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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

NAME : ..
CLASS : ..

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

CHAPTER 5 : CHEMICAL BONDS


A Formation of Compounds
Learning Outcomes:
You should be able:
explain the stability of noble gases
explain the conditions for the formation of chemical bonds
state the types of chemical bonds

Activity 1: Formation of chemical bonds


Choose the correct answer from the table
Sharing
monoatomic
1

ionic
stable
arrangement
inert

chemical bonds
covalent
duplet

Noble gases are gases. They exist as.. gases and


are chemically unreactive . They have ... octet or ..

electron ..
Other atoms besides noble gases tend to achieve the stable electron arrangement

through the formation of


Two types of chemical bonds :
(i)

.. bond

(ii)

- formed when atoms join together by transferring of electrons


.. bond
- formed when atoms join together by ..of electrons

B IONIC BONDS
Learning outcomes:
You should be able to:
explain the formation of ions
write the electron arrangements for the ions formed
explain the formation of ionic bonds
illustrate electron arrangement of an ionic bond
illustrate the formation of ionic bonds

Activity 2 : Formation of ions


1

Underline the correct answer.


To achieve a stable electron arrangement :
(i)
A metal atom (donates / accepts) electrons , forming a (positive / negative) ion
(ii)

called cation .
A (non-metal / metal) atom accepts electrons , forming a (positive / negative) ion

called anion .
Complete the diagram below.

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

(a)

(b)

(Refer to page 84 85 - F4 Chemistry text book)

Activity 3 : Formation of ionic bonds


Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
1 Formation of ionic compound, sodium chloride ( NaCl )

Electron arrangement of sodium atom is .............................................................

A sodium atom

.one electron to achieve the

electron arrangement which is 2.8.

Sodium ion, .......... is formed

Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is..

Electron from sodium atom is transferred to a .atom

A chlorine

atom

electron

from

sodium

atom

to

.. the stable electronwhich is 2.8.8

Chloride ion,.. is formed

The sodium ion, Na and chloride ion, Cl formed are ..to


one another to form an ionic compound .., NaCl .

The strong

.forces between the opposite-charged

ions is called .bond.


(Refer to page 86 - F4 Chemistry text book)

Complete the diagram below.

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

2.8.1
Sodium atom,Na
3
(a)

2.8.7

.............

Chlorine atom,Cl

Sodium ion,

...............
Chloride ion, ..

Fill in the blanks with the correct answers.


Formation of ionic compound magnesium chloride, MgCl2 .
Electron arrangement of magnesium atom is ..................................................

A magnesium

atom

.two

electrons

to

achieve

the

electron arrangement which is, 2.8.

Magnesium ion, .......... is formed

Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is

Electrons from magnesium atom

is transferred to two .

atoms

A chlorine atom electron from magnesium atom to


.. the stable electron which is 2.8.8.

Chloride ion,.. is formed

The magnesium ion,Mg2+ and two chloride ions, Cl formed are


to one another to form an ionic compound ., MgCl2

The strong .forces between the opposite-charged


ions is called ..bond

(Refer to page 86 - F4 Chemistry text book)

(b)

Complete the diagram below.

(Refer to page 86 - F4 Chemistry text book)

C Covalent Bonds
Learning Outcomes:
You should be able :

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

state the meaning of covalent bonds


explain the formation of covalent bonds
illustrate the formation of covalent bonds
compare and contrast the formation of ionic and covalent bonds

Activity 4 : Formation of covalent bonds


Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
1
Covalent bonds are formed when .. atoms .. electrons
2

3
4

to achieve . electron arrangements .


Types of covalent bonds:(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A single bond is formed when of electrons is shared between two atoms.
A double bond is formed when ..of electrons is shared between two atoms.
A triple bond is formed when .of electrons is shared between two atoms.
Formation of hydrogen molecules, H2 :

A hydrogen atom has valence electron, with an electron arrangement of..


.

It needs .. more electron to achieve the .. electron arrangement

..hydrogen atoms one electron each for

Shared-paired electrons forms a .. bond in the hydrogen molecule,


H2
Single bond holds the two hydrogen atoms together because the shared-pair of

electrons is attracted to the.. of both atoms


5 Complete the diagram below.
(a)

(b) A covalent bond can be illustrated by using.

Activity 5 : Formation of covalent bonds


1

Formation of oxygen molecules, O2 :

An oxygen atom has valence electron, with an electron arrangement of..

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

It needs .more electrons to achieve the .. electron arrangement

....oxygen atoms sharepairs of electrons forming a..bond

2
Draw the electron arrangement for the formation of oxygen molecule.
(a) [Proton number : O, 8 ;]

(b) Illustrate the formation of oxygen molecule using the Lewis structure.

Formation of a nitrogen molecule, N2 :

A nitrogen atom has valence electron, with an electron arrangement ....

It needs more electrons to achieve the .. electron arrangement

..nitrogen

atoms

sharepairs

of

electrons

forming

covalent bond
Draw the electron arrangement for the formation of nitrogen molecule.
[Proton number : N, 7]

(b) Illustrate the formation for nitrogen molecule using the Lewis structure.

Activity 6
1 Draw the electron arrangements for the formation of the following ionic compounds:
[Proton number : Li, 3 ; Ca, 20 ; O, 8 ; Cl, 17 ]
(a) Lithium oxide, Li 2 O

WAJA F4 Chemistry

(b)

Calcium chloride, CaCl 2

Draw the electron arrangements for the formation of the following covalent compounds
[Proton number : C, 6 ; Cl, 17, : O, 8]
(a) Tetrachloromethane, CCl4

(b)

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

Carbon dioxide molecule, CO2

Complete the table below to compare the characteristics for the formation of ionic and
covalent bonds.
Ionic bond
Valence electrons

Characteristic
Electrons involved
Elements

Electron transfer to achieve


stable electron arrangement

Covalent bond

Bond formation
Particles

D PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT BONDING


Learning outcomes
You should be able to:
list the properties of ionic compounds.
list the properties of covalent compounds

Non-metals atom and non


metal atoms

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

explain the differences in the electrical conductivity of ionic and covalent compounds
describe the differences in melting and boiling points of ionic and covalent compounds
compare and contrast the solubility of ionic and covalent compounds
state the uses of covalent compounds as solvents.

Activity 7 : Physical properties of ionic and covalent compounds


1. Complete the table of the properties of ionic and covalent compounds, using the words
given in the box :
conduct electricity in aqueous solution or molten state
low
solid
high
insoluble
gas
Ionic compound

do not conduct electricity


soluble
solid, liquid,

Properties
Physical states at room
temperature
Melting points
Boiling points
Electrical Conductivity
Solubility in water
Solubility in organic solvent

Covalent compound

Explain why ionic compounds are able to conduct electricity in aqueous solution or in
molten state but not in solid state.
.
.

.
Explain why covalent compound do not conduct electricity in all states.
.
.

Explain why ionic compounds have higher melting points than covalent compounds.
.
.

Example of covalent
compounds ;-.......................................................................................................................
.....................
Uses of covalent compounds as solvent in our daily lives:
..................................................................................................................................

Activity 8

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

Atom A
(a)

Atom B

Write the electron arrangement for atom A.


..

(b)

A and B can form a compound


(i)

What type of bond holds atom A and B together ?

(ii)

..
What will happen to atom A during the formation of the compound with atom
B?
..

(iii)

Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed in (b)(ii).

(iv) State one physical property of the compound formed.


..
(c)

Carbon atom, C, with an electron arrangement of 2.4 can combine with atom B to
form a compound.
(i)

What is the molecular formula of the compound formed?


.

(ii)

If the relative atomic masses of carbon is 12 and B is 32, what is the relative
molecular mass of the compound in c(i).
..

Activity 9

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

The diagram below shows the proton number and the nucleon number for three atoms
of elements, E , G and W. The letters used do not represent the actual symbols of the
elements.

12

E
6
(a)

23

35

G
11

W
17

The reaction between atoms of element G and W forms an ionic compound


whereas the reaction between atoms of element E and W forms a covalent
compound.
Explain how these ionic and covalent compounds are formed.

Ionic compound

Electron arrangement of an atom of element G is ...................................................

Atom G .one electron to achieve the electron


arrangement which is 2.8

G ion, .......... is formed

Electron arrangement of atom W is..

Electron from atom G is transferred to an atom of

Atom W receives .electron from atom G to achieve the ..


electron arrangement which is 2.8.8

W ion,.. is formed

The G ion, .. and W ion, ..formed are ..to one


another to form an .compound, .

The strong .forces between the opposite-charged ions is

called .. bond.
Covalent bond

Atom E has ... valence electrons, with an electron arrangement of.....

It needs .. more electrons to achieve the .. electron arrangement

One atom of E contributes four electrons for

Atom W has valence electrons, with an electron arrangement of.

It needs .more electron to achieve the.electron arrangement

One atom of E share a pair of electrons with .atoms of W

Covalent compound of is formed

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