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Limit and

Continuity

20
MODULE - V
Calculus
)
x
1.
(
(
+
1
1
2
x
=
:
x
x
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
:
:
:
:
(
1.9999
0.9999
1.99
0.99
1.91
0.91
f(x)
Table -1
x1x1
f(x) =
LIMIT AND CONTINUITY
)(
=
x
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
:
:
:
:
:
2.6
1.00001
2.7
1.7
2.8
1.8
2.9
1.9
f (x)
x
:
2.00001
Notes
and so division by
Table - 2
1
1
=
x
x
2
2.5
)
)
1
x
1 , because x10
+
π
2.1
1.5
:
:
:
:
1.1
1.6
1.01
2.01
1.001
2.001
:

Consider the function

You can see that the function f(x) is not defined at x = 1 as x 1 is in the denominator. Take the

value of x very nearly equal to but not equal to 1 as given in the tables below. In this case

x 1 π 0 as x

We can write f

is possible.

In the above tables, you can see that as x gets closer to 1, the corresponding value of f (x) also

gets closer to 2.

 MATHEMATICS 175
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

However, in this case f(x) is not defined at x = 1. The idea can be expressed by saying that the

limiting value of f(x) is 2 when x approaches to 1.

Let us consider another function f (x) =2x. Here, we are interested to see its behavior near the

point 1 and at x = 1. We find that as x gets nearer to 1, the corresponding value of f (x) gets

closer to 2 at x = 1 and the value of f (x) is also 2.

So from the above findings, what more can we say about the behaviour of the function near

x = 2 and at x = 2 ?

In this lesson we propose to study the behaviour of a function near and at a particular point

where the function may or may not be defined.

OBJECTIVES

After studying this lesson, you will be able to :

illustrate the notion of limit of a function through graphs and examples;

define and illustrate the left and right hand limits of a function y =f (x) at x = a;

define limit of a function y = f (x) at x = a;

state and use the basic theorems on limits;

establish the following on limits and apply the same to solve problems :

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(vi)

lim

x

n

a

n

=

na

n

x

a

x

a

1

(

x

π

a

)

lim

x

0

sinx

=

0

and

lim

x

0

cosx

=

1

lim

x

0

sinx

=

1

x

(iv)

lim

e

x

1

=

x

0

x

1

(vii)

1

lim

x

0

1

+

x

x

=

e

lim

log

1

+

x

)

=

x

0

x

1

define and interprete geometrically the continuity of a function at a point;

define the continuity of a function in an interval;

determine the continuity or otherwise of a function at a point; and

state and use the theorems on continuity of functions with the help of examples.

EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

Concept of a function

Drawing the graph of a function

Concept of trigonometric function

Concepts of exponential and logarithmic functions

 176 MATHEMATICS

Limit and

Continuity

. We have seen that as x approaches
MODULE - V
Calculus
2 1
x
x
1

20.1 LIMIT OF A FUNCTION

In the introduction, we considered the function

f(x) =

l, f (x) approaches 2. In general, if a function f (x) approaches L when x approaches 'a', we say

that L is the limiting value of f (x)

a
x
L
=
)
3
)
3
x
x
lim
x
lim
3.05
lim f
Fig. 20.1
0.001
0.01
2.995
2.95
5x
3.005
5x
0.001
0.01
=
3
x
3
.........
0.1
3
Notes
2.9995
..........
..........
0.0001
3.0005
0.0001
(
)
x
(
0
5x
2.5
..........
(
0
5x
0.1
3.5

Symbolically it is written as

Now let us find the limiting value of the function (5x 3) when x approaches 0.

For finding this limit, we assign values to x from left and also from right of 0.

It is clear from the above that the limit of (5x 3) as x 0 is -3

i.e.,

This is illustrated graphically in the Fig. 20.1

 MATHEMATICS 177
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Calculus
The method of finding limiting values of a function at a given point by putting the values of the
variable very close to that point may not always be convenient.
We, therefore, need other methods for calculating the limits of a function as x (independent
variable) ends to a finite quantity, say a
2
x
9
Consider an example : Find
limf(x),
where
f(x) =
x
3
x
3
Notes
We can solve it by the method of substitution. Steps of which are as follows :
Step 1: We consider a value of x close to a
2
x
9
say x = a + h, where h is a very small positive
For
f(x) =
we write
x3h
= +
, so
x
3
number. Clearly, as
x
a ,
h
0
that as x 3,h
0
Step 2 : Simplify f(x) = f(a + h)
Now
f(x) = f(3+ h)
2
(
3
+
h
)
9
=
3h3
+
2
h
+
6h
=
h
= h + 6
Step 3 : Put h = 0 and get the requried result
lim f
(
x
)
=
lim6h
(
+
)
x
3
h
0
As
x
0 ,
h
0
lim f
(
x
)
=+=
606
Thus,
x
3
by putting h = 0.
Remarks : It may be noted that f (3) is not defined, however, in this case the limit of the
function f(x)asx 3 is 6.
Now we shall discuss other methods of finding limits of different types of functions.
Consider the example :
3
x
1
,x1
π
limf(x),where
f(x) =
2
Find
x
1
x
1
1
,
x
=
1
3
x
1
Here, for
x
π
1,f(x)
=
2
x
1
2
(
x
1
)
(
x
+
x
+
1
)
=
(
x1x1
)(
+
)
178
MATHEMATICS
)(
1
x
a
2
x)
x
+
+
+
x
1
(
1
+
x
(
x
π
and as such can
+
x
x
1
f(x) =
1
1
+
+
+
=
=
(1
+
1
Here, we do the following steps :
Step 3 : Putting the value of x, we
(Q x π 1,x10
be cancelled)
Step 2 : Simplify f (x)
Evaluate
factors.
g(x) , then we may be able to solve it by the method of
Step 1. Rationalise the factor containing square root.
Now, we take an example which cannot be solved by the method of substitutions or method of
may be different from the value of the functioin at
get the required limit.
factors. In such case, we follow the following steps :
Continuity
Thus, the limit of a function f (x) as
h(x)
It shows that if f (x) is of the form
Limit and
lim
x = a .
(1
1
x
=
=
x
x
x
x
(
+
+
MODULE - V
Calculus
Solution :
Step 2. Simplify.
Step 3. Put the value of x and get the required result.
Step 1. Factorise g (x) and h (x)
Sol.
In this case,
(
+
3
2
x
1
f(x) =
x
1
+
)
(
)
(
)(
)
2
x
1
x
x
x
+
x
0
1
1
x
x
+
)
)
1
x
)
2
x)
x
f (1)
1
1
x
1
+ +
1
2
3
π
1
limf(x )
x
1
Also f(1) =1(given)
2
+
+
=
x
x
1
x
1
x
1
x1x1
Notes
1
x
1
2
1
1
lim
3
 MATHEMATICS 179
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

(1
+
x)
(1
x)
=
x
(
1
+
x
+
1
x
)
1x1x
+
+
=
x
(
1
+
x
+
1
x
)
2x
=
x
(
1
+
x
+
1
x
)
2
=
1
+
x
+
1
x
1
+
x
1
x
2
lim
=
lim
x
0
x
x
0
1
+
x
+
1
x
2
=
1
+
0
+
1
0
2
=
= 1
1
+
1
20.2 LEFT AND RIGHT HAND LIMITS
the value is greater than 'a' or less than 'a'.
approaches 'a' from the left and we write it as x
+
it as x
a
.
Thus, if a function f (x) approaches a limit
l
1
hand limit of f(x)as x a is
l
.
1
We denote it by writing
limfx
(
)
= l
lim
f
(
a
h
)
1
= l
or
x
a
h
0
Similarly, if f (x) approaches the limit
l
2

1

[Qx π 0, It can be cancelled]

You have already seen that x a means x takes values which are very close to 'a', i.e. either

In case x takes only those values which are less than 'a' and very close to 'a' then we say x is

a . Similarly, if x takes values which are

greater than 'a' and very close to 'a' then we say x is approaching 'a' from the right and we write

, as x approaches 'a' from left, we say that the left

, h

>

0

, as x approaches 'a' from right we say, that the right

hand limit of f(x) as x a is

l

• 2 .

We denote it by writing

x

limfx

+

a

)

= l

2

Working Rules

or

Finding the right hand limit i.e.,

x

limfx

+

a

lim f

h

0

a

+

h

)

= l

2

, h

>

0

Finding the left hand limit, i.e,

limfx

x

a

)

180

MATHEMATICS

Limit and Continuity
Put
xah
= +
Put
xah
=
MODULE - V
Calculus
lim f
(
a
+
h
)
lim f
(
a
h
)
Find
Find
h
0
h
0
Note : In both cases remember that h takes only positive values.
Notes
20.3 LIMIT OF FUNCTION y = f(x) AT x = a
Consider an example :
2
Find
limf(x),where f(x)
=++
x
5x
3
x
1
2
lim f(x)
=
lim
(
1
+
h
)
+
5 1
(
+
h
)
+
3
Here
+
h
0
x
1
=
lim
2
1
+
2h
+
h
+ +
5
5h
+
3
h
0
=1 + 5 + 3 = 9
(i)
2
lim f(x)
=
lim
(1
h)
+
5(1
h)
+
3
and
h
0
x
1
2
=
lim
1
2h
+
h
+
5
5h
+
3
x
0
=++=
1539
.....
(ii)
From (i) and (ii),
lim f(x)
=
lim f(x)
+
x
1
x
1
Now consider another example :
| x
3|
Evaluate :
lim
x
3
x
3
| x
3 |
|(3
+
h)
3|
lim
=
lim
Here
+
x
3
h
0
[(3
+
h)
3]
x
3
|h|
=
lim
h
0
h
h
=
lim
(as h>0, so | h | = h)
h
0
h
=1
(iii)
| x
3|
|(3
h)
3|
lim
=
lim
and
x
3
h
0
[(3
h)
3]
x
3
|
h|
=
lim
h
0
h
MATHEMATICS
181
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Calculus
h
=
lim
(as h > 0, so |-h | = h)
h
0
h
=
1
(iv)
| x
3 |
| x
3|
lim
π
lim
From (iii) and (iv),
+
x
3
x
3
x
3
x
3
Notes
Thus, in the first example right hand limit = left hand limit whereas in the second example right
hand limit π left hand limit.
Hence the left hand and the right hand limits may not always be equal.
We may conclude that
(
2
)
| x
3|
lim
x
+
5x
+
3
exists (which is equal to 9) and
lim
does not exist.
x
1
x
3
x
3
Note :
I
limfx
(
)
=
l
+
x
a
lim f
(
x
)
= l
and
limfx
(
)
= l
x
a
x
a
II
limfx
(
)
=
l
1
+
x
a
lim f
(
x
)
doesnotexist.
and
limfx
(
)
= l
x
a
2
x
a
limfx
(
)
limfx
(
)
III
or
does not exist
(
)
does not exist.
+
lim f
x
x
a
x
a
x
a
20.4 BASIC THEOREMS ON LIMITS
1.
lim cx
=
c lim
x, c being a constant.
x
a
x
a
To verify this, consider the function f (x) = 5x.
We observe that in
lim 5x , 5 being a constant is not affected by the limit.
x
2
lim5x
=
5
lim
x
x
2
x
2
= 5 × 2 = 10
lim
g
(
x
)
+
h
(
x
)
+
p
(
x
)
+
....
=
lim
g
(
x
)
+++
lim
h
(
x
)
lim
p
(
x
)
........
2.
x
a
x
a
x
a
x
a
where g(x ),h (x),p(x),
....
are any function.
limfxg
(
)
(
x
)
=
lim f
(
x
)
lim g
(
x
)
3.
x
a
x
a
x
a
182
MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
2
To verify this, consider
f(x) = 5x
+ 2x + 3
MODULE - V
Calculus
and g (x) = x + 2.
2
limf(x )
=
lim
(
5x
+
2x
+
3
)
Then
x
0
x
0
2
Notes
=
5 lim x
+
2 lim x33
+
=
x
0
x
0
lim g(x)
=
lim(x
+
2)
=
lim x22
+
=
x
0
x
0
x
0
2
lim(5x
+
2x
+
3) lim(x
+
2)
=
6
(i)
x
0
x
0
2
lim[f(x) g(x)]
=
lim[(5x
+
2x
+
3)(x
+
2)]
Again
x
0
x
0
3
2
=
lim(5x
+
12x
+
7x
+
6)
x
0
3
2
5 lim x
+
12 lim x
+
7 lim x
+
6
=
x
0
x
0
x
0
= 6
(ii)
2
2
lim[(5x
+
2x
+
3)(x
+
2)]
=
lim(5x
+
2x
+
3) lim(x
+
2)
From (i) and (ii),
x
0
x
0
x
0
lim f
(
x
)
f
(
x
)
x
a
lim
=
lim g
(
x
)
π
0
4.
(
)
(
)
provided
x
a
g
x
lim g
x
x
a
x
a
2
x
+
5x
+
6
To verify this, consider the function
f(x) =
x
+
2
2
2
lim (x
+
5x
+
6)
=
(
1)
+
5 (
1)
+
6
we have
x
1
= 156
+
= 2
lim (x
+
2)
=
1
+
2
and
x
1
=1
2
lim (x
+
5x
+
6)
2
x
1
=
= 2
(i)
lim (x
+
2)
1
x
1
MATHEMATICS
183
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Calculus
2
Q x
+
5x
+
6
2
(x
+
5x
+
6)
(x
+
3)(x
+
2)
2
=
x
+++
3x
2x
6
Also
lim
=
lim
x
1
x
+
2
x
1
x
+
2
=
x(x
+
3)
+
2(x
+
3)
=
(x
+
3)(x
+
2)
Notes
=
lim (x
+
3)
x
1
=
132
+=
(ii)
From (i) and (ii),
(
2
lim
x
+
5x
+
6
)
2
x
+
5x
+
6
x
1
lim
=
x
1
x
+
2
lim (x
+
2)
x
1
We have seen above that there are many ways that two given functions may be combined to
form a new function. The limit of the combined function as x a can be calculated from the
limits of the given functions. To sum up, we state below some basic results on limits, which can
be used to find the limit of the functions combined with basic operations.
If
limf(x) = l and
lim g(x)
=
m,
then
x
a
x
a
lim kf(x)
=
k limf(x)
=
k
l
(i)
where k is a constant.
x
a
x
a
lim
[
f(x)
±
g(x)
]
=
limf(x )
±
limg(x)
= l ±
m
(ii)
x
a
x
a
x
a
lim
[
f(x) g(x)
]
=
limf(x ) limg(x)
= l ◊
m
(iii)
x
a
x
a
x
a
limf(x)
f(x)
l
x
a
lim
=
=
, provided limg(x)
π
0
(iv)
x
a
g(x)
limg(x)
m
x
a
x
a
The above results can be easily extended in case of more than two functions.
Example 20.1
Find
limf(x) , where
x
1
2
x
1
,x1
π
f
(
x
)
=
x
1
1,
x
=
1
2
x
1
Solution :
f(x) =
x
1
(x1x1
)(
+
)
=
x
1
184
MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
= (x +1)
[Q x π 1]
MODULE - V
Calculus
limf(x)
=
lim(x
+
1)
x
1
x
1
= 1 + 1 = 2
2
x
1
Note :
is not defined at x=1. The value of
limf(x)
is independent of the value of f (x)
Notes
x
1
x
1
at x = 1.
3
x
8
Example 20.2
Evaluate :
lim
.
x
2
x
2
3
x
8
Solution :
lim
x
2
x
2
2
(x
2)(x
+
2x
+
4)
=
lim
x
2
(x
2)
2
=
lim
(
x
+
2x
+
4
)
[Q x π
2]
x
2
2
= 2
+224
+
= 12
3x1
Example 20.3
Evaluate :
lim
.
x
2
2
x
Solution : Rationalizing the numerator, we have
3
x
1
3
x
1
3x1
=
2
x
2
x
3x1
+
3x1
=
(2
x)3x1
(
+
)
2
x
=
(
)(
)
2
x
3x1
+
3
x
1
2
x
lim
=
lim
2
x
2 (
)(
)
x
2
x
2
x
3x1
+
1
= lim
[Q x π
2]
2 (
)
x
3x1
+
1
=
(
)
321
+
1
1
=
=
1
+
1
2
MATHEMATICS
185
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Calculus
12xx
Example 20.4
Evaluate :
lim
.
x
3
6x3
+
Solution : Rationalizing the numerator as well as the denominator, we get
(
12
x
x
)(
12
x
x
+◊
)(
6x3
+
+
)
12xx
lim
=
lim
Notes
x
3
6x3
+
x
3
6
+
x
3
(
6
+
x
+
3
)(
12xx
+
)
(
2
12xx
)
6x3
+
+
=
lim
lim
x
3
6x9
+
x
3
12xx
+
(
x4x3
+
)(
)
6x3
+
+
=
lim
lim
[Q x π 3]
x
3
(
x
3
)
x
3
12xx
+
6
=
(3
+
4)
◊ =
7
6
Note : Whenever in a function, the limits of both numerator and denominator are zero, you
should simplify it in such a manner that the denominator of the resulting function is not zero.
However, if the limit of the denominator is 0 and the limit of the numerator is non zero, then
the limit of the function does not exist.
Let us consider the example given below :
1
Example 20.5
Find
lim
, if it exists.
x
0
x
Solution : We choose values of x that approach 0 from both the sides and tabulate the
1
correspondling values of
.
x
x
0.1
.01
.001
.0001
1
10
100
1000 10000
x
x
0.1 .01
.001
.0001
1
10
100
1000 10000
x
1
We see that as x 0 , the corresponding values of
are not getting close to any number ..
x
1
Hence, x
lim
0 x does not exist. This is illustrated by the graph in Fig. 20.2
186
MATHEMATICS
|
(
x
0
lim
+
|
x |
[
|
x |
(
| x
|
x |
+
(
0
|
lim
=
=
]
x |
=
)
x |
|
x |
=
=
h
)
+
|
+
|
+
Thus ,
Example 20.6
lim h
lim
lim
lim
limh
x |
x |
lim
lim
Note : We should remember that left hand and right hand limits are specially used when (a)
From (i) and (ii),
left hand and right hand limits.
Continuity
Solution : Since |x| has different values for x ≥ 0 and x<0, therefore we have to find out both
h ||(
Fig. 20.2
Limit and
Evaluate :
lim
+
0
0
lim
(
0
|
)
x
x
x
and
MODULE - V
Calculus
more than one rule.
the functions under consideration involve modulus function, and (b) function is defined by
+
(
| 0
h |
+
=
+
=
h
|
h |
x |
|
(0
h)|
+
0
h
lim 2h
0
x |
0
h
h
+
(
0
+
+
[
0
0
|
)
0
(
|
0
0
|
(0
x
h
0
h
)
h
h
|
+
h
=
=
...
lim 2h
0
=
...
(i)
)
=
(ii)
| 0
]
x |
Notes
+
)
h)|
h)|
 MATHEMATICS 187
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Calculus
Example 20.7
Find the vlaue of 'a' so that
3x
+
5
,x
1
limf(x)
exist, where
f(x) =
x
1
2x
+
a,x
>
1
Solution :
lim f(x)
=
lim
(
3x
+
5
)
[Qf(x) = 3x +5for x 1]
x
1
x
1
Notes
=
lim
[
3 (1
h)
+
5
]
h
0
= 3 + 5 = 8
.....
(i)
lim f(x)
=
lim
(
2x
+
a
)
[Qf(x) = 2x +a for x >1]
+
x
1
x
1
=
lim
(
2(1
+
h)
+
a
)
h
0
= 2 + a
(ii)
We are given that
limf(x)
will exists provided
x
1
lim
=
lim f(x)
+
x
1
x
1
From (i) and (ii),
2
+ a = 8
or,
a = 6
Example 20.8
If a function f (x) is defined as
1
x
,0x
<
2
1
f(x)
=
0
,
x
=
2
1
x
1,
<
x
1
2
Examine the existence of
limf(x)
.
1
x
2
1
x
,
0
x
<
(i)
2
1
f(x)
=
0
,
x
=
Solution : Here
2
1
x
1,
<
x
1
(ii)
2
1
lim
f(x)
=
lim f
h
h
0
2
1
x
2
1
1
1
1
1
=
lim
h
Q
h
<
and from(i),f
h
=
h
x
0
2
2
2
2
2
188
MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
1
1
=
0
=
(iii)
MODULE - V
Calculus
2
2
1
lim
f(x)
=
lim f
+
h
+
h
0
2
1
x
2
Notes
1
1
1
1
1
=
lim
+
h
1
Q
+
h
>
and from(ii),f
+=+
h
h
1
h
0
2
2
2
2
2
1
=
+
1
2
1
=
(iv)
2
From (iii) and (iv), left hand limit π right hand limit
limf(x) does not exist.
1
x
2
1.
Evaluate each of the following limits :
lim 2(x
[
2
+
3)
+
7
]
2
lim
(
x
+
3x
+
7
)
lim
(x
+
3)
16
(a)
(b)
(c)
x
2
x
0
x
1
2
3
(d)
lim
(x
+
1)
+
2
(e)
lim
(2x
+
1)
5
lim 3x1x1
(
+
)(
+
)
(f)
x
1
x
0
x
1
2.
Find the limits of each of the following functions :
x
5
x
+
2
3x
+
5
(a)
lim
(b) x
lim
(c) x
lim
x
5
x
+
2
1
x
+
1
1
x
10
2
2
px
+
q
x
9
x
25
(d)
lim
(e)
lim
(f)
lim
x
0
ax
+
b
x
3
x
3
x
5
x
+
5
2
2
9x
1
x
x
2
lim
(g)
lim
(h)
1
3x
1
2
x
2
x
x
3x
+
2
3
3.
Evaluate each of the following limits:
3
3
4
x
1
x
+
7x
x
1
(a)
lim
(b)
lim
(c)
lim
2
x
1
x
1
x
0
x
+
2x
x
1
x
1
1
2
lim
(d)
2
x
1
x
1
x
1
MATHEMATICS
189
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Calculus
4.
Evaluate each of the following limits :
4
+
x
4
x
2
+
x
2
3
+
x
6
(a)
lim
(b)
lim
(c)
lim
x
0
x
x
0
x
x
3
x
3
x
3x2x
(d)
lim
(e) x
lim
x
0
1x1
+
2
2
6
x
Notes
2
1
5.
(a)
Find
lim
, if it exists.
(b) Find
lim
x 2 , if it exists.
x
0
x
x
2
6.
Find the values of the limits given below :
x
1
1
(a)
lim
(b) x
lim
(c)
lim
x
0
5 |x|
2
| x + 2 |
x
2
|
x
2 |
| x
5 |
(d)
Show that
lim
does not exist.
x
5
x
5
7.
(a)
Find the left hand and right hand limits of the function
2x
+
3, x
1
f(x) =
as
x
1
3x
5,x
>
1
2
x
, x
1
(b)
If
f(x)
=
,findlimf(x)
1,x
>
1
x
1
4x
+
3,x
<
4
(c)
Find
limf(x)
if it exists, given that
f(x) =
x
4
3x
+
7,x
4
ax
+
5, x
<
2
8.
Find the value of 'a' such that
limf(x)
exists,where
f(x) =
x
2
x
1, x
2
x,x
<
1
9.
Let
f(x)
=
1,x
=
1
2
x
,x
>
1
Establish the existence of
.
limf(x)
x
1
10.
Find
limf(x)
if it exists, where
x
2
x
1,x
<
2
f(x)
=
1,x
=
2
x
+
1,x
>
2
20.5
FINDING LIMITS OF SOME OF THE IMPORTANT
FUNCTIONS
n
n
x
a
n
1
(i) Prove that
lim
=
na
where n is a positive integer ..
x
a
x
a
190
MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
n
n
n
n
x
a
(
a
+
h
)
a
MODULE - V
Calculus
Proof :
lim
=
lim
x
a
x
a
h
0
aha
+
nn1
(
)
n
n
1
n
2
2
n
n
a
+
n a
h
+
a
h
+
.....
+
h
a
2!
= lim
h
0
h
Notes
nn1
(
)
n
1
n
2
n
1
h
n a
+
a
h
+
.....
+
h
2!
= lim
h
0
h
nn1
(
)
n
1
n
2
n
1
=
lim
n a
+
a
h
+
.....
+
h
h
0
2!
n
1
=
n a
+
0
+ +
0
.....
+
0
n
1
= n a
n
n
x
a
n
1
lim
=
n
a
x
a
x
a
Note : However, the result is true for all n
lim
sinx
=
0
lim
cosx
=
1
(ii) Prove that
(a)
and
(b)
x
0
x
0
Proof : Consider a unit circle with centre B, in which
C is a right angle and
ABC = x
Now sin x = A C and cos x = BC
As x decreases, A goes on coming nearer and nearer to C.
i.e., when x 0,A
C
or when
x 0,AC
0
and
BC AB,i.e.,BC
1
When x 0
sinx 0
and cosx 1
Fig. 20.3
Thus we have
lim
sinx
=
0
and
lim
cosx
=
1
x
0
x
0
sinx
(iii) Prove that
lim
=
1
x
0
x
Proof : Draw a circle of radius 1 unit and with centre at the origin O. Let B (1,0) be a point on
the circle. Let A be any other point on the circle. Draw AC OX .
MATHEMATICS
191
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

Let
AOX
=
2
Draw a tangent to the circle at B meeting OA produced
at D. Then
BD
OX .
Area of
AOC<
area of sector
OBA <
area of
OBD .
1
1
1
Fig. 20.4
2
or
OC
AC
<
x(1)
<
OB
BD
2
2
2
1
1
2
Q area of triangle
=
base×height and area of sector=
r
2
2
1
1
1
cosxsinx
<
x
<
◊ ◊
1 tanx
2
2
2
OC
AC
BD
Q
cosx
=
,sinx
=
and tanx
=
,OA
= =
1
OB
OA
OA
OB
x
tanx
1
i.e.,
cosx <
<
[Dividing throughout by
2 sin
x]
sinx
sinx
x
1
or
cosx <
<
sinx
cosx
1
sinx
or
>
< cosx
cosx
x
sinx
1
i.e.,
cosx <
<
x
cosx
Taking limit as x 0 , we get
sinx
1
lim cosx
<
lim
<
lim
x
0
x
0
x
x
0
cosx
sinx
1
1
or
1
<
lim
<
1
Q
lim cosx
=
1
and
lim
=
=
1
x
x
0
x
0
cosx
1
x
0
sinx
Thus,
lim
=
1
x
0
x
Note : In the above results, it should be kept in mind that the angle x must be expressed in
1
x
(iv) Prove that
lim
(
1
+
x
)
=
e
x
0

Proof : By Binomial theorem, when | x | < 1, we get

 192 MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
Calculus
x
1
x
x
x
x
x
2
3
(
1
+
x
)
=+◊
1
x
+
x
++
x
+
..........
x
2!
3!
(1 x) (1x1 )(
2x)
=
1
+ +
1
+
+
..........
2!
3!
Notes
1
x
1
x
(
1x1
)(
2x
)
lim
(
1
+
x
)
=
lim
1
+ +
1
+
+
..........
x
0
x
0
2!
3!
1
1
=
1
+ +
1
+
+
..........
2!
3!
= e
(By definition)
1
x
Thus
lim
(
1
+
x
)
=
e
x
0
(v) Prove that
log 1
(
+
x
)
1
) 1/x
lim
=
lim
log
(
1
+
x
)
=
limlog 1
(
+
x
x
0
x
x
0
x
x
0
1
x
Using lim
(
1
+
x
)
=
e
= log e
x
0
= 1
x
e
1
(vi) Prove that
lim
=
1
x
0
x
2
3
x
x
x
Proof : We know that
e
=
1
+ +++
x
2!
3!
2
3
x
x
x
e
1
=
1
+
x
+
+
+
..........
1
2!
3!
2
3
x
x
=+++
x
..........
2!
3!
2
3
x
x
x
+++
..........
x
2!
3!
e
1
[Dividing throughout by x]
=
x
x
2
x
x
x
1
+
+
+
..........
2!
3!
=
x
MATHEMATICS
193
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

 Notes Thus, Example 20.9 Putting x = x Thus lim e x x 0 Example 20.10
2
x
x
= 1 +
+
+
2!
3!
x
2
e
1
x
x
lim
=
lim
1 +
+
x
0
x
x
0
2!
3!
=++
x
e
1
lim
=
1
x
0
x
x
x
e
e
Find the value of
lim
x
0
x
x
e
1
lim
=
1
x
0
x
in (i), we get
x
e
1
lim
=
1
x
0
x
x
x
e
11e
+
lim
x
0
x
x
x
e
11e
=
lim
+
x
0
x
x
x
x
e
1
e
1
=
lim
+
x
0
x
x
x
x
e
1
e
1
=
lim
+
lim
x
0
x
x
0
x
= 1+1
= 2
x
e
= 2
x
x
e
e
Evaluate :
lim
.
x
1
x
1
0
x
1
+
h
e
e
e
e
lim
=
lim
x
1
x
1
h
0
h

+

=1

..........

..........

Solution : We know that

Given limit can be written as

Solution : Put x = 1 + h, where h

[ Using (i) and (ii)]

.....

(i)

.....

(ii)

 194 MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
1
h
e
e
e
= lim
MODULE - V
Calculus
h
0
h
h
e(e
1)
=
lim
h
0
h
h
e
1
Notes
= elim
h
0
h
= e × 1 = e.
x
e
e
Thus
lim
=
e
x
1
x
1
sin3x
Example 20.11
Evaluate :
lim
.
x
0
x
sin3x
sin3x
Solution :
lim
=
lim
3
[Multiplying and dividing by 3]
x
0
x
x
0
3x
sin3x
= 3
lim
[Qwhen x
0,3x
0]
3x
0
3x
sinx
=
3.1
Q
lim
=
1
x
0
x
= 3
sin3x
Thus,
lim
=
3
x
0
x
1
cosx
Example 20.12
Evaluate
lim
.
2
x
0
2x
x
2
2
Q cos2x
=
1
2sin
x,
2sin
1
cosx
Solution :
2
2
lim
=
lim
1
cos2x
=
2sin
x
2
2
x
0
2x
x
0
2x
x
2
or 1
cosx
=
2sin
2
2
x
sin
2
lim
=
x
[Multiplying and dividing the denominator by 2]
x
0
2
2
2
x
sin
1
2
=
lim
4
x
x
0
2
2
MATHEMATICS
195
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

1
1
=
1
=
4
4
1
cosx
1
lim
=
2
x
0
2x
4
1
cos4
Example 20.13
Evaluate :
lim
0
1
cos6
2
1
cos4
2sin
2
Solution :
lim
=
lim
2
0
1
cos6
0
2sin
3
2
2
sin2
3
1
lim
2
=
0
2
sin3
3
2
2
sin2
3
4
= lim
2
0
2
sin3
9
2
4
sin2
3
=
lim
lim
9
2
0
2
3
0
sin3
4
4
=
=
1
1
9
9
1
+
cos2x
Example 20.14
Find the value of
lim
.
(
2x
) 2
x
2
Solution : Put x
=
+
h
Q
when x
, h
2
2
2x = + 2h
1
+
cos2
+
h
1
+
cos2x
2
lim
=
lim
2
2
(
2x
)
h
0
[
(
+
2h)]
x
2
1
+
cos(
+
2h)
= lim
2
h
0
4h
1 cos2h
= lim
2
h
0
4h
2
2sin
h
= lim
2
h
0
4h
2
1
sin
h
=
lim
2
h
0
h

0

 196 MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
1
1
=
1
=
MODULE - V
Calculus
2
2
1
+
cos2x
1
lim
=
(
) 2
2
2x
x
2
Notes
sinax
lim
Example 20.15
Evaluate
x
0
tanbx
sinax
a
sinax
ax
Solution :
lim
=
lim
tanbx
x
0
tanbx
x
0
b
bx
sinax
lim
a
x
0
ax
=
b
tanbx
lim
x
0
bx
a
1
=
b
1
a
=
b
sinax
a
lim
=
x
0
tanbx
b
1.
Evaluate each of the following :
x
x
2x
e
e
e
1
(a)
lim
(b)
lim
x
x
x
0
x
x
0
e
+
e
2.
Find the value of each of the following :
x
1
x
e
e
e
e
(a)
lim
(b)
lim
x
1
x
1
x
1
x
1
3.
Evaluate the following :
2
2
sin4x
sinx
sinx
(a)
lim
(b)
lim
(c)
lim
2
x
0
2x
x
0
5x
x
0
x
sinax
lim
(d)
x
0
sinbx
MATHEMATICS
197
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

• 4. Evaluate each of the following :

1
cosx
1
cos8x
sin2x(1
cos2x)
lim
lim
lim
(a)
(b) x
(c)
2
3
x
0
x
0
x
x
0
x
1
cos2x
lim
(d)
2
x
0
3tan
x
5.
Find the values of the following :
3
1
cosax
x
cotx
cosec x
cotx
lim
(a)
(b)
lim
(c) x
lim
x
0
1
cosbx
x
0
1
cos x
0
x
6.
Evaluate each of the following :
sinx
cos
x
lim
2
(a)
(b)
lim
(c)
lim
(
sec x
tanx
)
x
x
x
1
1
x
x
2
7.
Evaluate the following :
sin5x
tan7
sin2x
+
tan3x
(a)
lim
(b)
lim
(c) x
lim
x
0
tan3x
0
sin4
0
4x
tan5x

20.5 CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION AT A POINT

Fig. 20.5

Let us observe the above graphs of a function.

We can draw the graph (iv) without lifting the pencil but in case of graphs (i), (ii) and (iii), the

pencil has to be lifted to draw the whole graph.

In case of (iv), we say that the function is continuous at x = a. In other three cases, the function

is not continuous at x = a. i.e., they are discontinuous at x = a.

In case (i), the limit of the function does not exist at x = a.

In case (ii), the limit exists but the function is not defined at x = a.

In case (iii), the limit exists, but is not equal to value of the function at x = a.

In case (iv), the limit exists and is equal to value of the function at x = a.

 198 MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
Example 20.16
Examine the continuity of the function f (x) = x a
at x = a.
MODULE - V
Calculus
limf(x )
=
limf( a
+
h)
Solution : x
a
h
0
=
lim[(a
+
h)
a]
h
0
= 0
(i)
Notes
Also
f(a)aa0
=
=
(ii)
From (i) and (ii),
limf(x )
=
f(a)
x
a
Thus f (x) is continuous at x = a.
Example 20.17
Show that f (x) = c is continuous.
Solution : The domain of constant function c is R.Let 'a' be any arbitrary real number.
limf(x )
=
candf(a)
=
c
x
a
limf(x )
=
f(a)
x
a
f (x) is continuous at x = a. But 'a' is arbitrary. Hence f(x) = c is a constant function.
Example 20.18
Show that f (x) = cx +d is a continuous function.
Solution : The domain of linear function f (x) = cx +d is R; and let 'a' be any arbitrary real
number.
limf(x )
=
limf( a
+
h)
x
a
h
0
=
lim[c (a
+
h)
+
d]
h
a
= ca + d
.....
(i)
Also
f (a) = ca + d
(ii)
limf(x )
=
f(a)
From (i) and (ii),
x
a
f (x) is continuous at x = a
and
since a is any arbitrary ,
f (x) is a continuous function.
Example 20.19
Prove that f
(
x = sin x is a continuous function.
)
Solution : Let f (x) = sin x
The domain of sin x is R. let 'a' be any arbitrary real number.
limf(x)
=
limf(a
+
h)
x
a
h
0
limsin(a
+
h)
=
h
0
lim
[sina.cosh
+
cosa.sinh]
=
h
0
MATHEMATICS
199
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

sinalimcosh
+
cosa limsinh
=
Q
lim kf(x)
=
k limf(x)where k is a constant
h
0
h
0
x
a
x
a
Q limsinx
=
0 and
lim cos
x
=
1
=
sina 1 +cosa 0
x
0
x
0
= sin a
(i)
Also
f (a) = sin a
(ii)
From (i) and (ii),
limf(x)
=
f(a)
x
a
sin x is continuous at x = a
Qsin x is continuous at x = a and 'a' is an aribitary point.
Therefore, f x =sinx is continuous.
(
)
Example 20.20
Given that the function f (x) is continuous at x = 1. Find a when,
f
(
x
)
= ax + 5 and f (1) = 4.
limf(x)
=
lim(1
+
h)
Solution :
x
1
h
0
lima(1
+
h)
+
5
=
h
0
= a + 5
(i)
Also
f (1) = 4
(ii)
limf(x)
=
f(1)
As f (x) is continuous at x = 1, therefore
x
1
From (1) and (ii),
a +5 = 4
or
a45
=
or
a = 1
Definition :
• 1. A function f (x) is said to be continuous in an open inteval ]a,b[ if it is continuous at every point of ]a,b[*.

• 2. A function f (x) is said to be continuous in the closed interval [a,b] if it is continuous at every point of the open interval ]a,b[ and is continuous at the point a from the right and continuous at b from the left. i.e. and

lim

f

x

=

f

a

• x a

+

lim

f

x

=

f

b

)

• x b

*

In the open interval ]a,b[ we do not consider the end points a and b.

 200 MATHEMATICS
Limit and Continuity
MODULE - V
Example 20.21
Prove that tan x is continuous when 0
x
<
Calculus
2
Solution : Let f (x) = tan x
The domain of tan x is R
(2n
+
1)
, n
I
2
Notes
Let a
R
(2n
+
1)
, be arbitrary ..
2
limf(x )
=
limf( a
+
h)
x
a
h
0
=
lim tan(a
+
h)
h
0
sin(a
+
h)
=
lim
h
0
cos(a
+
h)
sinacosh
+
cosasinh
=
lim
h
0
cosacosh
sinasinh
sinalimcos h
+
cosa lim
sin h
h
0
h
0
=
cosalim cos h
sinalimsinh
h
0
h
0
sina
1
+
cosa
0
=
cosa
1
sina
0
sina
=
cosa
= tan a
.....
(i)
[Q a Domain of tan x, cos a
π0]
Also
f (a) = tan a
(ii)
limf(x)
=
f(a)
From (i) and (ii), h
a
f(x) is continuous at x = a. But 'a' is arbitrary ..
x
<
tan x is continuous for all x in the interval 0
.
2
1.
Examine the continuity of the functions given below :
(a)
f(x)
= x 5atx
=2
(b)
f(x) = 2x +7atx =0
5
(c)
f(x)
=
x
+
7atx
=
3
(d)
f(x) = px +qatx = q
3
2.
Show that f (x)=2a+3b is continuous, where a and b are constants.
3.
Show that 5 x + 7 is a continuous function
• 4. (a) Show that cos x is a continuous function.

 MATHEMATICS 201
Limit and Continuity

MODULE - V Calculus

Notes

• (b) Show that cot x is continuous at all points of its domain.

5. Find the value of the constants in the functions given below :

• (a) f(x) = px 5andf(2) =1 such that f (x) is continuous at x = 2.

• (b) f(x) = a +5xandf(0) =4 such that f (x) is continuous at x = 0.

• (c)

=

+

f(x)

2x

3bandf( 2)

2

=

3

such that f(x) is continuous at x = 2 .

20.7 CONTINUITY OR OTHERWISE OF A FUNCTION AT A POINT

So far, we have considered only those functions which are continuous. Now we shall discuss

some examples of functions which may or may not be continuous.

Example 20.22

Show that the function

f(x) = e

• x is a continuous function.

Solution : Domain of e

• x is R. Let a R . where 'a ' is arbitrary ..

limf(x)

x

a

=

limf(a

h

0

+

h)

, where h is a very small number ..

=

a

lime

+

h

h

0

=

lime

a

h

0

e

h

= e

a

lim e

h

h

0

=

e

a