.7 million years ago,
two or three animals walked across a grassland savanna (see next page
for definitions) in what is now northern Tanzania, in East Africa. These
individuals were early hominins, members of the evolutionary lineage
that includes ourselves, modern Homo sapiens. Fortunately for us, a

record of their passage on that long-forgotten day remains in the form of footprints, preserved in hardened volcanic deposits. As chance would have it, shortly
after heels and toes were pressed into damp soil, a nearby volcano erupted. The
ensuing ashfall blanketed everything on the ground, including the hominin footprints. In time, the ash layer hardened into a deposit that preserved the tracks for
nearly 4million years (Fig.1-1).
These now famous prints indicate that two individuals, one smaller than the
other, may have walked side by side, leaving parallel sets of tracks. But because
the larger individuals prints are obscured, possibly by those of a third, its unclear
how many actually made that journey so long ago. But what is clear is that the
prints were made by an animal that habitually walked bipedally (on two feet), and
that fact tells us that those ancient travelers were hominins.
In addition to the footprints, scientists working at this site (called Laetoli) and
at other locations have discovered many fossilized parts of skeletons of an animal
we call Australopithecus afarensis. After analyzing these remains, we know that
these hominins were anatomically similar to ourselves, although their brains
were only about one-third the size of ours. And even though they may have used
stones and sticks as simple tools, theres no evidence to suggest that they actually
made stone tools. In fact, they were very much at the mercy of natures whims.
They certainly couldnt outrun most predators, and since their canine teeth were
fairly small, they were pretty much defenseless.
Weve asked hundreds of questions about the Laetoli hominins, but well
never be able to answer them all. They walked down a path into what became
their future, and their immediate journey has long since ended. So it remains for
us to learn as much as we can about them and their species; and as we continue to
do so, their greater journey continues.
3

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Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

C LICK
Go to the following media resources for
interactive activities, more information,
and study materials on topics covered in
this chapter:
Anthropology Resource Center
Student Companion Website
for Essentials of Physical
Anthropology, Eighth Edition
n Online Virtual Laboratories for
Physical Anthropology, Fourth Edition
n
n

savanna (also spelled savannah) A


large flat grassland with scattered trees
and shrubs. Savannas are found in many
regions of the world with dry and warmto-hot climates.
hominins Colloquial term for members
of the evolutionary group that includes
modern humans and extinct bipedal
relatives.

bipedally On two feet; habitually


walking on two legs.

species A group of organisms that can


interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other
species (that is, they cannot mate with
them to produce fertile offspring).
primatesMembers of the order of
ammals Primates (pronounced prym
may-tees), which includes lemurs,
lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and
humans.

On July 20, 1969, a television audience numbering in the hundreds of millions


watched as two human beings stepped out of a spacecraft onto the surface of the
moon. To anyone born after that date, this event may be more or less taken for
granted. But the significance of that first moonwalk cant be overstated, because it
represents humankinds presumed mastery over the natural forces that govern
our presence on earth. For the first time ever, people had actually walked upon
the surface of a celestial body that, as far as we know, has never given birth to biological life.
As the astronauts gathered geological specimens and frolicked in near
weightlessness, they left traces of their fleeting presence in the form of footprints
in the lunar dust (Fig. 1-2). On the surface of the moon, where no rain falls and no
wind blows, the footprints remain undisturbed to this day. They survive as mute
testimony to a brief visit by a medium-sized, big-brained creature who presumed
to challenge the very forces that created it.
You may be wondering why anyone would care about early hominin footprints and how they can possibly be relevant to your life. You may also wonder
why a physical anthropology textbook would begin by discussing two such seemingly unrelated events as hominins walking across a savanna and a moonwalk.
But the fact is, these two events are closely related.
Physical, or biological, anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned with
the biological and behavioral characteristics of human beings; our closest relatives, the nonhuman primates (apes, monkeys, tarsiers, lemurs and lorises); and
their ancestors. This kind of research helps us explain what it means to be
human. This is an ambitious goal, and it probably isnt fully attainable, but its
certainly worth pursuing. After all, were the only species to ponder our own existence and question how we fit into the spectrum of life on earth. Most people
view humanity as separate from the rest of the animal kingdom. But at the same
time, some are curious about the similarities we share with other species. Maybe,
as a child, you looked at your dog and tried to figure out how her front legs might
correspond to your arms. Perhaps, during a visit to the zoo, you noticed the
similarities between a chimpanzees hands or facial expressions and
your own. Maybe you wondered if they also shared your thoughts
and feelings. If youve ever had thoughts and questions like
these, then youve indeed been curious about humankinds
place in nature.
We humans, who can barely comprehend a century, cant begin to grasp the enormity of nearly
4million years. But we still want to know more
about those creatures who walked across the
savanna that day. We want to know how
an insignificant but clever bipedal primate such as Australopithecus afarensis, or perhaps a close relative,
gave rise to a species that would
eventually walk on the surface
of the moon, some 230,000
miles from earth.
How did Homo sapiens,
a result of the same evolu-

Peter Jones

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4 chapter 1

figure 1-1

Early hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania. The tracks to the left were
made by one individual, while those to the right appear to have been
formed by two individuals, the second stepping in the tracks of the first.

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Introduction 5

figure 1-2
NASA

tionary forces that produced all other


life on this planet, gain the power to
control the flow of rivers and even
alter the climate on a global scale? As
tropical animals, how were we able to
leave the tropics and eventually occupy
most of the earths land surfaces? How
did we adjust to different environmental conditions as we dispersed? How
could our species, which numbered
fewer than 1 billion until the midnineteenth century, come to number
almost 7 billion worldwide today and,
as we now do, add another billion people every 11years?
These are some of the many questions that physical anthropologists
attempt to answer through the study
of human evolution, variation, and
adaptation. These issues, and many
others, are the topics covered directly or indirectly in this textbook, because
physical anthropology is, in large part, human biology seen from an evolutionary
perspective.
As biological organisms, humans are subjected to the same evolutionary
forces as all other species are. On hearing the term evolution, most people think
of the appearance of new species. Certainly, the development of new species is
one important consequence of evolution; but it isnt the only one, because evolution is an ongoing biological process with more than one outcome. Simply
stated, evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population from one
generation to the next, and it can be defined and studied at two levels. Over
time, some genetic changes in populations do result in the appearance of a new
species or speciation, especially when those populations are isolated from one
another. Change at this level is called macroevolution. At the other level, there
are genetic alterations within populations; and while this type of change may not
lead to speciation, it often causes populations of a species to differ from one
another regarding the frequency of certain traits. Evolution at this level is
referred to as microevolution. Evolution as it occurs at both these levels will be
addressed in this book.
But biological anthropologists dont just study physiological and biological
systems. When these topics are considered within the broader context of human
evolution, another factor must be considered, and that factor is culture. Culture is
an extremely important concept, not only as it relates to modern human beings
but also because of its critical role in human evolution. Quite simply, and in a
very broad sense, culture can be said to be the strategy by which people adapt to
the natural environment. In fact, culture has so altered and so dominated our
world that its become the environment in which we live. Culture includes technologies ranging from stone tools to computers; subsistence patterns, from hunting
and gathering to global agribusiness; housing types, from thatched huts to skyscrapers; and clothing, from animal skins to high-tech synthetic fibers (Fig. 1-3).
Technology, religion, values, social organization, language, kinship, marriage rules,
dietary preferences, gender roles, inheritance of property, and so on, are all aspects
of culture. And each culture shapes peoples perceptions of the external environment, or their worldview, in particular ways that distinguish one culture from
allothers.

Human footprints left on the lunar


surface during the Apollo mission.

evolution A change in the genetic


structure of a population. The term is
also sometimes used to refer to the
appearance of a new species.

adaptation An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms


orpopulations to the environment.
Adaptations result from evolutionary
change (specifically, as a result of natural
selection).

genetic Pertaining to genetics, the

study of gene structure and action and


the patterns of transmission of traits
from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.

culture Behavioral aspects of human


adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles. Culture is a set of
learned behaviors transmitted from one
generation to the next by nonbiological
(that is, nongenetic) means.

worldview General cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of


a society.

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6 chapter 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

NASA/Space Telescope Science Institute

Museum of Primitive Art and Culture, Peace Dale, RI.

Traditional and recent technology. (a) An


early stone tool from East Africa. This
artifact represents one of the oldest
types of stone tools found anywhere.
(b) The Hubble Space telescope, a late
twentieth-century tool, orbits the earth
every 96 minutes at an altitude of 360
miles. Because it is above the earths
atmosphere, it provides distortion-free
images of objects in deep space.
(c) Cuneiform, the earliest form of writing, involved pressing symbols into clay
tablets. It originated in southern Iraq
some 5,000 years ago. (d) Text messaging, the most recent innovation in satellite communication, has generated a new
language of sorts. Currently more than
500 billion text messages are sent every
day worldwide. (e) A Samburu woman in
East Africa building a traditional but
complicated dwelling of stems, small
branches, mud, and cow dung. (f) These
Hong Kong skyscrapers are typical of cities in industrialized countries today.

Lynn Kilgore

FIgure 1-3

Lynn Kilgore

Ravi Tahilramani/iStockphoto

Justin Horocks/iStockphoto

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One basic point to remember is that culture isnt genetically passed from one
generation to the next. Culture is learned, and the process of learning ones culture
begins, quite literally, at birth. All humans are products of the culture theyre
raised in, and since most of human behavior is learned, it follows that most behaviors, perceptions, and reactions are shaped by culture. At the same time, however,
its important to emphasize that even though culture isnt genetically determined,
the human predisposition to assimilate culture and function within it is profoundly influenced by biological factors. Most nonhuman animals, including birds
and especially primates, rely to varying degrees on learned behavior. This is especially true of the great apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans),
which, as you will learn later, exhibit numerous aspects ofculture.
We cant overemphasize that the predisposition for culture is perhaps the
most critical component of human evolutionary history, and it was inherited
from early hominin or prehominin ancestors. In fact, the common ancestor we
share with chimpanzees may have had this predisposition. But during the course
of human evolution, the role of culture became increasingly important. Over
time, culture influenced many aspects of our biological makeup; and in turn,
aspects of biology influenced cultural practices. For this reason, humans are the
result of long-term interactions between biology and culture, and we call these
interactions biocultural evolution.
Biocultural interactions have resulted in many anatomical, biological, and
behavioral changes during the course of human evolution: the shape of the pelvis
and hip, increased brain size, reorganization of neurological structures, decreased
tooth size, and the development of language, to name a few. Whats more, biocultural interactions are as important today as they were in the past, especially with
regard to human health and disease. Air pollution and exposure to dangerous
chemicals have increased the prevalence of respiratory disease and cancer. And
while air travel has made it possible for people to travel thousands of miles in just
a few hours, we arent the only species that can do this. Disease-causing organisms travel with their human hosts, making it possible for infectious diseases like
flu to spread, literally within hours, across the globe.
Human activities have changed the patterns of infectious diseases such as
tuberculosis and malaria. After the domestication of nonhuman animals, close
contact with chickens, pigs, and cattle greatly increased human exposure to some
of the diseases these animals carry. Through this contact weve also changed the
genetic makeup of disease-causing microorganisms. For example, the swine flu
virus that caused the 2009 pandemic actually contains genetic material derived
from bacteria that infect three different species: humans, birds, and pigs. Also, by
consuming meat and milk from infected animals, humans can acquire tuberculosis from cattle. And because weve overused antibiotics, weve made some strains
of tuberculosis resistant to treatment and even deadly. As you can see, the interactions between humans, domesticated animals, and disease-carrying organisms
are complex, and were a long way from understanding how these interactions
impact the pattern and spread of human infectious disease. While its clear that
we humans have influenced the development and spread of infectious disease, we
still dont know the many ways that changes in infectious disease patterns are
affecting human biology and behavior. Anthropological research in this one area
alone is enormously important to biomedical studies, and there are many other
critical topics that biological anthropologists explore.
So how does biological anthropology differ from human biology? In many
ways it doesnt, because human biologists also study human physiology, genetics,
and adaptation. But human biology, as a discipline, doesnt include studies of nonhuman primates or human evolution. So when biological research includes these
topics as well as the role of culture in shaping our species, its placed within the
discipline of anthropology.

Introduction 7

behavior Anything organisms do that


involves action in response to internal or
external stimuli. The response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may or may not be
deliberate, and they arent necessarily
the results of conscious decision making
(for example, the behavior of one-celled
organisms and insects).
biocultural evolution The mutual,
interactive evolution of human biology
and culture; the concept that biology
makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic
concept in understanding theunique
components of human evolution.
anthropology The field of inquiry
that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology;
includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.

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8 chapter 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

What Is Anthropology?
Many anthropology majors are forced to contemplate this question when
their friends or parents ask, What are you studying? The answer is often
followed by a blank stare or a comment relating to Indiana Jones or dinosaurs. So, what is anthropology, and how is it different from several related
disciplines?
In the United States, anthropology is divided into four main subfields: cultural, or social, anthropology; linguistic anthropology; archaeology; and physical,
or biological, anthropology. Each of these is divided into several specialized areas
of interest. This four-field approach concerns all aspects of humanity across
space and time. Each of the subdisciplines emphasizes different facets of humanity, but together, the four fields offer a means of explaining variation in human
adaptations. In addition, each of these subfields has practical applications, and
many anthropologists pursue careers outside the university environment. This
kind of anthropology is called applied anthropology, and its extremely important today.

Cultural Anthropology

applied anthropology The practical


application of anthropological and
archaeological theories and techniques.
For example, many biological anthropologists work in the public health sector.

ethnographies Detailed descriptive


studies of human societies. In cultural
anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western
society.

Cultural, or social, anthropology is the study of the global patterns of belief


and behavior found in modern and historical cultures. The origins of cultural anthropology can be traced to the nineteenth century, when travel and
exploration increasingly brought Europeans into contact (and sometimes
conflict) with various cultures in Africa, parts of Asia, and the South Pacific
islands. Also, in the New World, there was considerable interest in Native
Americans.
This interest in traditional societies led early anthropologists to study and
record lifeways that are now mostly extinct. These studies produced many
descriptive ethnographies that covered a range of topics, including religion, ritual, myth, use of symbols, diet, technology, gender roles, and child-rearing practices. Ethnographic accounts, in turn, formed the basis for comparative studies of
numerous cultures. By examining the similarities and differences among cultures, cultural anthropologists have been able to formulate many hypotheses
regarding fundamental aspects of human behavior.
The focus of cultural anthropology shifted over the course of the twentieth
century. Cultural anthropologists still work in remote areas, but increasingly
theyve turned their gaze inward, toward their own countries and the people
around them. Many contemporary cultural anthropologists are concerned with
the welfare of refugees and study their resettlement and cultural integration (or
lack thereof) in the United States, Canada, and many European countries.
Increasingly, ethnographic techniques have been applied to the study of diverse
subcultures and their interactions with one another in contemporary metropolitan areas (urban anthropology).
Medical anthropology is an applied subfield of cultural anthropology that
explores the relationship between various cultural attributes and health and disease. One area of interest is how different groups view disease processes and
how these views affect treatment or the willingness to accept treatment. When a
medical anthropologist focuses on the social dimensions of disease, physicians
and physical anthropologists may also collaborate. In fact, many medical
anthropologists have received much of their training in public health or physical
anthropology.

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Archaeology

Physical Anthropology 9

Archaeology is the study of earlier cultures and lifeways by anthropologists who


specialize in the scientific recovery, analysis, and interpretation of the material
remains of past societies. Although archaeology often concerns cultures that
existed before the invention of writing (the period known as prehistory), historic
archaeologists study the evidence of later, more complex societies that produced
written records.
Archaeologists are concerned with culture, but instead of studying living people, they obtain information from artifacts and structures left behind by earlier
cultures. The remains of earlier societies, in the form of tools, structures, art, eating
implements, fragments of writing, and so on, provide a great deal of information
about many important aspects of a society, such as religion and social structure.
Unlike in the past, sites arent excavated simply for the artifacts or treasures
they may contain. Rather, theyre excavated to gain information about human
behavior. For example, patterns of behavior are reflected in the dispersal of
human settlements across a landscape and in the distribution of cultural remains
within them. Archaeological research may focus on specific localities or peoples
and attempt to identify, for example, various aspects of social organization or factors that led to the collapse of a civilization. Alternatively, inquiry may reflect an
interest in broader issues relating to human culture in general, such as the development of agriculture or the rise of cities.
In the United States, the greatest expansion in archaeology since the 1960s
has been in the area of cultural resource management. This is an applied
approach that arose from environmental legislation requiring archaeological
evaluations and sometimes excavation of sites that may be threatened by development. (Canada and many European countries have similar legislation.) Many contract archaeologists (so called because their services are contracted out to
developers or contractors) are affiliated with private consulting firms, state or
federal agencies, or educational institutions. In fact, an estimated 40 percent of all
archaeologists in the United States now fill such positions.

Linguistic Anthropology
Linguistic anthropology is the study of human speech and language, including
the origins of language in general as well as specific languages. By examining similarities between contemporary languages, linguists have been able to trace historical ties between specific languages and groups of languages, thus facilitating
the identification of language families and perhaps past relationships between
human populations.
Because the spontaneous acquisition and use of language is a uniquely
human characteristic, its an important topic for linguistic anthropologists, who,
along with specialists in other fields, study the process of language acquisition in
infants. Since insights into the process may well have implications for the development of language skills in human evolution, as well as in growing children, its
also an important subject to physical anthropologists.

Physical Anthropology
As weve already said, physical anthropology is the study of human biology within
the framework of evolution and with an emphasis on the interaction between

artifacts Objects or materials made or


modified for use by modern humans and
their ancestors. The earliest artifacts
tend to be tools made of stone or, occasionally, bone.

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10 chapter 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

paleoanthropology The interdisciplinary approach to thestudy of earlier


homininstheir chronology, physical
structure, archaeological remains, habitats, and so on.

anthropometry Measurement
ofhuman body parts. When osteologists measure skeletal elements, the
termosteometry isoften used.

iology and culture. This subdiscipline is also referred to as biological anthropolb


ogy, and youll find the terms used interchangeably. Physical anthropology is the
original term, and it reflects the initial interests anthropologists had in describing
human physical variation. The American Association of Physical Anthropologists,
its journal, as well as many college courses and numerous publications, retain this
term. The designation biological anthropology reflects the shift in emphasis to
more biologically oriented topics, such as genetics, evolutionary biology, nutrition,
physiological adaptation, and growth and development. This shift occurred largely
because of advances in the field of genetics and molecular biology since the late
1950s. Although weve continued to use the traditional term in the title of this
textbook, youll find that all of the major topics pertain to biological issues.
The origins of physical anthropology can be found in two principal areas of
interest among nineteenth-century European and American scholars. Many scientists (at the time called natural historians or naturalists) became increasingly
curious about the origins of modern species. They were beginning to doubt the
literal interpretation of the biblical account of creation at a time when scientific
explanations emphasizing natural processes rather than supernatural phenomena
were becoming more popular. Eventually, these sparks of interest in biological
change over time were fueled into flames by the publication of Charles Darwins
On the Origin of Species in 1859.
Today, paleoanthropology, or the study of human evolution, as evidenced in
the fossil record, is a major subfield of physical anthropology (Fig.1-4). Thousands
of specimens of human ancestors (mostly fragmentary) are now kept in research
collections. Taken together, these fossils span about 7 million years of human prehistory; and although most of these fossils are incomplete, they provide us with a
significant wealth of knowledge that increases each year. Its the ultimate goal of
paleoanthropological research to identify the various early human and human-like
species, establish a chronological sequence of relationships among them, and gain
insights into their adaptation and behavior. Only then will we have a clear picture
of how and when humankind came into being.
Human variation was the other major area of interest for early biological
anthropologists. They were especially concerned with observable physical differences, skin color being the most obvious. Enormous effort was aimed at describing and explaining the biological differences between various human
populations. Although some attempts were misguided and even racist, they gave
birth to many body measurements that are sometimes still used. Physical anthropologists also use many of the techniques of anthropometry to study skeletal
remains from archaeological sites (Fig. 1-5). Moreover, anthropometric techniques have had considerable application in the design of everything from wheelchairs to office furniture. Undoubtedly, theyve also been used to determine the
absolute minimum amount of leg room a person must have in order to complete a
3-hour flight on a commercial airliner and remain sane.
Today, anthropologists are concerned with human variation because of its
possible adaptive significance and because they want to identify the genetic and
other evolutionary factors that have produced variation. In other words, some
traits that typify certain populations evolved as biological adaptations, or adjustments, to local environmental conditions such as sunlight, altitude, or infectious
disease. Other traits may simply be the results of geographical isolation or the
descent of populations from small founding groups. Examining biological variation between populations of any species provides valuable information as to the
mechanisms of genetic change in groups over time, and this is really what the
evolutionary process is allabout.
Modern population studies also examine other important aspects of human
variation, including how different groups respond physiologically to different

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Physical Anthropology 11
a

figure 1-4

(a) Paleoanthropologists excavating


at the Drimolen site, South Africa.
(b)Primate paleontologist Russ Ciochon
and Le Trang Kha, a vertebrate paleontologist, examine the fossil remains of
Gigantopithecus from a 450,000-yearold site in Vietnam. Gigantopithecus is
the name given to the largest apes that
ever lived. In the background is a reconstruction of this enormous animal.

Lynn Kilgore

Russell L. Ciochon

Kenneth Garrett/NGS Image Collection

figure 1-5

Anthropology student using spreading


calipers to measure cranial length.

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Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

FIgure 1-6

This researcher is using a treadmill test


to assess a subjects heart rate, blood
pressure, and oxygen consumption.

kinds of environmentally induced


stress (Fig. 1-6). Such stresses
may include high altitude, cold,
or heat. Many biological anthropologists conduct nutritional
studies, investigating the relationships between various
dietary components, cultural
practices, physiology, and certain
aspects of health and disease
(Fig. 1-7). Investigations of
human fertility, growth, and
development also are closely
related to the topic of nutrition.
These fields of inquiry, which are
fundamental to studies of adaptation in modern human populations, can provide insights into
hominin evolution, too.
It would be impossible to study evolutionary processes without some
knowledge of how traits are inherited. For this reason and others, genetics is a
crucial field for physical anthropologists. Modern physical anthropology
wouldnt exist as an evolutionary science if it werent for advances in the understanding of genetic mechanisms.
In this exciting time of rapid advances in genetic research, molecular anthropologists use cutting-edge technologies to investigate evolutionary relationships
between human populations as well as between humans and nonhuman primates.
To do this, they examine similarities and differences in DNA sequences between
Judith Regensteiner

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12 chapter 1

DNa (deoxyribonucleic acid) The


double-stranded molecule that contains
the genetic code. DNA is a main component of chromosomes.

Dr. Kathleen Galvin measures upper arm


circumference in a young Maasai boy in
Tanzania. Data derived from various
body measurements, including height
and weight, were used in a health and
nutrition study of groups of Maasai cattle herders.

Kathleen Galvin

FIgure 1-7

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Physical Anthropology 13
b

Robert Jurmain

(a) Cloning and sequencing methods are frequently used to identify genes in humans and
nonhuman primates. This graduate student
identifies a genetically modified bacterial clone.
(b) Molecular anthropologist Nelson Ting collecting red colobus fecal samples for a study of genetic
variation in small groups of monkeys isolated from
one another by agricultural clearing.

Nelson Ting

figure 1-8

individuals, populations, and species. Whats more, by extracting DNA from certain fossils, these researchers have contributed to our understanding of relationships between extinct and living species. As genetic technologies continue to be
developed, molecular anthropologists will play a key role in explaining human
evolution, adaptation, and our biological relationships with other species (Fig. 1-8).
However, before genetic and molecular techniques became widespread,
osteology, the study of the skeleton, was the only way that anthropologists could
study our immediate ancestors. In fact, a thorough knowledge of skeletal structure and function is still critical to the interpretation of fossil material today. For
this reason, osteology has long been viewed as central to physical anthropology.
In fact, its so important that when many people think of biological anthropology, the first thing that comes to mind is bones!
Bone biology and physiology are of major importance to many other aspects
of physical anthropology besides human evolution. Many osteologists specialize
in the measurement of skeletal elements, essential for identifying stature and
growth patterns in archaeological populations. In the last 30 years or so, the
study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites has been called
bioarchaeology.
In turn, paleopathology, the study of disease and trauma in archaeologically derived skeletons, is a major component of bioarchaeology. Paleopathology
is a prominent subfield that investigates the prevalence of trauma, certain
infectious diseases (for instance, syphilis or tuberculosis), nutritional deficiencies, and numerous other conditions that may leave evidence in bone (Fig. 1-9).
This research tells us a great deal about the lives of individuals and populations

osteology The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the


interpretation of the skeletal remains
from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and
development. Some of the same techniques areused in paleoanthropology to
study early hominins.

bioarchaeology The study of skeletal


remains from archaeological sites.

paleopathology The study of disease


and injury in human skeletal (or, occasionally, mummified) remains from
archaeological sites.

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14 CHAPTER 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

Lynn Kilgore

Two examples of pathological conditions


in human skeletal remains from the
Nubian site of Kulubnarti in Sudan.
These remains are approximately 1,000
years old. (a) A partially healed fracture
of a childs left femur (thigh bone). The
estimated age at death is 6 years, and the
cause of death was probably an infection
resulting from this injury. (b) Very severe
congenital scoliosis in an adult male from
Nubia. The curves are due to developmental defects in individual vertebrae.
(This is not the most common form of
scoliosis.)

from the past. Paleopathology also yields information regarding the history of
certain disease processes, and for this reason its of interest to scientists in biomedical fields.
Forensic anthropology is directly related to osteology and paleopathology
and has become of increasing interest to the public because of TV shows like
Bones. Technically, this approach is the application of anthropological (usually
osteological and sometimes archaeological) techniques to legal issues (Fig. 1-10).
Forensic anthropologists help identify skeletal remains in mass disasters or other
situations where a human body has been found. Theyve been involved in numerous cases having important legal, historical, and human consequences. They were
also instrumental in identifying the skeletons of most of the Russian imperial family, executed in 1918. And many participated in the overwhelming task of trying to
identify the remains of victims of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the
United States.
Anatomy is yet another important area of interest for physical anthropologists. In living organisms, bones and teeth are intimately linked to the soft tissues

Forensic anthropologists Vuzumusi


Madasco (from Zimbabwe) and Patricia
Bernardi (from Argentina) excavating the
skeletal remains and clothing of a victim
of a civil war massacre in El Salvador.
This burial is part of a mass grave, which
was being excavated in order to try to
identify victims and provide other information relative to the massacre.

Reuters/Corbis

forensic anthropology An applied


anthropological approach dealing with
legal matters. Forensic anthropologists
work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing human remains.

FIGURE 1-10

Lynn Kilgore

FIGURE 1-9

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Physical Anthropology

15

FIgure 1-11
Linda Levitch

Dr. Linda Levitch teaching a human


anatomy class at the University of North
Carolina School of Medicine.

FIgure 1-12

Primatologist Jill Pruetz follows a chimpanzee in Senegal,


in West Africa.

primatology The study of the biology


and behavior of nonhuman primates
(prosimians, monkeys, and apes).

Julie Lesnik

that surround and act on them. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of soft tissue anatomy is essential to the understanding of biomechanical relationships
involved in movement. Such relationships are important in accurately assessing
the structure and function of limbs and other components of fossilized remains.
For these reasons and others, many physical anthropologists specialize in anatomical studies. In fact, several physical anthropologists hold professorships in
anatomy departments at universities and medical schools (Fig. 1-11).
Primatology, the study of the living nonhuman primates, has become
increasingly important since the late 1950s (Fig. 1-12). Behavioral studies,
especially those conducted on groups in natural environments, have
implications for many scientific disciplines. Because nonhuman
primates are our closest living relatives, identifying the underlying factors related to their social behavior, communication,
infant care, reproductive behavior, and so on, helps us
develop a better understanding of the natural forces that
have shaped so many aspects of modern human
behavior.
Its also very important to study nonhuman primates in their own right, regardless of what we may
learn about ourselves. This is particularly true today
because the majority of primate species are threatened or seriously endangered. Only through
research will scientists be able to recommend
policies that can better ensure the survival of
many nonhuman primates and thousands of
other species as well.

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16 chapter 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

Applied Anthropology Applied approaches in biological anthropology are


numerous. And while applied anthropology is aimed at the practical application
of anthropological theories and methods outside the academic setting, applied
and academic anthropology arent mutually exclusive approaches. In fact, applied
anthropology relies on the research and theories of academic anthropologists and
at the same time has much to contribute to theory and techniques. Within biological anthropology, forensic anthropology is a good example of the applied
approach. But the practical application of the techniques of physical anthropology isnt new. During World War II, for example, physical anthropologists were
extensively involved in designing gun turrets and airplane cockpits. Since then,
many physical anthropologists have pursued careers in genetic and biomedical
research, public health, evolutionary medicine, medical anthropology, and conservation of nonhuman primates, and many hold positions in museums and zoos.
In fact, a background in physical anthropology is excellent preparation for almost
any career in the medical and biological fields (Fig.1-13).

Nanette Barkey

figure 1-13

Nanette Barkey

(a) Dr. Soo Young Chin, Lead Partner of Practical Ethnographics at


Ascension Health, pointing to pilot locations for a study of a new health
care plan. (b)Nanette Barkey, a medical anthropologist involved in a repatriation project in Angola, photographed this little girl being vaccinated at a
refugee transit camp. Vaccinations were being administered to Angolan refugees returning home in 2004 from the Democratic Republic of Congo,
where they had fled to escape warfare in their own country.

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From this brief overview, you can see that physical anthropology is the subdiscipline of anthropology that focuses on many aspects of human biology and
evolution. Humans are a product of the same forces that produced all life on
earth. As such, were just one contemporary component of a vast biological
continuum at one point in time; and in this regard, we arent particularly unique.
Stating that humans are part of a continuum doesnt imply that were at the peak
of development on that continuum. Depending on the criteria used, humans can
be seen to exist at one end of the spectrum or the other, or somewhere in
between, but we dont necessarily occupy a position of inherent superiority over
other species.
However, human beings are truly unique in one dimension, and that is intellect. After all, humans are the only species, born of earth, to stir the lunar dust.
Were the only species to develop language and complex culture as a means of
buffering natures challenges; and by so doing, we have gained the power to shape
the planets very destiny.

Physical Anthropology and


the Scientific Method
Science is an empirical approach to gaining information. It involves observing
phenomena; developing hypotheses or possible explanations for them; and then
devising a research design or series of experiments to test those hypotheses.
Because biological anthropologists are scientists, they adhere to the principles of
the scientific method by identifying a research problem and then gathering
information to solve it.
Once a question has been asked, the first step usually is to explore the existing literature (books and journals) to determine what other people have done to
resolve the issue. Based on this preliminary research and other observations, one
or even several tentative explanations (hypotheses) are then proposed. The next
step is to develop a research design or methodology aimed at testing the hypothesis. These methods involve collecting information or data that can then be studied and analyzed. Data can be analyzed in many ways, most of them involving
various statistical tests. During the data collection and analysis phase, its important for scientists to use a rigorously controlled approach so they can precisely
describe their techniques and results. This precision is critical because it enables
others to repeat the experiments and allows scientists to make comparisons
between their study and the work of others.
For example, when scientists collect data on tooth size in hominin fossils,
they must specify which teeth are being measured, how theyre measured, and the
results of the measurements (expressed numerically, or quantitatively). Then, by
analyzing the data, the investigators try to draw conclusions about the meaning
and significance of their measurements. This body of information then becomes
the basis of future studies, perhaps by other researchers, who can compare their
own results with those already obtained.
Hypothesis testing is the very core of the scientific method, and although it
may seem contradictory at first, its based on the potential to falsify the hypothesis. Falsification doesnt mean that the entire hypothesis is untrue, but it does
indicate that there may be exceptions to it. Thus, the hypothesis may need to be
refined and subjected to further testing.
Eventually, if a hypothesis stands up to repeated testing, it may become part
of a theory, or perhaps a theory itself. Theres a popular misconception that a
theory is mere conjecture, or a hunch. But in science, theories are proposed

Physical Anthropology 17
and the Scientific Method

continuum A set of relationships in


which all components fall along a single
integrated spectrum (for example, color).
All life reflects asingle biological
continuum.

science A body of knowledge gained


through observation and experimentation; from the Latin scientia, meaning
knowledge.

empirical Relying on experiment or


observation; from the Latin empiricus,
meaning experienced.
hypotheses (sing., hypothesis) Aprovisional explanation of a phenomenon.
Hypotheses require verification or falsification throughtesting.

scientific method An approach to


research whereby a problem is identified,
a hypothesis (or provisional explanation)
is stated, and that hypothesis is tested
by collecting and analyzing data.

data (sing., datum) Facts from which


conclusions can be drawn; scientific
information.
quantitatively Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including
such properties as size, number, and
capacity. When data are quantified,
theyre expressed numerically and can
be tested statistically.
theory A broad statement of scientific
relationships or underlying principles
that has been substantially verified
through the testing of hypotheses.

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18 chapter 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

scientific testing The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of


observed data to provide verification; the
procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified, modified, or discarded.

explanations of relationships between natural phenomena. Theories usually concern a broader, more universal view than hypotheses, which have a narrower
focus and deal with more specific relationships between phenomena. But like
hypotheses, theories arent facts. Theyre tested explanations of facts. For example, its a fact that when you drop an object, it falls to the ground. The explanation
for this fact is the theory of gravity. Also, theories can be altered over time with
further experimentation or observations as well as newly developed technologies.
The theory of gravity has been tested many times and qualified by experiments
showing how the mass of objects affects how theyre attracted to one another. So
far, the theory has held up.
Scientific testing of hypotheses may take several years (or longer) and may
involve researchers who werent involved with the original work. Whats more,
new methods may permit different kinds of testing that werent previously possible, and this is a strength of scientific research. For example, since the 1970s,
primatologists have reported that male nonhuman primates (as well as males
of many other species) sometimes kill infants. One hypothesis has been that
these males were killing infants fathered by other males. Many scientists have
objected to this hypothesis, and theyve proposed several alternatives. For one
thing, there was no way to know for certain that the males werent killing their
own offspring; and if they were, this would argue against the hypothesis.
However, in a fairly recent study, scientists collected DNA samples from dead
infants and the males who killed them and showed that most of the time, the
males werent related to their victims. This result doesnt prove that the original
hypothesis is accurate, but it does strengthen it. This study is described in more
detail in Chapter 7, but we mention it here to emphasize that science is an ongoing process that builds on previous work and benefits from newly developed
techniques (in this case, DNA testing) in ways that constantly expand our
knowledge.
Another current scientific debate focuses on how to interpret the remarkable small hominins found in Indonesia, popularly referred to in the media as
hobbits. One hypothesis suggests that these small-bodied, small-brained hominins were members of a species other than Homo sapiens. A second hypothesis
suggests that the remains are those of modern humans with a pathological
growth defect. As new methods and more intense analyses of the remains continue, these hypotheses are being tested, and well discuss the latest results in
Chapter 11.
Theres one more important fact about hypotheses and theories: Any proposition thats stated as absolute and/or doesnt allow the possibility of falsification is
not a scientific hypothesis, and it should never be considered as such. Weve
emphasized that a crucial aspect of scientific statements is that there must be
wayto evaluate their validity. Statements such as Heaven exists may well be true
(that is, they may describe some actual state), but theres no rational, empirical
means (based onexperience or experiment) of testing them. Therefore, acceptance of sucha view is based on faith rather than on scientific verification. The
purpose of scientific research isnt to establish absolute truths; rather, its to generate ever more accurate and consistent explanations of phenomena in our universe based on observation and testing. At its very heart, scientific methodology
is an exercise in rational thought and critical thinking.
The development of critical thinking skills is an important and lasting benefit of a college education. Such skills enable people to evaluate, compare, analyze,
critique, and synthesize information so they wont accept everything they hear at
face value. Perhaps the most glaring need for critical thinking is in how we evaluate advertising claims. For example, people spend billions of dollars every year on

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natural dietary supplements based on marketing claims that may not have been
tested. So when a salesperson tells you that, for example, echinacea helps prevent
colds, you should ask if that statement has been scientifically tested, how it was
tested, when, by whom, and where the results were published. Similarly, when
politicians make claims in 30-second sound bytes, check those claims before you
accept them as truth. Be skeptical, and if you do check the validity of advertising
and political statements, youll find that frequently theyre either misleading or
just plain wrong.

The Anthropological Perspective 19

The Anthropological Perspective


Perhaps the most important benefit youll receive from this textbook, and this
course, is a wider appreciation of the human experience. To understand human
beings and how our species came to be, we must broaden our viewpoint, through
both time and space. All branches of anthropology fundamentally seek to do this
in what we call the anthropological perspective.
Physical anthropologists, for example, are interested in how humans differ
from and are similar to other animals, especially nonhuman primates. For
example, weve defined hominins as bipedal primates, but what are the major
anatomical components of bipedal locomotion, and how do they differ from, say,
those in a quadrupedal ape? To answer these questions, we would need to study
the anatomical structures involved in human locomotion (muscles, hips, legs,
and feet) and compare them with the same structures in various nonhuman
primates.
From a perspective that is broad in space and time, we can begin to grasp the
diversity of the human experience within the context of biological and behavioral
continuity with other species. In this way, we may better understand the limits
and potentials of humankind. Furthermore, by extending our knowledge to
include cultures other than our own, we may hope to avoid the ethnocentric pitfalls inherent in a more limited view of humanity.
This relativistic view of culture is perhaps more important now than ever
before, because in our increasingly interdependent global community, it allows us
to understand other peoples concerns and to view our own culture from a
broader perspective. Likewise, by examining our species as part of a wide spectrum of life, we realize that we cant judge other species using human criteria.
Each species is unique, with needs and a behavioral repertoire not exactly like
that of any other. By recognizing that we share many similarities (both biological
and behavioral) with other animals, perhaps we may come to recognize that they
have a place in nature just as surely as we ourselves do.
In addition to broadening perspectives over space (that is, encompassing
many cultures and ecological circumstances as well as nonhuman species), an
anthropological perspective also extends our horizons through time. For example, in Chapter 17 well discuss human nutrition. The vast majority of the foods
people eat today (coming from domesticated plants and animals) were unavailable until around 10,000 years ago. Human physiological mechanisms for
chewing and digesting foods nevertheless were already well established long
before that date. These adaptive complexes go back millions of years. Besides the
obviously different diets prior to the development of agriculture, earlier hominins
might well have differed from humans today in average body size, metabolism,
and activity patterns. How, then, does the basic evolutionary equipment (that is,
physiology) inherited from our hominin forebears accommodate our modern
diets? Clearly, the way to understand such processes is not just by looking at

ethnocentric Viewing other cultures


from the inherently biased perspective of
ones own culture. Ethnocentrism often
results in other cultures being seen as
inferior to ones own.

relativistic Viewing entities as they


relate to something else. Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits
within their own historical and environmental contexts.

metabolism The chemical processes


within cells that break down nutrients
and release energy for the body to use.
When nutrients are broken down into
their component parts, such as amino
acids, energy is released and made available for use by the cell.

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20 chapter 1
Introduction to
Physical Anthropology

contemporary human responses, but by placing them in the perspective of evolutionary development through time.
We hope that after reading the following pages, youll have an increased understanding not only of the similarities we share with other biological organisms but
also of the processes that have shaped the traits that make us unique. We live in
what may well be our planets most crucial period in the past 65 million years.
We are members of the one species that, through the very agency of culture, has
wrought such devastating changes in ecological systems that we must now alter
our technologies or face potentially unspeakable consequences. In such a time, its
vital that we attempt to gain the best possible understanding of what it means to
be human. We believe that the study of physical anthropology is one endeavor that
aids in this attempt, and that is indeed the goal of this textbook.

Why It Matters

oday, the trend in advanced


education is toward greater and
greater specialization, with the
result that very few people or professions have the broad overview necessary to implement policy and make
effective changes that could lead to
improved standards of living, a safer
geopolitical world, and better planetary health. This is acutely felt in medicine, where specialists focusing on
one part of the body sometimes
ignore other parts, often to the detriment of overall health (especially

mental and emotional) of the patient. Anthropology is one of the few disciplines
that encourages a broad view of the human
condition.
An example is seen in AIDS prevention
research. The wealth of knowledge that
biologists and medical researchers have provided on the characteristics and behavior of
HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) is useless
for preventing its transmission unless we
also have an understanding of human
behavior at both the individual and the
sociocultural levels. Behavioral scientists,
including anthropologists, are prepared to

examine the range of social, religious, economic, political, and historical contexts surrounding sexuality to devise AIDS
prevention strategies that will vary from
population to population and even from
subculture to subculture. Whether or not
you choose a career in anthropology, the
perspectives that you gain from studying
this discipline will enable you to participate
in research and policy decisions on future
challenges to human and planetary health
and well-being.

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Critical Thinking Questions

Summary
In this chapter, weve introduced you to
the field of physical, or biological, anthropology, placing it within the overall context of anthropological studies. As a major
academic discipline within the social sciences, anthropology also includes cultural
anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic
anthropology as major subfields.
Physical anthropology is the study of
many aspects of human biology, including
genetics, genetic variation, adaptations to
environmental factors, nutrition, and anatomy. These topics are discussed within an
evolutionary framework because all human
characteristics are either directly or indirectly the results of biological evolution,
which in turn is driven by genetic change.
Hence, biological anthropologists also
study our closest relatives, the nonhuman
primates, primate evolution, and the genetic
and fossil evidence for human evolution.
Because biological anthropology is a
scientific discipline, we also discussed the

role of the scientific method in research.


We presented the importance of objectivity, observation, data collection, and analysis; and we described the formation and
testing of hypotheses to explain natural
phenomena. We also emphasized that this
approach is an empirical one that doesnt
rely on supernatural explanations.
Because evolution is the core of physical anthropology, in the next chapter we
present a brief historical overview of
changes in Western scientific thought
that led to the discovery of the basic principles of biological evolution. As youre
probably aware, evolution is a highly controversial subject in the United States and
increasingly in many Islamic countries.
However, its not particularly controversial
in Europe. In the next chapter, well
address some of the reasons for this controversy and explain the evidence for evolution as the single thread uniting all the
biological sciences.

21

Critical Thinking
Questions
1. Given that youve only just been
introduced to the field of physical
anthropology, why do you think
subjects such as anatomy, genetics,
nonhuman primate behavior, and
human evolution are integrated into
a discussion of what it means to
be human?
2. Is it important to you, personally,
to know about human evolution?
Why or why not?
3. Do you see a connection between
hominin footprints that are almost
4 million years old and human footprints left on the moon in 1969? If
so, do you think this relationship is
important? What does the fact that
there are human footprints on the
moon say about human adaptation?
(You may wish to refer to both biological and cultural adaptation.)

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Jamie VanBuskirk/iStockphoto

Making a Difference:
Forensic Anthropologists in
the Contemporary World
D

Diane France

ue to wide media coverage, especially several popular television


shows, forensic anthropology has captured the imagination of many
people. In addition totheir well-known participation in assisting law
enforcement officials investigating crime scenes, forensic anthropologists
also work in a variety of other interesting situations. They are often called
to join recovery teams at scenes of mass disasters such as the World Trade
Center, plane crashes, or in areas devastated byan earthquake or tsunami.
Additionally, theyre involved in excavating mass graves where victims of
political atrocities have been secretly buried. These sites of such enormous
human tragedy sadly are found in many parts of the world, from Iraq to
Bosnia, to Argentina, to Rwanda, Forensic anthropologists also help search
for and identify soldiers missing in action from prior wars. In all these difficult circumstances, wherever possible, the goal is to determine the identity of missing people and to return their remains to family members.
Scene of a Korean Airlines crash in
1996in the U.S. territory of Guam, that
killed 228 people. The U.S. government
immediately sent numerous DMORT
(Disaster Mortuary Operation Response)
teams, each of which usually has at least
one forensic anthropologist.

Diane France

All human remains were evaluated in


thefield laboratory where Tom Holland
(Director of the Central Identification
Laboratory in Hawaii) is shown identifying
fragmentary skeletal elements, many of
which were heavily burned (as were many of
the bodies). Nevertheless, all the passengers
and crew were accounted for.

22
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Regime Crime Liaison Office

Licensed to: iChapters User

U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Derrick C. Goode

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Regime Crime Liaison Office

Forensic anthropologists, including both physical anthropologists and archaeologists, recovered 114 Kurdish victims of genocide from this site in southern Iraq.

Craig King, Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory

Forensic anthropologists working in a lab near Baghdad catalogued the injuries suffered by every individual from the mass
grave shown above. Some of this evidence was used in the trial
of Saddam Hussein and helped lead to his conviction. After
the trail, the human remains were turned over to Kurdish officials
for reburial
Upper Right: A forensic anthropologist works in Vietnam
in 2006 as part of a military team, with assistance from local
villagers, searching for remains of pilots shot down during the
Vietnam War.
Lower Right: Heather Thew, who was trained as an anthropologist, is shown working at the Armed Forces DNA Laboratory
where remains of missing soldiers are identified.

23
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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2, Cristina G. Mittermeier; 4,Courtesy, Peter Jones; 5, NASA; 6, (a) Lynn Kilgore, (b) NASA/
Space Telescope Science Institute, (c) Museum of Primitive Art and Culture, Peace Dale, RI,
(e) Lynn Kilgore, (f) Justin Horocks/iStockphoto; 11, top, Kenneth Garrett/NGS Image
Collection; center, Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; bottom, Lynn Kilgore; 12, top,
Courtesy, Judith Regensteiner; bottom, Courtesy, Kathleen Galvin; 13, top left, Robert
Jurmain; top right, Courtesy, Nelson Ting; 14, top left and right, Lynn Kilgore; bottom,
Reuters/Corbis; 15, top, Courtesy, Linda Levitch; bottom, Courtesy, Julie Lesnik; 16,
Nanette Barkey; 22, background, Jamie VanBuskirk/istockphoto; bottom, Diane France;
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center right, U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Derrick C. Goode; bottom, Craig King,
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Natural History Museum, London; 34, Bettmann/Corbis; 35, Gordon Chancellor;
36,bottom, Lynn Kilgore; 37,wolf: John Giustina/Getty Images; Dogs surrounding wolf:
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Kruse/Bonnie Pedersen; Mountain gorilla: Lynn Kilgore; 126, Russell L. Ciochon,
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Stephen Nash.; 128, Lynn Kilgore; 131, top left and right, Lynn Kilgore; center, Viktor
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Duke University Primate Center; top right, Courtesy, Arlene Kruse/Bonnie Pedersen; center
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Researchers, Inc.; 171, top, Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin; bottom,
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BreuerWCS; 174, Courtesy, Tetsuro Matsuzawa; 175,top, Barth Wright/EthoCebus
Project; bottom, Noemi Spagnoletti/EthoCebus Project; 176,Lynn Kilgore; 178, Rose A.
Sevcik, Language Research Center, Georgia State University; photo by Elizabeth Pugh;
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Russell L. Ciochon; 188,top, Natural History Museum, London; bottom, David Pilbeam;
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University of Iowa; Sts 5: Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; Taung Child: Courtesy,
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Brill/Atlanta; 207, Lynn Kilgore; 208, Courtesy, Peter Jones; 209, top, Institute of Human
Origins; bottom left, Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; bottom right, Carol Ward,
University of Missouri; 210, Zeresenay Alemseged, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary
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of Kenya, copyright reserved; WT 17000: Reproduced with permission of the National
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University of Iowa; ER 729: Reproduced with permission of the National Museums of Kenya,
copyright reserved; ER 732: Reproduced with permission of the National Museums of Kenya,
copyright reserved; OH 5 Zinj: Jeffrey Schwartz, University of Pittsburg; 213, Russell L.
Ciochon, University of Iowa; bottom left and right, Alun Hughes, reproduced by permission
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Iowa; 222, Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; 223, top, Institute of Human Origins,
photo by Nanci Kahn; top middle, bottom middle, and bottom, and right, Institute of Human
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Dmanisi: Courtesy, David Lordkipanidze; East Turkana, Olduvai: Jeffrey Schwartz,
University of Pittsburg; West Turkana: Reproduced with permission of the National
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of Iowa; Lantian, Hexian, Ngandong: Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; Trinii: Courtesy, S. Sartano;
Sangiran: Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; 230, Zhoukoudian: Russell L. Ciochon,
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Ciochon, University of Iowa; Zhoukoudian: Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; ER
3733: Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; O.H. 9: Jeffrey Schwartz, University of Pittsburg; 231,
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238, (a) and (b) Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; 240, Giorgio Manzi, Universit di Roma; 241,
The Museum of Primitive Art and Culture, Peace Dale, RI, photo by William Turnbaugh;
246, Javier Trueba/Madrid Scientific Films/Photo Researchers; 250, top, Courtesy, Milford
Wolpoff; bottom, Robert Franciscus, University of Iowa; 251, Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff;
252, Arago: Courtesy, H. DeLumley; Steinheim: Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; Petralona:
Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; Bodo: Robert Franciscus, University of Iowa; Florisbad:
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Wolpoff; bottom, Russell L. Ciochon, University of Iowa; 260, Shanidar I: Courtesy, Erik
Trinkaus; Gibraltar: Robert Franciscus, University of Iowa; Amud 1: Courtesy, Milford
Wolpoff; La Chapelle: Courtesy, Fred Smith; St. Csaire: Harry Nelson; La Ferrassie 1:
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Erik Trinkaus, Washington University, St. Louis; Tabun/Kebara: Courtesy, Fred Smith; La
Chapelle: Courtesy, Fred Smith; Gibraltar: Robert Franciscus, University of Iowa; 262, top,
Courtesy, Fred Smith; bottom, Harry Nelson; 263, (a) and (b), Courtesy, Fred Smith; 264,
bottom left, Harry Nelson; bottom right, Courtesy, Erik Trinkaus, Washington University, St.
Louis; 267, Randall White, New York University; 276, The Gallery Collection/Corbis; 280,
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Omo: Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; 283, Russell L. Ciochon; 283, Jebel Qafzeh 6: Courtesy,
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Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; Kow Swamp: Courtesy, Milford Wolpoff; 289, Mircea Gerhase;
290, Combe Capelle: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Museum fur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte;
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Museums of Cape Town; Apollo 11 Cave: Gerald Newlands, University of Calgary; 302,
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Corbis; 315, Michael S. Yamashita/Corbis; 319, Reuters/STR/Landov; 320, Biophoto
Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 323, (a) Renee Lynn/Photo Researchers; (b) George
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355, left, Steve Bloom/stevebloom.com; right, Karl Ammann/Corbis; 358, Terrance
Emerson/iStockphoto; 362, top, Lynn Kilgore; bottom left, Brasil2/iStockphoto; bottom right,
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415
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.