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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

COURSE OUTLINE
1. Introduction
2. Architectural Design Theory
3. Esquisse
4. Building Economics
5. Building Utilities
6. Approaches and Strategies
7. Simulated Board Exam
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
- it is the translation of an abstract solution to a real, tangible and concrete solution
- it is the optimum and better solution which must approximate the pre-set solution of
the examiner
- it must involve the judicious use of design tools in developing the solution within:
a. parameters / constraints
b. circumstances
c. environmental conditions
: must be conserve
: must be protected
: must be included in the design solution
- set by the examiner. The solution must be: SAFE
Simple provide what is needed or simply follow instruction
Appropriate must fit on concept
Functional look-out for specific use of the building
Economical
FORMAT OF DESIGN EXAM

1. 20x30 tracing paper provided by PRC


2. Black ink final drawings is in black ink
3. Pencil for enhancing and construction line (staedler pencils)
4. College major plate type drawings
- schematic
- no dimensions
- no call-outs such as specifications
- fully rendered in the used pencil shadows but not colored
- material must be drawn in full
- no columns unless it is part of design
- furniture layouts defending on layout and instructions
- entourage and landscape are allowed but not colored
RULES
1. Individual drawing implements and drawing boards
- triangles
- compass
- pencils
- magic, masking, scotch tapes
- rubber band
- drawing board with straight edge
- erasing shield
- scissors
- protractors
- french curve
- 2 sets of sign pens varying in points
- circular template
- optional coloring materials
- cutters
- ballpens
- erasers (different types)

- liquid paper
- scale
- watch
2. PRC will provide tracing paper with official seal
3. Drawing Grids
- preset grids, but to be shown to the proctor
4. Not allowed!
- no color
- no people or human figures
- no vehicles even triangle representation on plans
- no electronic equipment
- no scientific or programmable calculators, only simple scientific calculator is allowed
- no references
TOOLS
1. Drawing implements
2. Codes Building Codes
3. Building Standards
4. Vocabulary
ARCHITECTURAL CONVENTION
1. Lettering
-simple gothic, upright and all caps
-text : 4mm in height
-title : 8-10mm
-sub-titles : 6-8mm
2. Lines
-construction lines or guide lines
-final lines
-dimension lines
-masculine/feminine lines

3. Each drawing must have title and scale and north orientation
-orientation must always upward! on site development plan
-on plans refer to main entrance of structures
Notes:
Acconometric Drawing
- another type of aerial perspective
Berthing
- term for parking at water
FORMAT OF THE QUESTIONAIRE
1. Title
2. Background or description of the problem
3. Requirements
a. Plate requirements specify needed rooms or spaces
b. Drawing requirements specify scale, needed drawings, etc
Notes:
Marina
- luxurious facilities for water vessels
- yatch
- fine dining : luxurious eating place
Condominium
- high-rise residential buildings
- luxurious
- with elevators to make it more luxurious than townhouse
- can be bought but original lot remains to the owner
Townhouse
- can be bought
- horizontal residential structures
- can be leased (long term)
Apartment

- not more than 10 units


- rented (short term payment)
- usually two storey and for rent
Rowhouse
- can accommodate a full length of block
Tenements
- an apartment that is not more than 4 storeys
Apartelle
- fully furnish with equipments (such as food, beds) while apartment will be provided by
the tenants
Condotelle
- rented by other person to the owner of the room wherein the owner of the room rented
it to the owner of building
Hotel
- rented area provided with room and comfort room and other facilities will be common
areas
Motel
- rented area with room, comfort room and garage (motorist hotel)
Garage
- enclosed with walls, roof and door and facilities for repairs
Carport
- with roof and columns
Parking Slot
- compose of lines and has no enclosure at all
EXAMPLES OF TITLES ANALYSIS
The OASIS a resort
- a mirage : an illusion of water in the desert
- located in the desert; a body of water located in the desert
- leisure activities
- having a main focus of water element it can be water fountain

The HAMLET a townhouse


- hamlet : a small French village
- having no huge elements such as columns
- compose of common center area such as plaza
The TIANGGE a flea market
- flea : surot
- baratillo
- huge number of stalls that is detachable
Notes:
Assume 1-1/2 hours to finish every sheet
Consider facing
a. reading and understanding (3 hours)
b. preliminary drawings (2hours)
c. final drawings
THINGS TO BE AWARE IN DESIGNING
1. vocabulary
2. building code
3. presentation
4. requirements
5. common sense
Notes:
Stairs cutting line
-7th and 8th steps
THINGS TO DO IN PREPARATION FOR DESIGN EXAM
1. practice drafting technique
2. multiple deadline time management

3. composition
- sheets must be clean
- clear, use acceptable architectural symbols and architectural conventions
- respect margins
PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION
Dimension Contrast Variety
Proportion Measurements
Scale Fixed Proportions
Equilibrium Balance
a. Formal balance
b. Informal balance Gravitation
Physical Manifestation Rhythm Movement
Unity Order / Harmony
Character Expression
CONTRAST OF LINES
Masculine Lines bold, dark, straight, strong lines
Feminine Lines soft, fragile, thin, curve lines
1. Residential : feminine; informal
2. Institutional
a. government buildings : masculine; formal
b. health care : masculine; formal
3. Industrial : masculine; formal
4. Commercial : feminine; informal
5. Recreational
a. active : masculine; formal
b. passive : feminine: informal
6. Religious : masculine; formal

7. Education : masculine; formal


UNITY
- creating unified site development plan
1. Central Theme
- creating a motif
2. Major component of buildings must dominate
- exceptional size
- strategic location
- unique shape
3. compact and coherent unit
- orientation marker, ex. sculpture
- inward orientation
4. Harmony in materials, styles, design, etc.
CHARACTER
- manifested external expression of internal qualities
a. function use of the building
b. association influence of traditional types
c. personality character of occupants or human quality
ANALYZING THE DESIGN PROBLEM
read understand
a. title
b. description or background
c. requirements
- plate
- drawing
familiarize with the site
a. simply given

b. derivation / computation
- closing the traverse (protractor and calculator)
- textual
determine the area of the lot
a. formula
- regular shapes
- irregular shapes
b. dot-grid method
- approximate area all dots included in the site will be multiplied to the reference area of
the square
c. planimeter
- use in computing the lot
d. road runner
- used in computing the length of the road
determine the buildable area (BA)
buildable area = lot area open space
70% 30%
open spaces
1. set backs type of lots page 231
2. private yards (front, side, rear) page 227
3. road abutments page 228
4. height of buildings page 234
5. private open space page 226
6. natural open spaces
a. rivers 5.00m
b. creek 3.00m
c. sea/beach front 50.00m
d. pasig river 10.00m

determine the floor area (FA)


FA = BA x No. of storeys
saleable area (SA)
SA = FA - common area (35%)
plate requirements / components
code requirements
- BP 344 (accessibility law)
a. site development
- parking allocation (for disabled
- curb-cut-outs
- ramps (1:12)
b. structure
- comfort room
- corridor (1.50 meters)
- stairs
- fire exits
- ventilation
heights
a. naturally ventilated
b. artificially ventilated
- 1 storey
- 2 to 4 storeys
- 5 to infinity storeys (high-rise)
structure
a. superstructure
b. substructure
- in every five floors correspond to one basement

COST ESTIMATE BULDING ECONOMICS


levels
S budgetary estimate
(floor area x cost parameter)
D detailed estimate
(floor area: specific x cost parameter)
C bill of materials
(materials x cost)
C bid estimate
(bill of materials x margin of profit)
cost parameter/ sqm
1 storey: low cost P1.00 P5,000.00
2-4 storeys: mid cost P5,001.00 P12,000.00
5-infinity: high-rise P12,001.00 infinity
basement (1.2%) = next level
components of the estimate
a. land development cost 25% (P500/sqm)
1. earth development
2. roads and access ways
3. utilities (civil works)
4. landscaping
5. furnishings
b. structure 75%
1. structural 25% of the cost
2. utilities 15-30% of the cost
3. architectural 45-60% of the cost
BILL OF MATERIALS
1. materials x
2. labor 35-40% of x

direct cost = A
3. equipment 20% of A
4. margin of profit 30% of A
5. overhead 15% of A
(ballpen, bond papers, gas, secretary, etc.)
6. contingency 10-15% of A
(allowance, wastage) : paid by contractor
7. bonds and insurances 10-30% of A
8. miscellaneous 15-20% of A
construction cost + AE = project cost
UTILITIES
1. water supply
2. waste water
3. sewage
4. electricity
5. lighting
6. mechanical
7. intelligent system
locations of utilities is outside
a. utility company
b. users
c. intermediary treatment
horizontal
Note:
Utilities
step-down transformer : 220V to 110V
step-up transformer : 110V to 220V

water tanks
RESIDENTIALS
- (informal) feminine
1. multi-storey : 4 storey and below
2. multi-family
3. utilities are shared or common areas
4. orientation:
work west
rest east

5. clusters
45 meters: maximum length of corridor
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS
- basically linear and rectangular in plan
1. formal (masculine)
2. multi-storey
3. linear development
4. flag pole / assembly area
HOSPITAL
1. users
a. patients
b. medical practioner
c. visitors
2. activities
3. high rise

4. separate out-patient
5. philippine heart center, example
RECREATIONAL
gyms
1. users
a. players playcourts
b. officials rooms
c. spectators bleachers
2. playcourts
3. unobstructed view
- less column with the gym
track oval
1. track and field
2. track and soccer
swimming pool and diving pool
bowling
- usually synthetic wood was used nowadays
golf
1. 18 holes done by landscape architect
2. clubhouse usually two storeys and placed on the middle
a. first floor
- dirty area
- caddy

- clean-up
b. second floor
- function room
- fine dining
- boutiques
- pro-shop

resort
1. feature
2. amenities
3. operation system
COMMERCIAL
1. one-stop-shop
- all ages accommodated
2. flagship store
- usually department store
- concessions : barbershop, boutiques, etc
3. magnet nodes
4. parking
5. theme activities
ECUMENICAL
1. all religion
- no symbols of particular religion
2. celebrants place (altar)
- congregation
EDUCATION

1. classroom
2. 1 teacher = 40-50 students
(1 sqm/person + circulation)
3. standard module 7m x 9m
4. flagpole / quadrangle
5. laboratories / libraries / admin / pe
6. parking
7. canteen
TERMINALS
international domestic
Sea Ok : cargo Ok
Land X Ok
Air Ok Ok
domestic
a. lounge, passenger
b. offices
c. reception
d. hygiene facilities
international
a. lounge, passenger
b. offices
c. reception
d. hygiene facilities
e. customs
f. immigration
separate people and good
separate in and out

EXAMPLE DESIGN PROBLEM


- government building
-formal / male
-rectangular / linear (45 meter)
-multi-storey
-flagpole / assembly
3 branches of government
-executive : major
-legislative : vice major
-judiciary : judge
north (type of government)
1. ilocos : bahay na bato
2. mountain province : ifugao house
3. batanes : ibatan house

FLOOR PLAN
a drawing of the outline and partitions of a building as you would see them at the
building were cut horizontally at about 4 feet or 1.20m
the plan is the beginning of the building. It is the foundation upon which the scheme
of the structure rests. It relates the various units to each other
the design process should always proceed from within to without
2 THINGS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PLAN
1. the arrangement of the units according to practical requirements
2. the arrangement according to the rule of abstract design
FLOOR PLAN SKETCHING
1. Preliminary sketching
shows desirable size proportion and relationship of each room to the entire plan

offsets and indentations are smoothed by increasing the dimensions of some rooms
and changing slightly the arrangement of the others
modular sizes are established
exact positions and sizes of doors and windows are determined
2. Final sketching
single line sketches are change to define wall thickness and include property
features
location of shrubbery, trees, patios, driveways, gardens, etc. are included
STEPS IN DRAWING FLOOR PLANS
1. block the overall dimensions of the house and add the thickness of the outside walls
with a hard pencil
2. layout the position of interior partitions
3. locate the position of doors and windows by center line and by their widths
4. darken the object lines with an F pencil
5. add doors and window symbols with a 2H pencil
6. add symbols for stairwells
7. erase extraneous lines if they are too heavy. If they are extremely light, they can
remain
8. draw the outlines of the furniture and fixtures
9. add the symbols and sections for any masonry work such as planters
10. dimension the drawing
DOORS AND WINDOWS IN PLAN
1. show normally swinging doors at 90 opening
2. doors swings are shown with light lines and quarter symbols
3. door type is not illustrated in plan, only in elevational views
4. window type cannot be explained in plan except for width and location : window type
and height are shown in elevational views
5. show sill lines with a lighter line weight than wals, jambs and glass, since sills are not
in fact cut through

WALL INDIATIONS
- note that what is cut through in plan (walls, columns, etc.) takes precedence and
should be dominating value; what is seen within plan (flooring, counters, furniture, etc.)
should be lighter in value

RULES FOR DIMENSIONING FLOOR PLANS


1. architectural dimension lines are unbroken lines with dimensions placed above the
lines. Arrowheads, dots, small circles and diagonal lines are used to denote the
termination of the dimension line. Dots are used when the area to be dimensioned is
too small for arrowheads. Arrowheads may also be placed outside the extension lines
when the area is too small
2. dimensions should be placed to read from the right or from the bottom of the
drawing. The numerals should always be written above the lines
3. dimension lines are placed about 3/8 apart. To avoid crossing extension and
dimension lines, place the longer dimensions farther away from the plan. Overall
building dimensions are placed outside all other dimensions
4. when the area to be dimensioned is too small for the numerals, they are placed
outside the dimension lines. Do not try to fancy up dimensions with artistic numerals,
legibility is the only concern
5. rooms are dimensioned form the center line of partitions. In some cases, they may
be dimensioned from wall to wall, exclusive of wall thickness
6. in dimensioning stairs, the number of risers is placed on a line with an arrow
indicating the direction (up or down)
7. architectural dimensions always refer to the actual size of the building regardless of
the scale of the drawing
8. never crowd dimensions. To free the plan of excessive dimensions, the sizes of
doors and windows are given in the door and window schedule. All obvious dimensions
are also omitted

SECTIONS
architectural sections are drawings that show a building cut in half by an imaginary
plane called a cutting plane. All the material on one side of the cut is removed so that
the interior can be studied
the position of the cutting plane is shown by the cutting plane line. A cutting plane
line is a long heavy line followed by two dashes. It is placed in the part to be sectioned,
and the arrows at its ends show the direction from which the section is to be viewed
the cutting plane line often interferes with dimensions, notes and details. In this case,
an alternative method wherein only the extremes of the cutting plane line are used. The
cutting plane line is then assumed to be straight
KINDS OF SECTIONS
FULL SECTION
- a section cut through the entire building or component
a. cross section a section showing a crosswise cut through the building
b. longitudinal section a section showing a transverse or lengthwise cut through
building
OFFSET SECTION
- a section with a cutting plane line offset to permit it to cut through necessary features
HALF SECTION
- a cut to remove only one quarter of a symmetrical component. Thus both exterior and
interior can be shown in one view
POINTS TO REMEMBER IN DRAWING SECTIONS
1. a building material is only sectioned when the cutting plane line passes through it.
The outline of all other materials visible behind the plane of projection must also be
drawn in their proper position and scale
2. as with floor plans, whatever is cut through in taking a section (floor, walls, roof
structure, etc.) is profiled with a heavy line
3. cut sections through major elements in a building (major window openings,
doorways, changes in roof and floor levels, roof opening, etc.). never cut through

columns
4. it is good practice to include people in building design section to give a scale to the
spaces
5. the physical context of the building should always be shown buy indicating the earth
upon which it sits, which is also cut through
6. construction details and foundations need not be indicated in design sections
RULES FOR DIMENSIONING SECTIONS
1. vertical dimensions should be read from the right of the drawing
2. levels to be dimensions should be labeled with a note, term or abbreviation
3. room heights are shown by dimensioning from the floor line to the ceiling line
4. the height of windows and doors are dimensioned from the floor line to the top of
windows and doors. Windows and doors may be indexed to a door and window
schedule, or the style of the windows and doors may be shown on the sectional
drawing.
5. sectional dimensions show only vertical distances. horizontal distances are shown in
the floor plan
6. dimensions for small, complex, or obscure areas should be indicated to a separate
detail
7. overall height dimensions are placed on the outside of subdimensions
ELEVATIONS
- the main feature of the outside of a building are shown on the elevation drawings.
Elevation drawings are orthographic drawings of the exterior of a building. They are
prepared to show the design, materials, dimensions, and final appearance of the
exterior of a building
- only horizontal distances can be established in the floor plan. Thus, the vertical height
such as the height of windows and doors must be shown on the elevations
4 TYPES OF ELEVATION ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONAL ORIENTATION
front elevation
- the view projected from the front of a building

rear elevation
- the view projected from the rear of a building
right side elevation
- the view projected from the right side of a building
left side elevation
- the view projected form the left side of a building
ELEVATIONS ACCORDING TO COMPASS ORIENTAITON
- a method of projecting the elevations of a building with no so-called front or rear view
STEPS IN PROJECTING ELEVATIONS
The major lines of an elevation are derived by projecting vertical lines from the floor
plan, and measuring the position of the horizontal lines from the ground line
vertical line projection
- vertical lines represents the main lines of a building should first be projected. These
lines show the overall length or width of the building. They also show the major parts or
offsets of the building. The position of the doors and windows are also projected from
the floor plan
horizontal line projection
- horizontal lines that represents the height of the eave line and ridge line above the
ground are measured, then drawn to intersect with the vertical lines drawn from the
floor plan. The intersection of these lines provide the overall outline for the elevation
KITCHENS
A well planned kitchen is efficient, attractive and easy to maintain. In designing an
efficient kitchen, the following must be considered:
a. function
b. basic shape
c. dcor

d. size
e. location of equipment
FUNCTION OF A KITCHEN
The basic function of a kitchen is food preparation. In some cases, the kitchen is also
used as an informal dining area and as a laundry area
THREE AREAS OF THE KITCHEN
storage center
- the focal point of the storage center is the refrigerator, although many cabinets for
non-refrigerated food, dishes and utensils must be provided. The refrigerator may be
free-standing, built-in or suspended from a wall
- to save steps, the refrigerator may be located near the delivery door, or nearest the
door to the living/dining area
preparation and cleaning center
- this center is built around the sink and its adjoining counter space
- the preparation and cleaning center may also include a waste-disposal unit, an
automatic dishwasher, and cabinets for storing brushes, towels and cleaning supplies
cooking center
- the cooking center is grouped around the range/stove. Range-oven combinations are
often 36 inches or 0.90 meter high, so counters should be designed at the same height
- the cooking center should also include countertop workspaces, as well as storage for
small appliances and cooking utensils that will be used in the area. The cooking center
must have an adequate supply of electrical outlets for the minor appliances used in
cooking
WORK TRIANGLE
If you draw a line connecting the three centers of the kitchen, a triangle is formed. This
is called a work triangle. The perimeter of an efficient work triangle should be between
12 and 22 feet or 3.7 and 6.7 meters

BASIC SHPAES OF THE KITCHEN


1. PULLMAN
- this shape of kitchen, consisting of a long corridor with utilities on either side, is often
used when space is at a premium. Doors may be at either end or one end only.
- this shape of kitchen is unsatisfactory if a considerable traffic passes through the work
triangle
- a Pullman kitchen produces one of the most efficient work triangles of all the
arrangement
2. U-SHAPED
- this type of kitchen has cabinets on three walls, the sink usually in the middle, and the
refrigerator and stoves on opposite sides. This plan is adaptable for both small and
large rooms
- in this arrangement, traffic passing through the kitchen is completely separated from
the work triangle
- the open space between the sides may be 4 or 5 (1.2 or 1.5m)
3. L-SHAPED
- probably the most commonly used arrangement, the L-shaped kitchen is efficient
because it allows for two doors without any interruption of countertop area
- this type of plan has continuous counters and appliances and equipment on two
adjoining walls. The work triangle is not often used for other kitchen facilities, such as
dining and laundry
- if the walls of an L-shaped kitchen are too long, the efficiency is destroyed
4. PENINSULA
- the peninsula kitchen is similar to the U kitchen. However, one end of the U is not
enclosed with a wall. The peninsula is often used to adjoin the kitchen to the dining or
family rooms
- this kind of layout may be used only with large rooms. It is called peninsula when the
bar runs perpendicular to a wall, and an island when it is freestanding

5. ONE-WALL
- this layout is used when a kitchen must be fitted in a long, narrow space such as in
small apartments, cabins or houses where little space is available
- the work centers are located in an efficient although not ideal arrangement. In
planning the one-wall kitchen, the designer must be very careful to avoid having the
wall too long, and must provide adequate storage facilities
LOCATION OF THE KITCHEN
The kitchen must be located near the service entrance and near the waste disposal
area. If possible, the childrens play area should also be visible from the kitchen. The
kitchen must always be adjacent to the dining area or when provided, outdoor dining
areas.
GUIDES IN PLANNING A KITCHEN
1. the traffic lane is clear of the work triangle
2. the work areas include all necessary appliances and facilities. Electrical outlets must
be provided for the appliances. There must be adequate storage centers for all work
areas
3. the kitchen is located adjacent to the dining area and near the childrens area
4. the work triangle measures less than 22 or 6.7m
5. shadowless and glareless light is provided and is concentrated on each work center
6. adequate counter space is provided for meal preparation
7. ventilation is adequate
8. the oven/range/stove is separated from the refrigerator by at least one cabinet
9. working height for counter is 36 or 0.90m
10. the combination of base cabinets, wall cabinets, and appliances provides a
consistent standard unit without gaps or awkward extension or depressions