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Tuberculosis (TB), who don't know this disease?

everyone knows, because this disease strike


anyone even it's children or adult. So, what is TB?
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria
usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine,
and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.
TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when
a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby
may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.
TB is NOT spread by
1. shaking someone's hand
2. sharing food or drink
3. touching bed linens or toilet seats
4. sharing toothbrushes
5. kissing
Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions
exist: latent TB infection and TB disease.
1. Latent TB Infection
TB bacteria can live in the body without making you sick. This is called latent TB infection. In
most people who breathe in TB bacteria and become infected, the body is able to fight the bacteria
to stop them from growing. People with latent TB infection do not feel sick and do not have any
symptoms. People with latent TB infection are not infectious and cannot spread TB bacteria to
others. However, if TB bacteria become active in the body and multiply, the person will go from
having latent TB infection to being sick with TB disease.
2. TB Disease
TB bacteria become active if the immune system can't stop them from growing. When TB bacteria
are active (multiplying in your body), this is called TB disease. People with TB disease are sick.
They may also be able to spread the bacteria to people they spend time with every day.
Many people who have latent TB infection never develop TB disease. Some people develop TB
disease soon after becoming infected (within weeks) before their immune system can fight the TB
bacteria. Other people may get sick years later when their immune system becomes weak for
another reason. For people whose immune systems are weak, especially those with HIV infection,
the risk of developing TB disease is much higher than for people with normal immune systems.
There are two kinds of tests that are used to determine if a person has been infected with TB
bacteria: the tuberculin skin test and TB blood tests.
A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB
bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB
disease. Other tests, such as a chest x-ray and a sample of sputum, are needed to see whether the

person has TB disease.


Nurse reading a patient's skin testTuberculin skin test: The TB skin test (also called the Mantoux
tuberculin skin test) is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid (called tuberculin) into the
skin in the lower part of the arm. A person given the tuberculin skin test must return within 48 to
72 hours to have a trained health care worker look for a reaction on the arm. The health care
worker will look for a raised, hard area or swelling, and if present, measure its size using a ruler.
Redness by itself is not considered part of the reaction.
The skin test result depends on the size of the raised, hard area or swelling. It also depends on the
persons risk of being infected with TB bacteria and the progression to TB disease if infected.
Positive skin test: This means the persons body was infected with TB bacteria. Additional tests
are needed to determine if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease. A health care worker
will then provide treatment as needed.
Negative skin test: This means the persons body did not react to the test, and that latent TB
infection or TB disease is not likely.
Person holding a vial of blood TB blood tests: TB blood tests (also called interferon-gamma
release assays or IGRAs) measure how the immune system reacts to the bacteria that cause TB. An
IGRA measures how strong a persons immune system reacts to TB bacteria by testing the
persons blood in a laboratory.
Two IGRAs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are available in
the United States:
Positive IGRA: This means that the person has been infected with TB bacteria. Additional tests
are needed to determine if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease. A health care worker
will then provide treatment as needed.
Negative IGRA: This means that the persons blood did not react to the test and that latent TB
infection or TB disease is not likely.
IGRAs are the preferred method of TB infection testing for the following:
People who have received bacille CalmetteGurin (BCG). BCG is a vaccine for TB disease.
People who have a difficult time returning for a second appointment to look for a reaction to the
TST.
There is no problem with repeated IGRA.
TB tests are generally not needed for people with a low risk of infection with TB bacteria. Certain
people should be tested for TB bacteria because they are more likely to get TB disease, including:
1. People who have spent time with someone who has TB disease
2. People with HIV infection or another medical problem that weakens the immune system
3. People who have symptoms of TB disease (fever, night sweats, cough, and weight loss)
4. People from a country where TB disease is common (most countries in Latin America, the
Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Russia)
5. People who live or work somewhere in the United States where TB disease is more common

(homeless shelters, prison or jails, or some nursing homes)


6. People who use illegal drugs
check this vidio to know more about TB
Symptoms and Spread of Tuberculosis: https://youtu.be/CSWrrhWdsKU
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