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Intervenant

Laurence Petoud
Executive Assistant
Formatrice en Entreprise
ECDL Expert
laurence.petoud@gmail.com

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This support has been developed as part of my


revisions for exams First Certificate in English.
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Table of Contents
Transition Words and Phrases................................................................................. 3
Important Synonyms - Popular words to use instead..........................................8
Synonyms & Antonyms for Descriptions.............................................................9
Antonyms for Negative Descriptive Words.......................................................12
Antonyms for Positive Descriptive Words.........................................................13
Synonyms for Descriptive Words.......................................................................14
Synonyms for famous Words............................................................................. 18
Synonyms related to Measurement...................................................................18

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Transition Words and Phrases


This structured list of commonly used English transition words approximately
200, can be considered as quasi complete. It can be used (by students and
teachers alike) to find the right expression. English transition words are
essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain
shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or
conclusion, etc. in the line of argument.
The transition words and phrases have been assigned only once to somewhat
artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category.
There is some overlapping with preposition and postposition, but for the purpose
of clarity and completeness of this concise guide, I did not differentiate.
Agreement / Addition / Similarity
The transition words like also, in addition, and, likewise, add information,
reinforce ideas, and express agreement with preceding material.
in the first place

equally important

too

not only ... but also

by the same token

moreover

as a matter of fact

again

as well as

in like manner

to

together with

in addition

and

of course

coupled with

also

likewise

in the same fashion /


way

then

comparatively

equally

correspondingly

identically

similarly

uniquely

furthermore

like

additionally

first, second, third


in the light of
not to mention
to say nothing of

as

Opposition / Limitation / Contradiction


Transition phrases like but, rather and or, express that there is evidence to the
contrary or point out alternatives, and thus introduce a change the line of
reasoning (contrast).
although this may be
true
in contrast
different from

on the other hand

even so / though

on the contrary

be that as it may

at the same time

then again

in spite of

above all

of course ..., but


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in reality

albeit

conversely

after all

besides

otherwise

but

as much as

however

(and) still

even though

rather

unlike

although

nevertheless

or

instead

nonetheless

(and) yet

whereas

regardless

while

despite

notwithstanding

Cause / Condition / Purpose


These transitional phrases present specific conditions or intentions.
in the event that
seeing / being that
since
granted (that)

in view of

while

as / so long as

If

lest

on
(the)
(that)

... then

in case

unless

provided that

condition

for the purpose of


with this intention
with this in mind
in the hope that

given that
when

only / even if

whenever

so that

while

so as to

to the end that


for fear that
in order to

owing to
because of

inasmuch as

as

due to

Examples / Support / Emphasis


These transitional devices (like especially) are used to introduce examples as
support, to indicate importance or as an illustration so that an idea is cued to
the reader.
in other words

in this case

with attention to

to put it differently

for this reason

by all means

for one thing

to put it another way

as an illustration

that is to say

important to realize

first
thing
remember

another key point


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to

must be remembered

point often overlooked


most
compelling
to point out
evidence
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on the positive
negative side

with this in mind


notably
including

like

indeed

to be sure

certainly

namely

surely

chiefly

marked

truly

especially

in general

to repeat

specifically

in particular

to clarify

expressively

in detail

to explain

surprisingly

for example

to enumerate

frequently

for instance

such as

significantly

to demonstrate

in fact

to emphasize

Effect / Consequence / Result


Some of these transition words (thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore,
henceforth) are time words that are used to show that after a particular time
there was a consequence or an effect.
Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. The other devices
are placed before the consequences or effects.
as a result
under
circumstances

those

in that case
for this reason
in effect

for

therefore

thus

thereupon

because the

forthwith

then

accordingly

hence

henceforth

consequently

Conclusion / Summary / Restatement


These transition words and phrases conclude, summarize and / or restate
ideas, or indicate a final general statement. Also some words (like therefore)
from the Effect / Consequence category can be used to summarize.
as can be seen

in the long run

after all

generally speaking

given these points

in fact

in the final analysis

as has been noted

in summary

all things considered

in a word

in conclusion

as shown above
for the most part
in short
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in brief

overall

on the whole

in essence

ordinarily

in any event

to summarize

usually

in either case

on balance

by and large

all in all

altogether

to sum up

Obviously
Ultimately
Definitely
Time / Chronology / Sequence
These transitional words (like finally) have the function of limiting, restricting,
and defining time. They can be used either alone or as part of adverbial
expressions.
at the present time

first, second

from time to time

when
once

sooner or later

immediately

about

at the same time

quickly

next

up to the present time

finally

now

to begin with

after

in due time

later

as soon as

last

formerly

as long as

until

suddenly

in the meantime

till

shortly

in a moment

since

henceforth

without delay

then

whenever

in the first place

before

eventually

all of a sudden

hence

meanwhile

at this instant

since

further

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during

now that

in time

by the time

prior to

whenever

forthwith
straightaway

instantly
presently

until now

occasionally

Many transition words in the time category (consequently; first, second, third;
further; hence; henceforth; since; then, when; and whenever) have other uses.
Except for the numbers (first, second, third) and further they add a meaning of
time in expressing conditions, qualifications, or reasons. The numbers are also
used to add information or list examples. Further is also used to indicate
added space as well as added time.

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Space / Location / Place


These transition words are often used as part of adverbial expressions and have
the function to restrict, limit or qualify space. Quite a few of these are also found
in the Time category and can be used to describe spatial order or spatial
reference.
in the middle

next

wherever

to the left/right

where

around

in front of

from

between

on this side

over

before

in the distance

near

alongside

here and there

above

amid

in the foreground

below

among

in the background

down

in the center of

up

adjacent to

under

beside

opposite to

further

behind

here

beyond

there

nearby

beneath

across

Usage of Transition Words in Essays


Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays, papers or other
literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between
sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and
structure.
All English transition words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive
adverbs') do the same work as coordinating conjunctions: they connect two
words, phrases or clauses together and thus the text is easier to read and the
coherence is improved.
Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation: a
semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost
always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'.
Example 1:
People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles
when they smile.
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Example 2:
However, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new
paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but
also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts.
Use a semicolon to connect sentences, only if the group of words on either side
of the semicolon is a complete sentence each (both must have a subject and a
verb, and could thus stand alone as a complete thought).

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IMPORTANT SYNONYMS - POPULAR WORDS TO USE INSTEAD


Common Synonyms sorted by Category
These lists also contain examples for the most common 100 words or so;
however, the intention is not to replace a thesaurus. Within the categories the
sorting is alphabetical. For the selection of the words the top 50 lists of the most
"common words in English" (provided by the makers of the Oxford English
Dictionary) were a preferred inspiration - mostly verbs and adjectives, only rarely
nouns
and
adverbs.
Also, these are not exact synonyms, consider them as grouped in semantic fields
- the reason being to provide a help for inspiration with these 50 examples of the
most common synonyms.
Definition
Different words which have the same meaning (or similar meaning) are called
synonyms. Words which have an opposite meaning are called antonyms.
Words that are synonyms are referred to as being synonymous, and the state of
being a synonym is called synonymy.
Exact Synonyms
According to one definition (attributed to Leibniz) two expressions are
synonymous if the substitution of one for the other does not change the "truth
value" of a sentence in which the substitution is made. This is a rather
mathematical definition. However, true synonyms are rare; most so called
synonyms have subtle differences in their meaning. Examples of true synonyms
are rare in any language, if they exist at all.
In practice, some words are called synonyms, just because they are used to
describe the same "fact" in different parts of the world. For example, autumn and
fall are synonyms, but the former is used in British English and the latter in
American English.
English is rich in synonyms because during the centuries it adopted a variety of
foreign languages - most notably French, German and Latin.
Now, what does this mean? If a word in a sentence is changed, usually the
meaning and perception of the sentence is also slightly altered - hopefully to
the point of being more precise in its description.
Popular Synonyms Lists (also Antonyms)
Often we are looking for another word, to express something we have in mind.
Existing online dictionaries can be used; however most of them are either slow,
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packed with advertisement, or not very helpful concerning their result lists. Here
are sites which I tested, and found acceptable:

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SYNONYMS & ANTONYMS FOR DESCRIPTIONS


A collection of important synonyms grouped in categories: for teachers, writers
and students of English alike.
Smart and Dumb

Synonyms for Smart


smart

alert

analytic

astute

brainy

bright

brilliant

canny

cerebral

clear-eyed

clear-sighted

clever

creative

cunning

deductive

deft

discerning

egg-headed

enlightened

exceptional

fast

genius

hard-boiled

hard-headed

heady

hyperintelligent
intelligent

imaginative

ingenious

inspired

intellectual

inventive

judicious

keen

keen-witted

knowing

logical

nimble

percipient

perspicacious

pointed

prehensile

profound

quick

quick-witted

resourceful

sagacious

sage

sapient

savvy

sharp

sharp-witted

shrewd

sophisticated

super-smart

syllogistic

ultra-smart

versed

wise

Synonyms for Dumb


dumb

brainless

careless

cloudy

colorless

doltish

dopey

drab

dull

dull-witted

humdrum

idiotic

ill-advised

ill-conceived

ill-considered

ill-founded

ill-judged

illogical

imbecilic

im-plausible

inane

lackluster

mindless

moronic

muddled

non-sensical

obtuse

pointless

senseless

short-sighted

silly

simple

simpleminded

slow

stodgy

stupid

trivial

un-inspired

un-intelligent

un-reasonable

un-thinking

witless

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Important | Irrelevant | Nothing

Synonyms for Important


important

central

considerable

constitutional

critical

elementary

eminent

especial

essential

foundational

fundamental

indispensable

inherent

intrinsic

main

necessary

needful

particular

primary

principal

required

requisite

significant

special

specific

substantial

underlying

valuable

vital

beside the point casual

idle

im-material

in-consequential in-considerable in-different

in-significant

in-substantial

in-valid

light

little

low-ranking

meaningless

minor

negligible

non-essential nugatory

of no account

of no
consequence
superficial

paltry

petty

picayune

second-rate

trifling

trivial

un-important

un-necessary

useless

worthless

Synonyms for Irrelevant


irrelevant

Synonyms for Nothing


nil

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null

nothing

zero

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Interesting | Boring

Synonyms for Interesting


interesting

absorbing

alluring

animating

appealing

arresting

attractive

beckoning

bewitching

bright

captivating

challenging

consuming

covetable

curious

enchanting

engaging

entertaining

enthralling

enticing

exciting

fascinating

fetching

inspiring

intriguing

inviting

involving

lively

mesmeric

moving

piquant

prepossessing

provocative

spellbinding

spirited

tantalizing

tempting

Synonyms for Boring


boring

arid

banal

bromidic

characterless

colorless

commonplace

drab

drag

drudging

flat

hackneyed

ho hum

humdrum

insipid

interminable

irksome

lame

lifeless

monotonous

moth-eaten

mundane

nothing

platitudinous

prosaic

repetitious

routine

shop-worn

spiritless

stale

stereotyped

stodgy

tame

tedious

threadbare

tiresome

tiring

trite

un-exciting

un-interesting

un-varied

vapid

wearisome

well-worn

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ANTONYMS FOR NEGATIVE DESCRIPTIVE WORDS


bad, corrupt, awful

Synonyms for Bad


bad

amiss

atrocious

coarse

contaminated

contemptible

corrupt

crappy

cruddy

crummy

defective

deficient

deplorable

depraved

disagreeable

dismal

dissatisfactory

evil

execrable

faulty

foul

ghastly

grungy

harmful

heinous

icky

improper

infamous

inferior

injurious

junky

lousy

nasty

nefarious

off poor quality putrid

rotten

scandalous

sinful

sinister

snide

spoiled

substandard

tainted

the pits

uncouth

wicked

Synonyms for Awful


awful

abominable

appalling

atrocious

baneful

blatant

crude

deleterious

despicable

destructive

detestable

detrimental

disastrous

disgusting

disturbing

dreadful

egregious

excessive

flagrant

frightening

glaring

gross

grotesque

gruesome

hideous

horrible

horrifying

hostile

injurious

jolty

monstrous

nauseous

noxious

obnoxious

odious

offensive

outlandish

outrageous

preposterous

put off

repellent

repulsive

rude

terrible

ugly

unreasonable

unwarranted

upsetting

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ANTONYMS FOR POSITIVE DESCRIPTIVE WORDS


good, suitable, complete

Synonyms for Good


good

A-1

accomplished

all set

A-one grade

best

certified

champion

choicest

crowning

distinct

excellent

exceptional

exemplary

exquisite

extraordinary

fine

finest

first

first-class

first-grade

first-rate

fit

foremost

great

greatest

high

high-quality

in-comparable in-valuable

magnificent

marvelous

matchless

meritorious

notable

noted

note-worthy

out-standing

peculiar

peerless

phenomenal

piked

premium

priceless

prime

pukka

ready

remarkable

second to none select

ship-shape

singular

sound

star

sterling

striking

superb

superior

superlative

supreme

tip-top

top-grade

top-notch

transcendent

unique

un-matched

un-precedented

un-usual

world-class

worthy

Synonyms for Complete


complete

accomplished

all-embracing

all-inclusive

broad

closed

comprehensive

concluded

done

ended

extensive

finished

fulfilled

full

overall

perfect

wide-ranging

far-ranging

terminated

thoroug

total

unabridged

uncut

whole

widespr

Synonyms for Exact


exact

correct

accurate

appropriate

approved

definite

faithful

just

literal

meticulous

particular

precise

proper

right

rigorous

specific

spot-on

standard

strict

thorough

true

truthful

Synonyms for Suitable


suitable

acceptable

adequate

appropriate

authentic

becoming

bona fide

coherent

compatible

consistent

consistent

constant

decent

decorous

desirable

favorable

fitting

founded

genuine

in agreement

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reliable

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satisfactory

seemly

steady

uniform

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SYNONYMS FOR DESCRIPTIVE WORDS


Certain, Really and Doubtful

Synonyms for Certain


certain

assured

clear

confident

of cours

definite

determined

distinct

inescapable

inevitab

by all means

obvious

positive

proved

right on

safebet

sure

unavoidable

undoubted

without

Synonyms for Really


really

actually

by all means

beyond doubt

categoric

certainly

de facto

definitely

easily

factually

for real

genuinely

honestly

indeed

indubitab

in fact

legitimately

literally

no ifs ands or buts nothing e

of course

positively

precisely

surely

undoubtedly

unquestionably

verily

very

truly
well

Synonyms for Questionable


q u e s t i o n a b l e ambivalent

arguable

debatable

doubtful

dubious

farfetched

improbable

inconclusive

indecisive

indefinite

irresolute

moot

noncommittal

on the fence

open

problematic

suspicious

uncertain

unconvinced

undecided

unproven

unresolved

unsure

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New and Old

Synonyms for New


new

contemporary

current

ingenious

fashionable

fresh

innovative

inventive

imaginative

inexperienced

late-model

latest

latter-day

modern

modern-day

naive

naif

newest

newfangled

novel

now

original

present

present-day

recent

timely

topical

trendy

uninitiated

untested

untried

up-to-date

up-to-theminute

young

Synonyms for Old


old

aged

ancient

antediluvian

antiquated

advanced in
years
antique

archaic

banal

bygone

dated

elder

elderly

extinct

faded

former

mature

medieval

moldy

musty

obsolescent

obsolete

old hat

old-fashioned

oldish

old-time

outdated

out-of-date

passe

past

prehistoric

previous

primitive

ragged

senescent

senior

stale

trite

unfashionable

used

venerable

veteran

vintage

washed-up

Easy and Difficult

Synonyms for Easy


easy

basic

breeze

child's play

cinch

direct

easy as pie

clear

comprehensible crystal clear

effortless

elementary

facile

light

limpid

little effort

lucid

manageable

manageable

mild

modest

perspicuous

piece of cake

plain

pushover

self-explanatory simple

simple as ABC

smooth

snap

straightforward transparent

unambiguous

uncomplicated

understandable

walkaway

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intelligible

walkover

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Synonyms for Difficult


difficult

abstract

abstruse

ambiguous

arduous

augean

backbreaking

bruising

brutal

burdensome

challenging

complex

complicated

convoluted

cruel

daunting

demanding

distressing

effortful

elusive

exacting

exhausting

formidable

frustrating

grievous

hard

harsh

heavy

Herculean

inhuman

insoluble

intensive

intimidating

intricate

involved

knotty

labored

laborious

merciless

mistakable

moiling

murderous

onerous

opaque

oppressive

overwhelming

painful

pick-and-shovel problematic

punishing

recondite

rigid

rigorous

rough

rugged

serious

severe

Sisyphean

spiny

stiff

strenuous

stressful

strict

stringent

stubborn

sweaty

tall

taxing

testing

thorny

ticklish

tight

toilsome

tough

tricky

troublesome

trying

uphill

wearisome

True and False :: Right and Wrong

Synonyms for True :: Right


true

accurate

actual

apt

correct

exact

factual

fair

faithful

founded

genuine

good

honest

just

lawful

legal

loyal

precise

proper

real

reliable

responsible

right

righteous

sincere

staunch

steadfast

steady

trusty

trustworthy

undoubted

upright

valid

warranted

Synonyms for False :: Wrong


wrong

afield

amiss

astray

awry

baseless

blemished

contrary to...

counterfeit

deceptive

defective

disloyal

erroneous

faithless

fake

deviating
from...
fallacious

false

faulty

feign

fraudulent

groundless

idle

irregular

misleading

mistaken

perfidious

questionable

recreant

spurious

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traitorous

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treacherous

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Strong and Weak

Synonyms for Strong


strong

determined

firm

forceful

fortified

hard

intense

iron like

noticeable

potent

powerful

resolute

robust

solid

stalwart

steady

stiff

stout

sturdy

substantial

tenacious

thick

tough

unyielding

vehement

vigorous

Synonyms for Weak


weak

anemic

assailable

brittle

crumbly

debilitated

decrepit

delicate

drained

droopy

effete

enervated

exhausted

fagged-out

faint

fatigue

feeble

flaccid

flimsy

fragile

frail

imperiled

infirm

languid

languishi

languorous

loose

makeshift

mild

puny

retiring

rickety

shaky

sluggish

supine

thin

tired

torpid

vincible

wavering

weary

wispy

wobbly

wonky

worn out

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SYNONYMS FOR FAMOUS WORDS


Big and Small

Synonyms for Big


big
colossal

ample

astronomical

broad

capacious

commodious

enormous

expansive

gargantuan

gigantic

grand

great

huge

immense

large

mammoth

mountainous

sizable

spacious

substantial

tremendous

vast

stupendous

Synonyms for Small


little

atomic

cramped

diminutive

dinky

exiguous

itsy-bitsy

limited

microscopic

miniature

minuscule

minute

petite

puny

slight

small

tiny

wee

undersized

SYNONYMS RELATED TO MEASUREMENT


Follow the link to consult the list Measurements - dimensions

Source:
http://www.smart-words.org/linking-words/transition-words.html
L. Petoud
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L. Petoud
24

https://www.facebook.com/CambridgeExamsPreparation

Page

http://fce-cae.blog4ever.com
301795546