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Football
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Footballreferstoanumberofteamsportsthatinvolve,to
varyingdegrees,kickingaballtoscoreagoal.
Unqualified,thewordfootballisunderstoodtoreferto
whicheverformoffootballisthemostpopularinthe
regionalcontextinwhichthewordappears.Sports
commonlycalled'football'incertainplacesinclude:
associationfootball(knownassoccerinsomecountries)
gridironfootball(specificallyAmericanfootballor
Canadianfootball)Australianrulesfootballrugby
football(eitherrugbyleagueorrugbyunion)andGaelic
football.[1][2]Thesedifferentvariationsoffootballare
knownasfootballcodes.
Variousformsoffootballcanbeidentifiedinhistory,often
aspopularpeasantgames.Contemporarycodesoffootball
canbetracedbacktothecodificationofthesegamesat
Englishpublicschoolsduringthenineteenthcentury.[3][4]
TheexpanseoftheBritishEmpireallowedtheserulesof
Severalcodesoffootball.Images,fromtop
footballtospreadtoareasofBritishinfluenceoutsideof
down,lefttoright:associationfootball,
[5]
thedirectlycontrolledEmpire, thoughbytheendofthe
Australianrulesfootball,internationalrules
nineteenthcentury,distinctregionalcodeswerealready
football,arugbyunionscrum,rugbyleague,
developing:Gaelicfootball,forexample,deliberately
andAmericanfootball.
incorporatedtherulesoflocaltraditionalfootballgamesin
ordertomaintaintheirheritage.[6]In1888,TheFootball
LeaguewasfoundedinEngland,becomingthefirstofmanyprofessionalfootballcompetitions.During
thetwentiethcentury,severalofthevariouskindsoffootballgrewtobecomesomeofthemostpopular
teamsportsintheworld.[7]

Contents
1 Commonelements
2 Etymology
3 Earlyhistory
3.1 Ancientgames
3.2 MedievalandearlymodernEurope
3.3 CalcioFiorentino
3.4 Officialdisapprovalandattemptstobanfootball
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4 Establishmentofmoderncodes
4.1 Englishpublicschools
4.2 Firsts
4.3 Cambridgerules
4.4 Sheffieldrules
4.5 Australianrules
4.6 FootballAssociation
4.7 Rugbyfootball
4.8 NorthAmericanfootballcodes
4.9 Gaelicfootball
4.10 SchisminRugbyfootball
4.11 Globalisationofassociationfootball
4.12 Furtherdivergenceofthetworugbycodes
5 Useoftheword"football"
6 Footballcodesboard
6.1 Footballcodesdevelopmenttree
7 Presentdaycodesandfamilies
7.1 Associationfootballanddescendants
7.2 Rugbyschoolfootballanddescendants
7.3 IrishandAustralianvarieties
7.4 Survivingmedievalballgames
7.5 SurvivingUKschoolgames
7.6 Recentinventionsandhybridgames
7.7 Tabletopgames,videogamesandotherrecreations
8 Seealso
9 Notes
10 References
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Commonelements
Thevariouscodesoffootballsharecertaincommonelements.PlayersinAmericanfootball,Canadian
football,rugbyunionandrugbyleaguetakeuppositionsinalimitedareaofthefieldatthestartofthe
game.[8]Theytendtousethrowingandrunningasthemainwaysofmovingtheball,andonlykickon
certainlimitedoccasions.Bodytacklingisamajorskill,andgamestypicallyinvolveshortpassagesof
playof590seconds.[8]Associationfootball,AustralianrulesfootballandGaelicfootballtendtouse
kickingtomovetheballaroundthepitch,withhandlingmorelimited.Bodytacklesarelesscentralto
thegame,andplayersarefreertomovearoundthefield(offsidelawsaretypicallylessstrict).[8]
Commonrulesamongthesportsinclude:[9]
Twoteamsofusuallybetween11and18playerssomevariationsthathavefewerplayers(fiveor
moreperteam)arealsopopular.
Aclearlydefinedareainwhichtoplaythegame.
Scoringgoalsorpoints,bymovingtheballtoanopposingteam'sendofthefieldandeitherintoa
goalarea,oroveraline.
Goalsorpointsresultingfromplayersputtingtheballbetweentwogoalposts.
Thegoalorlinebeingdefendedbytheopposingteam.
Playersbeingrequiredtomovetheballdependingonthecodebykicking,carrying,orhand
passingtheball.
Playersusingonlytheirbodytomovetheball.
Inallcodes,commonskillsincludepassing,tackling,evasionoftackles,catchingandkicking.[8]Inmost
codes,therearerulesrestrictingthemovementofplayersoffside,andplayersscoringagoalmustputthe
balleitherunderoroveracrossbarbetweenthegoalposts.

Etymology
Thereareconflictingexplanationsoftheoriginoftheword"football".Itiswidelyassumedthatthe
word"football"(or"football")referencestheactionofthefootkickingaball.[10]Thereisanalternative
explanation,whichisthatfootballoriginallyreferredtoavarietyofgamesinmedievalEurope,which
wereplayedonfoot.Thereisnoconclusiveevidenceforeitherexplanation.

Earlyhistory
Ancientgames
TheAncientGreeksandRomansareknowntohaveplayedmanyballgames,someofwhichinvolved
theuseofthefeet.TheRomangameharpastumisbelievedtohavebeenadaptedfromaGreekteam
gameknownas""(Episkyros)[11][12]or""(phaininda),[13]whichismentionedbya
Greekplaywright,Antiphanes(388311BC)andlaterreferredtobytheChristiantheologianClement
ofAlexandria(c.150c.215AD).Thesegamesappeartohaveresembledrugby
football.[14][15][16][17][18]TheRomanpoliticianCicero(10643BC)describesthecaseofamanwhowas
killedwhilsthavingashavewhenaballwaskickedintoabarber'sshop.Romanballgamesalready
knewtheairfilledball,thefollis.[19][20]EpiskyrosisrecognisedasanearlyformoffootballbyFIFA.[21]
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TheJapaneseversionofcujuiskemari(),andwasdevelopedduringtheAsukaperiod.[22]Thisis
knowntohavebeenplayedwithintheJapaneseimperialcourtinKyotofromabout600AD.Inkemari
severalpeoplestandinacircleandkickaballtoeachother,tryingnottolettheballdroptotheground
(muchlikekeepieuppie).Thegameappearstohavediedoutsometimebeforethemid19thcentury.It
wasrevivedin1903andisnowplayedatanumberoffestivals.
Thereareanumberofreferencestotraditional,ancient,orprehistoricballgames,playedbyindigenous
peoplesinmanydifferentpartsoftheworld.Forexample,in1586,menfromashipcommandedbyan
EnglishexplorernamedJohnDavis,wentashoretoplayaformoffootballwithInuit(Eskimo)peoplein
Greenland.[23]TherearelateraccountsofanInuitgameplayedonice,calledAqsaqtuk.Eachmatch
beganwithtwoteamsfacingeachotherinparallellines,beforeattemptingtokicktheballthrougheach
otherteam'slineandthenatagoal.In1610,WilliamStrachey,acolonistatJamestown,Virginia
recordedagameplayedbyNativeAmericans,calledPahsaheman.OntheAustraliancontinentseveral
tribesofindigenouspeopleplayedkickingandcatchinggameswithstuffedballswhichhavebeen
generalisedbyhistoriansasMarnGrook(DjabWurrungfor"gameball").Theearliesthistoricalaccount
isananecdotefromthe1878bookbyRobertBroughSmyth,TheAboriginesofVictoria,inwhicha
mancalledRichardThomasisquotedassaying,inabout1841inVictoria,Australia,thathehad
witnessedAboriginalpeopleplayingthegame:"MrThomasdescribeshowtheforemostplayerwill
dropkickaballmadefromtheskinofapossumandhowotherplayersleapintotheairinordertocatch
it."SomehistorianshavetheorisedthatMarnGrookwasoneoftheoriginsofAustralianrulesfootball.
TheMoriinNewZealandplayedagamecalledKiorahiconsistingofteamsofsevenplayersplayon
acircularfielddividedintozones,andscorepointsbytouchingthe'pou'(boundarymarkers)andhitting
acentral'tupu'ortarget.
GamesplayedinMesoamericawithrubberballsbyindigenouspeoplesarealsowelldocumentedas
existingsincebeforethistime,butthesehadmoresimilaritiestobasketballorvolleyball,andsincetheir
influenceonmodernfootballgamesisminimal,mostdonotclassthemasfootball.Northeastern
AmericanIndians,especiallytheIroquoisConfederation,playedagamewhichmadeuseofnetracquets
tothrowandcatchasmallballhowever,althoughitisaballgoalfootgame,lacrosse(asitsmodern
descendantiscalled)islikewisenotusuallyclassedasaformof"football."
Thesegamesandothersmaywellgofarbackintoantiquity.However,themainsourcesofmodern
footballcodesappeartolieinwesternEurope,especiallyEngland.

AncientGreekfootballplayer
balancingtheball.Depictiononan
AtticLekythos.

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ASongDynastypaintingbySu
Hanchen,depictingChinesechildren
playingcuju.

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PaintofaMesoamericanballgame
playeroftheTepantitlamuralsin
Teotihuacan.

Arevivedversionofkemaribeing
playedattheTanzanShrine,Japan.

Anillustrationfromthe1850sof
AustralianAboriginalhuntergatherers.
File:Childreninthebackgroundare
playingafootballgame,possibly

Agroupofaboriginesplayingfootball
inGuiana.

Woggabaliri.[24]

MedievalandearlymodernEurope
TheMiddleAgessawahugeriseinpopularityofannualShrovetidefootballmatchesthroughout
Europe,particularlyinEngland.AnearlyreferencetoaballgameplayedinBritaincomesfromthe9th
centuryHistoriaBrittonum,whichdescribes"apartyofboys...playingatball".[25]Referencestoaball
gameplayedinnorthernFranceknownasLaSouleorChoule,inwhichtheballwaspropelledbyhands,
feet,andsticks,[26]datefromthe12thcentury.[27]
TheearlyformsoffootballplayedinEngland,sometimesreferredtoas"mobfootball",wouldbeplayed
betweenneighbouringtownsandvillages,involvinganunlimitednumberofplayersonopposingteams
whowouldclashenmasse,[28]strugglingtomoveanitem,suchasinflatedanimal'sbladder[29]to
particulargeographicalpoints,suchastheiropponents'church,withplaytakingplaceintheopenspace
betweenneighbouringparishes.[30]Thegamewasplayedprimarilyduringsignificantreligiousfestivals,
suchasShrovetide,Christmas,orEaster,[29]andShrovetidegameshavesurvivedintothemodernerain
anumberofEnglishtowns(seebelow).

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Thefirstdetaileddescriptionofwhatwasalmostcertainly
footballinEnglandwasgivenbyWilliamFitzStepheninabout
11741183.HedescribedtheactivitiesofLondonyouthsduring
theannualfestivalofShroveTuesday:
Afterlunchalltheyouthofthecitygooutintothe
fieldstotakepartinaballgame.Thestudentsof
eachschoolhavetheirownballtheworkersfrom
eachcitycraftarealsocarryingtheirballs.Older
citizens,fathers,andwealthycitizenscomeon
horsebacktowatchtheirjuniorscompeting,andto
relivetheirownyouthvicariously:youcanseetheir
innerpassionsarousedastheywatchtheactionand
getcaughtupinthefunbeinghadbythecarefree
adolescents.[31]

Anillustrationofsocalled"mob
football"

Mostoftheveryearlyreferencestothegamespeaksimplyof"ballplay"or"playingatball".This
reinforcestheideathatthegamesplayedatthetimedidnotnecessarilyinvolveaballbeingkicked.
Anearlyreferencetoaballgamethatwasprobablyfootballcomesfrom1280atUlgham,
Northumberland,England:"Henry...whileplayingatball..ranagainstDavid".[32]Footballwasplayed
inIrelandin1308,withadocumentedreferencetoJohnMcCrocan,aspectatorata"footballgame"at
Newcastle,CountyDownbeingchargedwithaccidentallystabbingaplayernamedWilliamBernard.[33]
Anotherreferencetoafootballgamecomesin1321atShouldham,Norfolk,England:"[d]uringthe
gameatballashekickedtheball,alayfriendofhis...ranagainsthimandwoundedhimself".[32]
In1314,NicholasdeFarndone,LordMayoroftheCityofLondonissuedadecreebanningfootballin
theFrenchusedbytheEnglishupperclassesatthetime.Atranslationreads:"[f]orasmuchasthereis
greatnoiseinthecitycausedbyhustlingoverlargefootballs[rageriesdegrossespelotesdepee][34]in
thefieldsofthepublicfromwhichmanyevilsmightarisewhichGodforbid:wecommandandforbid
onbehalfoftheking,onpainofimprisonment,suchgametobeusedinthecityinthefuture."Thisis
theearliestreferencetofootball.
In1363,KingEdwardIIIofEnglandissuedaproclamationbanning"...handball,football,orhockey
coursingandcockfighting,orothersuchidlegames",[35]showingthat"football"whateveritsexact
forminthiscasewasbeingdifferentiatedfromgamesinvolvingotherpartsofthebody,suchas
handball.
Agameknownas"football"wasplayedinScotlandasearlyasthe15thcentury:itwasprohibitedbythe
FootballAct1424andalthoughthelawfellintodisuseitwasnotrepealeduntil1906.Thereisevidence
forschoolboysplayinga"football"ballgameinAberdeenin1633(somereferencescite1636)whichis
notableasanearlyallusiontowhatsomehaveconsideredtobepassingtheball.Theword"pass"inthe
mostrecenttranslationisderivedfrom"hucpercute"(strikeithere)andlater"repercutepilam"(strike
theballagain)intheoriginalLatin.Itisnotcertainthattheballwasbeingstruckbetweenmembersof
thesameteam.Theoriginalwordtranslatedas"goal"is"metum",literallymeaningthe"pillarateach
endofthecircuscourse"inaRomanchariotrace.Thereisareferenceto"getholdoftheballbefore
[anotherplayer]does"(Praeripeillipilamsipossisagere)suggestingthathandlingoftheballwas
allowed.Onesentencestatesintheoriginal1930translation"Throwyourselfagainsthim"(Age,objice
teilli).
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KingHenryIVofEnglandalsopresentedoneoftheearliest
documentedusesoftheEnglishword"football",in1409,when
heissuedaproclamationforbiddingthelevyingofmoneyfor
"foteball".[32][36]
ThereisalsoanaccountinLatinfromtheendofthe15thcentury
offootballbeingplayedatCawston,Nottinghamshire.Thisisthe
firstdescriptionofa"kickinggame"andthefirstdescriptionof
dribbling:"[t]hegameatwhichtheyhadmetforcommon
recreationiscalledbysomethefootballgame.Itisoneinwhich
youngmen,incountrysport,propelahugeballnotbythrowing
Francecirca1750
itintotheairbutbystrikingitandrollingitalongtheground,
andthatnotwiththeirhandsbutwiththeirfeet...kickingin
oppositedirections"Thechroniclergivestheearliestreferencetoafootballpitch,statingthat:"[t]he
boundarieshavebeenmarkedandthegamehadstarted.[32]
Otherfirstsinthemedivalandearlymoderneras:
"afootball",inthesenseofaballratherthanagame,wasfirstmentionedin1486.[36]This
referenceisinDameJulianaBerners'BookofStAlbans.Itstates:"acertainroundeinstrumentto
playwith...itisaninstrumentforthefooteandthenitiscaldeinLatyn'pilapedalis',a
fotebal."[32]
apairoffootballbootswasorderedbyKingHenryVIIIofEnglandin1526.[37]
womenplayingaformoffootballwasfirstdescribedin1580bySirPhilipSidneyinoneofhis
poems:"[a]tymethereisforall,mymotheroftensayes,Whenshe,withskirtstucktveryhy,with
girlesatfootballplayes."[38]
thefirstreferencestogoalsareinthelate16thandearly17thcenturies.In1584and1602
respectively,JohnNordenandRichardCarewreferredto"goals"inCornishhurling.Carew
describedhowgoalsweremade:"theypitchtwobushesintheground,someeightortenfoote
asunderanddirectlyagainstthem,tenortwelue[twelve]scoreoff,othertwayneinlikedistance,
whichtheytermetheirGoales".[39]Heisalsothefirsttodescribegoalkeepersandpassingofthe
ballbetweenplayers.
thefirstdirectreferencetoscoringagoalisinJohnDay'splayTheBlindBeggarofBethnal
Green(performedcirca1600published1659):"I'llplayagoleatcampball"(anextremely
violentvarietyoffootball,whichwaspopularinEastAnglia).Similarlyinapoemin1613,
MichaelDraytonrefersto"whentheBalltothrow,AnddriveittotheGole,insquadronsforth
theygoe".

CalcioFiorentino
Inthe16thcentury,thecityofFlorencecelebratedtheperiodbetweenEpiphanyandLentbyplayinga
gamewhichtodayisknownas"calciostorico"("historickickball")inthePiazzaSantaCroce.The
youngaristocratsofthecitywoulddressupinfinesilkcostumesandembroilthemselvesinaviolent
formoffootball.Forexample,calcioplayerscouldpunch,shouldercharge,andkickopponents.Blows
belowthebeltwereallowed.Thegameissaidtohaveoriginatedasamilitarytrainingexercise.In1580,
CountGiovannide'BardidiVerniowroteDiscorsosopra'lgiuocodelCalcioFiorentino.Thisis
sometimessaidtobetheearliestcodeofrulesforanyfootballgame.Thegamewasnotplayedafter
January1739(untilitwasrevivedinMay1930).

Officialdisapprovalandattemptstobanfootball
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Therehavebeenmanyattemptstobanfootball,fromthemiddle
agesthroughtothemodernday.Thefirstsuchlawwaspassedin
Englandin1314itwasfollowedbymorethan30inEngland
alonebetween1314and1667.[40]:6Footballfacedarmed
oppositioninthe18thCenturywhenusedasacoverforviolent
protestagainsttheenclosureact.Womenwerebannedfrom
playingatEnglishandScottishFootballLeaguegroundsin1921,
abanthatwasonlyliftedinthe1970s.Femalefootballersstill
facesimilarproblemsinsomepartsoftheworld.

Establishmentofmoderncodes
Englishpublicschools

AnillustrationoftheCalcio
Fiorentinofieldandstarting
positions,froma1688bookbyPietro
diLorenzoBini.

WhilefootballcontinuedtobeplayedinvariousformsthroughoutBritain,itspublicschools(knownas
privateschoolsinothercountries)arewidelycreditedwithfourkeyachievementsinthecreationof
modernfootballcodes.Firstofall,theevidencesuggeststhattheywereimportantintakingfootball
awayfromits"mob"formandturningitintoanorganisedteamsport.Second,manyearlydescriptions
offootballandreferencestoitwererecordedbypeoplewhohadstudiedattheseschools.Third,itwas
teachers,studentsandformerstudentsfromtheseschoolswhofirstcodifiedfootballgames,toenable
matchestobeplayedbetweenschools.Finally,itwasatEnglishpublicschoolsthatthedivisionbetween
"kicking"and"running"(or"carrying")gamesfirstbecameclear.
TheearliestevidencethatgamesresemblingfootballwerebeingplayedatEnglishpublicschools
mainlyattendedbyboysfromtheupper,uppermiddleandprofessionalclassescomesfromthe
VulgariabyWilliamHermanin1519.HermanhadbeenheadmasteratEtonandWinchestercolleges
andhisLatintextbookincludesatranslationexercisewiththephrase"Wewyllplayewithaballfullof
wynde".[41]
RichardMulcaster,astudentatEtonCollegeintheearly16thcenturyandlaterheadmasteratother
Englishschools,hasbeendescribedas"thegreatestsixteenthCenturyadvocateoffootball".[42]Among
hiscontributionsaretheearliestevidenceoforganisedteamfootball.Mulcaster'swritingsrefertoteams
("sides"and"parties"),positions("standings"),areferee("judgeovertheparties")andacoach"
(trayningmaister)".Mulcaster's"footeball"hadevolvedfromthedisorderedandviolentformsof
traditionalfootball:
[s]omesmallernumberwithsuchoverlooking,sortedintosidesandstandings,notmeeting
withtheirbodiessoboisterouslytotrietheirstrength:norshouldringorshuffingonean
othersobarbarously...mayusefooteballforasmuchgoodtothebody,bythechiefeuseof
thelegges.[43]
In1633,DavidWedderburn,ateacherfromAberdeen,mentionedelementsofmodernfootballgamesin
ashortLatintextbookcalledVocabula.Wedderburnreferstowhathasbeentranslatedintomodern
Englishas"keepinggoal"andmakesanallusiontopassingtheball("strikeithere").Thereisa
referenceto"getholdoftheball",suggestingthatsomehandlingwasallowed.Itisclearthatthetackles
allowedincludedthechargingandholdingofopposingplayers("drivethatmanback").

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AmoredetaileddescriptionoffootballisgiveninFrancisWillughby'sBookofGames,writteninabout
1660.[44]Willughby,whohadstudiedatBishopVesey'sGrammarSchool,SuttonColdfield,isthefirst
todescribegoalsandadistinctplayingfield:"aclosethathasagateateitherend.Thegatesarecalled
Goals."Hisbookincludesadiagramillustratingafootballfield.Healsomentionstactics("leavingsome
oftheirbestplayerstoguardthegoal")scoring("theythatcanstriketheballthroughtheiropponents'
goalfirstwin")andthewayteamswereselected("theplayersbeingequallydividedaccordingtotheir
strengthandnimbleness").Heisthefirsttodescribea"law"offootball:"theymustnotstrike[an
opponent'sleg]higherthantheball".
Englishpublicschoolswerethefirsttocodifyfootballgames.Inparticular,theydevisedthefirstoffside
rules,duringthelate18thcentury.[45]Intheearliestmanifestationsoftheserules,playerswere"offtheir
side"iftheysimplystoodbetweentheballandthegoalwhichwastheirobjective.Playerswerenot
allowedtopasstheballforward,eitherbyfootorbyhand.Theycouldonlydribblewiththeirfeet,or
advancetheballinascrumorsimilarformation.However,offsidelawsbegantodivergeanddevelop
differentlyateachschool,asisshownbytherulesoffootballfromWinchester,Rugby,Harrowand
Cheltenham,duringbetween1810and1850.[45]Thefirstknowncodesinthesenseofasetofrules
werethoseofEtonin1815[46]andAldenhamin1825.[46])
Duringtheearly19thcentury,mostworkingclasspeopleinBritainhadtoworksixdaysaweek,often
forovertwelvehoursaday.Theyhadneitherthetimenortheinclinationtoengageinsportfor
recreationand,atthetime,manychildrenwerepartofthelabourforce.Feastdayfootballplayedonthe
streetswasindecline.Publicschoolboys,whoenjoyedsomefreedomfromwork,becametheinventors
oforganisedfootballgameswithformalcodesofrules.
Footballwasadoptedbyanumberofpublicschoolsasawayofencouragingcompetitivenessand
keepingyouthsfit.Eachschooldrafteditsownrules,whichvariedwidelybetweendifferentschoolsand
werechangedovertimewitheachnewintakeofpupils.Twoschoolsofthoughtdevelopedregarding
rules.Someschoolsfavouredagameinwhichtheballcouldbecarried(asatRugby,Marlboroughand
Cheltenham),whileotherspreferredagamewherekickinganddribblingtheballwaspromoted(asat
Eton,Harrow,WestminsterandCharterhouse).Thedivisionintothesetwocampswaspartlytheresult
ofcircumstancesinwhichthegameswereplayed.Forexample,CharterhouseandWestminsteratthe
timehadrestrictedplayingareastheboyswereconfinedtoplayingtheirballgamewithintheschool
cloisters,makingitdifficultforthemtoadoptroughandtumblerunninggames.
WilliamWebbEllis,apupilatRugbySchool,issaidtohave
"withafinedisregardfortherulesoffootball,asplayedinhis
time[emphasisadded],firsttooktheballinhisarmsandranwith
it,thuscreatingthedistinctivefeatureoftherugbygame."in
1823.ThisactisusuallysaidtobethebeginningofRugby
football,butthereislittleevidencethatitoccurred,andmost
sportshistoriansbelievethestorytobeapocryphal.Theactof
'takingtheballinhisarms'isoftenmisinterpretedas'pickingthe
RugbySchool
ballup'asitiswidelybelievedthatWebbEllis''crime'was
handlingtheball,asinmodernsoccer,howeverhandlingtheball
atthetimewasoftenpermittedandinsomecasescompulsory,[47]theruleforwhichWebbEllisshowed
disregardwasrunningforwardwithitastherulesofhistimeonlyallowedaplayertoretreatbackwards
orkickforwards.
TheboominrailtransportinBritainduringthe1840smeantthatpeoplewereabletotravelfurtherand
withlessinconveniencethantheyeverhadbefore.Interschoolsportingcompetitionsbecamepossible.
However,itwasdifficultforschoolstoplayeachotheratfootball,aseachschoolplayedbyitsown
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rules.Thesolutiontothisproblemwasusuallythatthematchbedividedintotwohalves,onehalf
playedbytherulesofthehost"home"school,andtheotherhalfbythevisiting"away"school.
Themodernrulesofmanyfootballcodeswereformulatedduringthemidorlate19thcentury.This
alsoappliestoothersportssuchaslawnbowls,lawntennis,etc.Themajorimpetusforthiswasthe
patentingoftheworld'sfirstlawnmowerin1830.Thisallowedforthepreparationofmodernovals,
playingfields,pitches,grasscourts,etc.[48]
ApartfromRugbyfootball,thepublicschoolcodeshavebarelybeenplayedbeyondtheconfinesofeach
school'splayingfields.However,manyofthemarestillplayedattheschoolswhichcreatedthem(see
SurvivingUKschoolgamesbelow).
Publicschools'dominanceofsportsintheUKbegantowaneaftertheFactoryActof1850,which
significantlyincreasedtherecreationtimeavailabletoworkingclasschildren.Before1850,many
Britishchildrenhadtoworksixdaysaweek,formorethantwelvehoursaday.From1850,theycould
notworkbefore6a.m.(7a.m.inwinter)orafter6p.m.onweekdays(7p.m.inwinter)onSaturdays
theyhadtoceaseworkat2p.m.Thesechangesmeanthatworkingclasschildrenhadmoretimefor
games,includingvariousformsoffootball.

Firsts
Clubs
Sportsclubsdedicatedtoplayingfootballbeganinthe18thcentury,forexampleLondon'sGymnastic
Societywhichwasfoundedinthemid18thcenturyandceasedplayingmatchesin1796.[49][50]
Thefirstdocumentedclubtobearinthetitleareferencetobeinga'footballclub'werecalled"TheFoot
BallClub"whowerelocatedinEdinburgh,Scotland,duringtheperiod182441.[51][52]Theclubforbade
trippingbutallowedpushingandholdingandthepickingupoftheball.[52]
In1845,threeboysatRugbyschoolweretaskedwithcodifyingtherulesthenbeingusedattheschool.
Thesewerethefirstsetofwrittenrules(orcode)foranyformoffootball.[53]Thisfurtherassistedthe
spreadoftheRugbygame.
Competitions
OneofthelongestrunningfootballfixtureistheCordnerEgglestonCup,contestedbetweenMelbourne
GrammarSchoolandScotchCollege,Melbourneeveryyearsince1858.Itisbelievedbymanytoalso
bethefirstmatchofAustralianrulesfootball,althoughitwasplayedunderexperimentalrulesinitsfirst
year.ThefirstfootballtrophytournamentwastheCaledonianChallengeCup,donatedbytheRoyal
CaledonianSocietyofMelbourne,playedin1861undertheMelbourneRules.[54]Theoldestfootball
leagueisarugbyfootballcompetition,theUnitedHospitalsChallengeCup(1874),whiletheoldest
rugbytrophyistheYorkshireCup,contestedsince1878.TheSouthAustralianFootballAssociation(30
April1877)istheoldestsurvivingAustralianrulesfootballcompetition.Theoldestsurvivingsoccer
trophyistheYoudanCup(1867)andtheoldestnationalsoccercompetitionistheEnglishFACup
(1871).TheFootballLeague(1888)isrecognisedasthelongestrunningAssociationFootballleague.
ThefirsteverinternationalfootballmatchtookplacebetweensidesrepresentingEnglandandScotland
onMarch5,1870attheOvalundertheauthorityoftheFA.ThefirstRugbyinternationaltookplacein
1871.
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Modernballs
InEurope,earlyfootballsweremadeoutofanimalbladders,more
specificallypig'sbladders,whichwereinflated.Laterleathercoverings
wereintroducedtoallowtheballstokeeptheirshape.[55]However,in
1851,RichardLindonandWilliamGilbert,bothshoemakersfromthe
townofRugby(neartheschool),exhibitedbothroundandovalshaped
ballsattheGreatExhibitioninLondon.RichardLindon'swifeissaidto
havediedoflungdiseasecausedbyblowinguppig'sbladders.[56]
Lindonalsowonmedalsfortheinventionofthe"Rubberinflatable
Bladder"andthe"BrassHandPump".
In1855,theU.S.inventorCharlesGoodyearwhohadpatented
vulcanizedrubberexhibitedasphericalfootball,withanexteriorof
vulcanizedrubberpanels,attheParisExhibitionUniverselle.Theball
wastoprovepopularinearlyformsoffootballintheU.S.A.[57]
Theiconicballwitharegularpatternofhexagonsandpentagons(see
truncatedicosahedron)didnotbecomepopularuntilthe1960s,andwas
firstusedintheWorldCupin1970.

RichardLindon(seenin
1880)isbelievedtohave
inventedthefirstfootballs
withrubberbladders.

Modernballpassingtactics
Theearliestreferencetoagameoffootballinvolvingplayerspassingtheballandattemptingtoscore
pastagoalkeeperwaswrittenin1633byDavidWedderburn,apoetandteacherinAberdeen,
Scotland.[58]Nevertheless,theoriginaltextdoesnotstatewhethertheallusiontopassingas'kicktheball
back'('Repercutepilam')wasinaforwardorbackwarddirectionorbetweenmembersofthesame
opposingteams(aswasusualatthistime)[59]
"Scientific"footballisfirstrecordedin1839fromLancashire[60]andinthemoderngameinRugby
footballfrom1862[61]andfromSheffieldFCasearlyas1865.[62][63]Thefirstsidetoplayapassing
combinationgamewastheRoyalEngineersAFCin1869/70[64][65]By1869theywere"work[ing]well
together","backingup"andbenefitingfrom"cooperation".[66]By1870theEngineerswerepassingthe
ball:"Lieut.Creswell,whohavingbroughttheballupthesidethenkickeditintothemiddletoanother
ofhisside,whokickeditthroughthepoststheminutebeforetimewascalled"[67]Passingwasaregular
featureoftheirstyle[68]Byearly1872theEngineerswerethefirstfootballteamrenownedfor"play[ing]
beautifullytogether"[69]AdoublepassisfirstreportedfromDerbyschoolagainstNottinghamForestin
March1872,thefirstofwhichisirrefutablyashortpass:"MrAbseydribblingtheballhalfthelengthof
thefielddeliveredittoWallis,whokickingitcleverlyinfrontofthegoal,sentittothecaptainwho
droveitatoncebetweentheNottinghamposts"[70]Thefirstsidetohaveperfectedthemodernformation
wasCambridgeUniversityAFC[71][72][73]andintroducedthe235"pyramid"formation.[74][75]

Cambridgerules
In1848,atCambridgeUniversity,Mr.H.deWintonandMr.J.C.Thring,whowerebothformerlyat
ShrewsburySchool,calledameetingatTrinityCollege,Cambridgewith12otherrepresentativesfrom
Eton,Harrow,Rugby,WinchesterandShrewsbury.Aneighthourmeetingproducedwhatamountedto
thefirstsetofmodernrules,knownastheCambridgerules.Nocopyoftheserulesnowexists,buta
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revisedversionfromcirca1856isheldinthelibraryofShrewsburySchool.[76]Therulesclearlyfavour
thekickinggame.Handlingwasonlyallowedwhenaplayercatchestheballdirectlyfromthefoot
entitlingthemtoafreekickandtherewasaprimitiveoffsiderule,disallowingplayersfrom"loitering"
aroundtheopponents'goal.TheCambridgeruleswerenotwidelyadoptedoutsideEnglishpublic
schoolsanduniversities(butitwasarguablythemostsignificantinfluenceontheFootballAssociation
committeemembersresponsibleforformulatingtherulesofAssociationfootball).

Sheffieldrules
Bythelate1850s,manyfootballclubshadbeenformedthroughouttheEnglishspeakingworld,toplay
variouscodesoffootball.SheffieldFootballClub,foundedin1857intheEnglishcityofSheffieldby
NathanielCreswickandWilliamPrest,waslaterrecognisedastheworld'soldestclubplaying
associationfootball.[77]However,theclubinitiallyplayeditsowncodeoffootball:theSheffieldrules.
Thecodewaslargelyindependentofthepublicschoolrules,themostsignificantdifferencebeingthe
lackofanoffsiderule.
Thecodewasresponsibleformanyinnovationsthatlaterspreadtoassociationfootball.Theseincluded
freekicks,cornerkicks,handball,throwinsandthecrossbar.[78]Bythe1870stheybecamethe
dominantcodeinthenorthandmidlandsofEngland.Atthistimeaseriesofrulechangesbyboththe
LondonandSheffieldFAsgraduallyerodedthedifferencesbetweenthetwogamesuntiltheadoptionof
acommoncodein1877.

Australianrules
Thereisarchivalevidenceof"football"gamesbeingplayedinvarious
partsofAustraliathroughoutthefirsthalfofthe19thcentury.The
originsofanorganisedgameoffootballknowntodayasAustralianrules
footballcanbetracedbackto1858inMelbourne,thecapitalcityof
Victoria.

TomWills,widelyregarded
asthefatherofAustralian
football

InJuly1858,TomWills,anAustralianborncricketereducatedatRugby
SchoolinEngland,wrotealettertoBell'sLifeinVictoria&Sporting
Chronicle,callingfora"footballclub"witha"codeoflaws"tokeep
cricketersfitduringwinter.[79]Thisisconsideredbyhistorianstobea
definingmomentinthecreationofAustralianrulesfootball.Through
publicityandpersonalcontactsWillswasabletocoordinatefootball
matchesinMelbournethatexperimentedwithvariousrules,[80]thefirst
ofwhichwasplayedonJuly31,1858.Oneweeklater,Willsumpireda
schoolboysmatchbetweenMelbourneGrammarSchoolandScotch
College.Followingthesematches,organisedfootballinMelbourne
rapidlyincreasedinpopularity.

WillsandothersinvolvedintheseearlymatchesformedtheMelbourneFootballClub(theoldest
survivingAustralianfootballclub)onMay14,1859.ClubmembersWills,WilliamHammersley,J.B.
ThompsonandThomasH.Smithmetwiththeintentionofformingasetofrulesthatwouldbewidely
adoptedbyotherclubs.ThecommitteedebatedrulesusedinEnglishpublicschoolgamesWillspushed
forvariousrugbyfootballruleshelearntduringhisschooling.Thefirstrulessharesimilaritieswith
thesegames,andwereshapedtosuittoAustralianconditions.H.C.A.Harrison,aseminalfigurein

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Australianfootball,recalledthathiscousinWillswanted"agame
ofourown".[81]Thecodewasdistinctiveintheprevalenceofthe
mark,freekick,tackling,lackofanoffsideruleandthatplayers
werespecificallypenalisedforthrowingtheball.
TheMelbournefootballruleswerewidelydistributedand
graduallyadoptedbytheotherVictorianclubs.Theruleswere
updatedseveraltimesduringthe1860stoaccommodatetherules
ofotherinfluentialVictorianfootballclubs.Asignificantredraft
WoodengravingofanAustralian
in1866byH.C.A.Harrison'scommitteeaccommodatedthe
rulesfootballmatchattheRichmond
GeelongFootballClub'srules,makingthegamethenknownas
Paddock,Melbourne,1866
"VictorianRules"increasinglydistinctfromothercodes.Itsoon
adoptedcricketfieldsandanovalball,usedspecialisedgoaland
behindposts,andfeaturedbouncingtheballwhilerunningandspectacularhighmarking.Thegame
spreadquicklytootherAustraliancolonies.OutsideofitsheartlandinsouthernAustraliathecode
experiencedasignificantperiodofdeclinefollowingWorldWarIbuthassincegrownthroughout
Australiaandinotherpartsoftheworld,andtheAustralianFootballLeagueemergedasthedominant
professionalcompetition.

FootballAssociation

Thefirstfootballinternational,ScotlandversusEngland.OncekeptbytheRugbyFootballUnionasan
earlyexampleofrugbyfootball.

Duringtheearly1860s,therewereincreasingattemptsinEnglandtounifyandreconcilethevarious
publicschoolgames.In1862,J.C.Thring,whohadbeenoneofthedrivingforcesbehindtheoriginal
CambridgeRules,wasamasteratUppinghamSchoolandheissuedhisownrulesofwhathecalled
"TheSimplestGame"(thesearealsoknownastheUppinghamRules).InearlyOctober1863another
newrevisedversionoftheCambridgeRuleswasdrawnupbyasevenmembercommitteerepresenting
formerpupilsfromHarrow,Shrewsbury,Eton,Rugby,MarlboroughandWestminster.
AttheFreemasons'Tavern,GreatQueenStreet,LondonontheeveningofOctober26,1863,
representativesofseveralfootballclubsintheLondonMetropolitanareametfortheinauguralmeeting
ofTheFootballAssociation(FA).TheaimoftheAssociationwastoestablishasingleunifyingcode
andregulatetheplayingofthegameamongitsmembers.Followingthefirstmeeting,thepublicschools
wereinvitedtojointheassociation.Allofthemdeclined,exceptCharterhouseandUppingham.Intotal,
sixmeetingsoftheFAwereheldbetweenOctoberandDecember1863.Afterthethirdmeeting,adraft
setofruleswerepublished.However,atthebeginningofthefourthmeeting,attentionwasdrawntothe
recentlypublishedCambridgeRulesof1863.TheCambridgerulesdifferedfromthedraftFArulesin
twosignificantareasnamelyrunningwith(carrying)theballandhacking(kickingopposingplayersin
theshins).ThetwocontentiousFAruleswereasfollows:
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IX.Aplayershallbeentitledtorunwiththeballtowardshisadversaries'goalifhemakesa
faircatch,orcatchestheballonthefirstboundbutincaseofafaircatch,ifhemakeshis
markheshallnotrun.
X.Ifanyplayershallrunwiththeballtowardshisadversaries'goal,anyplayeronthe
oppositesideshallbeatlibertytocharge,hold,triporhackhim,ortowresttheballfrom
him,butnoplayershallbeheldandhackedatthesametime.
[82]
Atthefifthmeetingitwasproposedthatthesetworulesberemoved.Mostofthedelegatessupported
this,butF.M.Campbell,therepresentativefromBlackheathandthefirstFAtreasurer,objected.He
said:"hackingisthetruefootball".However,themotiontobanrunningwiththeballinhandand
hackingwascarriedandBlackheathwithdrewfromtheFA.Afterthefinalmeetingon8December,the
FApublishedthe"LawsofFootball",thefirstcomprehensivesetofrulesforthegamelaterknownas
AssociationFootball.Theterm"soccer",inusesincethelate19thcentury,derivesfromanOxford
Universityabbreviationof"Association".[83]
ThefirstFArulesstillcontainedelementsthatarenolongerpartofassociationfootball,butwhichare
stillrecognisableinothergames(suchasAustralianfootballandrugbyfootball):forinstance,aplayer
couldmakeafaircatchandclaimamark,whichentitledhimtoafreekickandifaplayertouchedthe
ballbehindtheopponents'goalline,hissidewasentitledtoafreekickatgoal,from15yards
(13.5metres)infrontofthegoalline.

Rugbyfootball
InBritain,by1870,therewereabout75clubsplayingvariations
oftheRugbyschoolgame.Therewerealso"rugby"clubsin
Ireland,Australia,CanadaandNewZealand.However,therewas
nogenerallyacceptedsetofrulesforrugbyuntil1871,when21
clubsfromLondoncametogethertoformtheRugbyFootball
Union(RFU).ThefirstofficialRFUruleswereadoptedinJune
1871.Theserulesallowedpassingtheball.Theyalsoincluded
thetry,wheretouchingtheballoverthelineallowedanattempt
atgoal,thoughdropgoalsfrommarksandgeneralplay,and
penaltyconversionswerestillthemainformofcontest.

Arugbyscrumin1871

NorthAmericanfootballcodes
AswasthecaseinBritain,bytheearly19thcentury,NorthAmericanschoolsanduniversitiesplayed
theirownlocalgames,betweensidesmadeupofstudents.Forexample,studentsatDartmouthCollege
inNewHampshireplayedagamecalledOlddivisionfootball,avariantoftheassociationfootball
codes,asearlyasthe1820s.[84]Theyremainedlargely"mobfootball"stylegames,withhugenumbers
ofplayersattemptingtoadvancetheballintoagoalarea,oftenbyanymeansnecessary.Ruleswere
simple,violenceandinjurywerecommon.[85]Theviolenceofthesemobstylegamesledtowidespread
protestsandadecisiontoabandonthem.YaleUniversity,underpressurefromthecityofNewHaven,
bannedtheplayofallformsoffootballin1860,whileHarvardUniversityfollowedsuitin1861.[85]In
itsplace,twogeneraltypesoffootballevolved:"kicking"gamesand"running"(or"carrying")games.A
hybridofthetwo,knownasthe"Bostongame",wasplayedbyagroupknownastheOneidaFootball
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Club.Theclub,consideredbysomehistoriansasthefirstformalfootballclubintheUnitedStates,was
formedin1862byschoolboyswhoplayedthe"Bostongame"onBostonCommon.[85][86]Thegame
begantoreturntoAmericancollegecampusesbythelate1860s.TheuniversitiesofYale,Princeton
(thenknownastheCollegeofNewJersey),Rutgers,andBrownallbeganplaying"kicking"games
duringthistime.In1867,PrincetonusedrulesbasedonthoseoftheEnglishFootballAssociation.[85]
InCanada,thefirstdocumentedfootballmatchwasapractice
gameplayedonNovember9,1861,atUniversityCollege,
UniversityofToronto(approximately400yardswestofQueen's
Park).OneoftheparticipantsinthegameinvolvingUniversity
ofTorontostudentswas(Sir)WilliamMulock,laterChancellor
oftheschool.[88]In1864,atTrinityCollege,Toronto,F.Barlow
Cumberland,FrederickA.Bethune,andChristopherGwynn,one
ofthefoundersofMilton,Massachusetts,devisedrulesbasedon
rugbyfootball.[88]A"runninggame",resemblingrugbyfootball,
wasthentakenupbytheMontrealFootballClubinCanadain
1868.[89]
OnNovember6,1869,RutgersfacedPrincetoninagamethat
wasplayedwitharoundballand,likeallearlygames,used
improvisedrules.Itisusuallyregardedasthefirstgameof
Americanintercollegiatefootball.[85][90]

The"Tigers"ofHamilton,Ontario,
circa1906.Founded1869asthe
HamiltonFootBallClub,they
eventuallymergedwiththeHamilton
FlyingWildcatstoformtheHamilton
TigerCats,ateamstillactiveinthe
CanadianFootballLeague. [87]

ModernNorthAmericanfootballgrewoutofamatchbetweenMcGillUniversityofMontreal,and
HarvardUniversityin1874.Duringthegame,thetwoteamsalternatedbetweentherugbybasedrules
usedbyMcGillandtheBostonGamerulesusedbyHarvard.[91][92][93]Withinafewyears,Harvardhad
bothadoptedMcGill'srulesandhadpersuadedotherU.S.universityteamstodothesame.On
November23,1876,representativesfromHarvard,Yale,Princeton,andColumbiametattheMassasoit
ConventioninSpringfield,Massachusetts,agreeingtoadoptmostoftheRugbyFootballUnionrules,
withsomevariations.[94]
In1880,YalecoachWalterCamp,whohadbecomeafixtureat
theMassasoitHouseconventionswheretherulesweredebated
andchanged,devisedanumberofmajorinnovations.Camp's
twomostimportantrulechangesthatdivergedtheAmerican
gamefromrugbywasreplacingthescrummagewiththelineof
scrimmageandtheestablishmentofthedownanddistance
rules.[94]Americanfootballstillhoweverremainedaviolent
sportwherecollisionsoftenledtoseriousinjuriesandsometimes
RutgersCollegeFootballTeam,1882
evendeath.[95]ThisledU.S.PresidentTheodoreRooseveltto
holdameetingwithfootballrepresentativesfromHarvard,Yale,
andPrincetononOctober9,1905,urgingthemtomakedrastic
changes.[96]Onerulechangeintroducedin1906,devisedtoopenupthegameandreduceinjury,wasthe
introductionofthelegalforwardpass.Thoughitwasunderutilizedforyears,thisprovedtobeoneofthe
mostimportantrulechangesintheestablishmentofthemoderngame.[97]
Overtheyears,CanadaabsorbedsomeofthedevelopmentsinAmericanfootballinaneffortto
distinguishitfromamorerugbyorientedgame.In1903,theOntarioRugbyFootballUnionadoptedthe
Burnsiderules,whichimplementedthelineofscrimmageanddownanddistancesystemfrom
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Americanfootball,amongothers.[98]Canadianfootballthenimplementedthelegalforwardpassin
1929.[99]AmericanandCanadianfootballremaindifferentcodes,stemmingfromrulechangesthatthe
AmericansideoftheborderadoptedbuttheCanadiansidehasnot.

Gaelicfootball
Inthemid19thcentury,varioustraditionalfootball
games,referredtocollectivelyascaid,remained
popularinIreland,especiallyinCountyKerry.One
observer,FatherW.Ferris,describedtwomain
formsofcaidduringthisperiod:the"fieldgame"in
whichtheobjectwastoputtheballthrougharch
likegoals,formedfromtheboughsoftwotreesand
TheAllIrelandFootballFinalinCrokePark,2004.
theepic"crosscountrygame"whichtookupmost
ofthedaylighthoursofaSundayonwhichitwas
played,andwaswonbyoneteamtakingtheballacrossaparishboundary."Wrestling","holding"
opposingplayers,andcarryingtheballwereallallowed.
Bythe1870s,RugbyandAssociationfootballhadstartedtobecomepopularinIreland.TrinityCollege,
DublinwasanearlystrongholdofRugby(seetheDevelopmentsinthe1850ssection,above).Therules
oftheEnglishFAwerebeingdistributedwidely.Traditionalformsofcaidhadbeguntogivewaytoa
"roughandtumblegame"whichallowedtripping.
TherewasnoseriousattempttounifyandcodifyIrishvarietiesoffootball,untiltheestablishmentofthe
GaelicAthleticAssociation(GAA)in1884.TheGAAsoughttopromotetraditionalIrishsports,suchas
hurlingandtorejectimportedgameslikeRugbyandAssociationfootball.ThefirstGaelicfootballrules
weredrawnupbyMauriceDavinandpublishedintheUnitedIrelandmagazineonFebruary7,1887.
Davin'srulesshowedtheinfluenceofgamessuchashurlingandadesiretoformaliseadistinctlyIrish
codeoffootball.Theprimeexampleofthisdifferentiationwasthelackofanoffsiderule(anattribute
which,formanyyears,wassharedonlybyotherIrishgameslikehurling,andbyAustralianrules
football).

SchisminRugbyfootball
TheInternationalRugbyFootballBoard(IRFB)wasfoundedin1886,butriftswerebeginningto
emergeinthecode.Professionalismwasbeginningtocreepintothevariouscodesoffootball.
InEngland,bythe1890s,alongstandingRugbyFootballUnionbanonprofessionalplayerswas
causingregionaltensionswithinrugbyfootball,asmanyplayersinnorthernEnglandwereworkingclass
andcouldnotaffordtotaketimeofftotrain,travel,playandrecoverfrominjuries.Thiswasnotvery
differentfromwhathadoccurredtenyearsearlierinsoccerinNorthernEnglandbuttheauthorities
reactedverydifferentlyintheRFU,attemptingtoalienatetheworkingclasssupportinNorthern
England.In1895,followingadisputeaboutaplayerbeingpaidbrokentimepayments,whichreplaced
wageslostasaresultofplayingrugby,representativesofthenorthernclubsmetinHuddersfieldtoform
theNorthernRugbyFootballUnion(NRFU).Thenewbodyinitiallypermittedonlyvarioustypesof
playerwagereplacements.However,withintwoyears,NRFUplayerscouldbepaid,buttheywere
requiredtohaveajoboutsidesport.
Thedemandsofaprofessionalleaguedictatedthatrugbyhadtobecomeabetter"spectator"sport.
WithinafewyearstheNRFUruleshadstartedtodivergefromtheRFU,mostnotablywiththeabolition
ofthelineout.Thiswasfollowedbythereplacementoftheruckwiththe"playtheballruck",which
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allowedatwoplayerruckcontestbetweenthetackleratmarker
andtheplayertackled.Maulswerestoppedoncetheballcarrier
washeld,beingreplacedbyaplaytheballruck.Theseparate
LancashireandYorkshirecompetitionsoftheNRFUmergedin
1901,formingtheNorthernRugbyLeague,thefirsttimethe
namerugbyleaguewasusedofficiallyinEngland.
Overtime,theRFUformofrugby,playedbyclubswhich
remainedmembersofnationalfederationsaffiliatedtotheIRFB,
becameknownasrugbyunion.

Globalisationofassociationfootball
Theneedforasinglebodytooverseeassociationfootballhad
becomeapparentbythebeginningofthe20thcentury,withthe
increasingpopularityofinternationalfixtures.TheEnglish
FootballAssociationhadchairedmanydiscussionsonsettingup
aninternationalbody,butwasperceivedasmakingnoprogress.
ItfelltoassociationsfromsevenotherEuropeancountries:
France,Belgium,Denmark,Netherlands,Spain,Sweden,and
Switzerland,toformaninternationalassociation.TheFdration
InternationaledeFootballAssociation(FIFA)wasfoundedin
ParisonMay21,1904.ItsfirstpresidentwasRobertGurin.The
Frenchnameandacronymhasremained,evenoutsideFrench
speakingcountries.

Furtherdivergenceofthetworugbycodes

AnEnglishcartoonfromthe1890s
lampooningthedivideinrugby
footballwhichledtotheformationof
rugbyleague.Thecaricaturesareof
Rev.FrankMarshall,anarch
opponentofplayerpayments,and
JamesMiller,alongtimeopponent
ofMarshall.Thecaptionreads:
Marshall:"Oh,fie,goawaynaughty
boy,Idon'tplaywithboyswhocant
affordtotakeaholidayforfootball
anydaytheylike!"Miller:"Yes,
that'sjustyoutoaTyoudmakeit
sothatnoladwhosefatherwasnta
millionairecouldplayatallina
reallygoodteam.FormypartIsee
noreasonwhythemenwhomakethe
moneyshouldnthaveashareinthe
spendingofit."

Rugbyleaguerulesdivergedsignificantlyfromrugbyunionin
1906,withthereductionoftheteamfrom15to13players.In
1907,aNewZealandprofessionalrugbyteamtouredAustralia
andBritain,receivinganenthusiasticresponse,andprofessional
rugbyleagueswerelaunchedinAustraliathefollowingyear.
However,therulesofprofessionalgamesvariedfromone
countrytoanother,andnegotiationsbetweenvariousnational
bodieswererequiredtofixtheexactrulesforeachinternationalmatch.Thissituationendureduntil
1948,whenattheinstigationoftheFrenchleague,theRugbyLeagueInternationalFederation(RLIF)
wasformedatameetinginBordeaux.

Duringthesecondhalfof20thcentury,theruleschangedfurther.In1966,rugbyleagueofficials
borrowedtheAmericanfootballconceptofdowns:ateamwasallowedtoretainpossessionoftheball
forfourtackles(rugbyunionretainstheoriginalrulethataplayerwhoistackledandbroughttothe
groundmustreleasetheballimmediately).Themaximumnumberoftackleswaslaterincreasedtosix
(in1971),andinrugbyleaguethisbecameknownasthesixtacklerule.
Withtheadventoffulltimeprofessionalsintheearly1990s,andtheconsequentspeedingupofthe
game,thefivemetreoffsidedistancebetweenthetwoteamsbecame10metres,andthereplacement
rulewassupersededbyvariousinterchangerules,amongotherchanges.

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Thelawsofrugbyunionalsochangedduringthe20thcentury,althoughlesssignificantlythanthoseof
rugbyleague.Inparticular,goalsfrommarkswereabolished,kicksdirectlyintotouchfromoutsidethe
22metrelinewerepenalised,newlawswereputinplacetodeterminewhohadpossessionfollowingan
inconclusiveruckormaul,andtheliftingofplayersinlineoutswaslegalised.
In1995,rugbyunionbecamean"open"game,thatisonewhichallowedprofessionalplayers.Although
theoriginaldisputebetweenthetwocodeshasnowdisappearedanddespitethefactthatofficialsfrom
bothformsofrugbyfootballhavesometimesmentionedthepossibilityofreunificationtherulesof
bothcodesandtheirculturehavedivergedtosuchanextentthatsuchaneventisunlikelyinthe
foreseeablefuture.

Useoftheword"football"
Theword"football ",whenusedinreferencetoaspecificgame
canmeananyoneofthosedescribedabove.Becauseofthis,
muchfriendlycontroversyhasoccurredoverthetermfootball,
primarilybecauseitisusedindifferentwaysindifferentpartsof
theEnglishspeakingworld.Mostoften,theword"football"is
usedtorefertothecodeoffootballthatisconsidereddominant
withinaparticularregion.So,effectively,whattheword
"football"meansusuallydependsonwhereonesaysit.

Aplayertakesafreekick,whilethe
oppositionforma"wall",in
Associationfootball

IneachoftheUnitedKingdom,theUnitedStates,andCanada,
onefootballcodeisknownsolelyas"football",whiletheothers
generallyrequireaqualifier.InNewZealand,"football"
historicallyreferredtorugbyunion,butmorerecentlymaybe
usedunqualifiedtorefertoassociationfootball.Thesportmeant
bytheword"football"inAustraliaiseitherAustralianrules
footballorrugbyleague,dependingonpopularity(whichlargely
conformstowhathasbeencalledtheBarassiLine).In
francophoneQuebec,whereCanadianfootballismorepopular,
theCanadiancodeisknownasfootballwhileAmericanfootball
isknownasFootballamricainandassociationfootballis
Playersassembleatthelineof
knownaslesoccer.[100]Ofthe45nationalFIFA(Fdration
scrimmageinanAmericanfootball
InternationaledeFootballAssociation)affiliatesinwhich
game.
Englishisanofficialorprimarylanguage,mostcurrentlyuse
Footballintheirorganizations'officialnamestheFIFAaffiliates
inCanadaandtheUnitedStatesuseSoccerintheirnames.AfewFIFAaffiliateshaverecently
"normalized"tousing"Football",including:

Australia'sassociationfootballgoverningbodychangeditsnamein2005fromusing"soccer"to
"football"[101]
NewZealand'sgoverningbodyalsochangedin2007,saying"theinternationalgameiscalled
football."[102]
Samoachangedfrom"SamoaFootball(Soccer)Federation"to"FootballFederationSamoa"in
2009.[103][104]

Footballcodesboard
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Indoor

Cambridgerules(1848
1863)

Sheffieldrules(1857
1877)

Beach(1992)
Association
Football
(1863)

Futsal(1930)
Paralympic
Street
RugbyUnion
withminor
modifications

Canadianfootball(1861)

Football

American
football
(1869[105])

Flagfootball,
Arenafootball
(1987)
Flagfootball[107]

Rugbysevens(1883)
Rugbyrules[106]

Nines
Rugbyunion(1871)

Rugbyleague Rugbyleague
(1895)
sevens
Touchfootball

Rugbyrulesandother
Englishpublicschool
games[108]

Australianrules(1859)

International
rules(1967)

Gaelic(1887)

Footballcodesdevelopmenttree

Presentdaycodesandfamilies
Associationfootballanddescendants
Thesecodeshaveincommontheprohibitionoftheuseofhands
(byallplayersexceptthegoalkeeper),unlikeothercodeswhere
carryingorhandlingtheballisallowed
Associationfootball,alsoknownasfootball,soccer,footy
andfootie
Indoor/basketballcourtvariants:
Fiveasidefootballplayedthroughouttheworld
undervariousrulesincluding:
FuteboldeSalo
FutsaltheFIFAapprovedfiveasideindoor
Anindoorsoccergameatanopenair
game
venueinMexico.Therefereehasjust
Minivoetbalthefiveasideindoorgame
awardedtheredteamafreekick.
playedinEastandWestFlanderswhereitis
extremelypopular
Papifutthefiveasidegameplayedinoutdoorbasketballcourts(builtwithgoals)
inCentralAmerica.
Indoorsoccerthesixasideindoorgame,theLatinAmericanvariant(ftbolrpido,"fast
football")isoftenplayedinopenairvenues
MastersFootballsixasideplayedinEuropebymatureprofessionals(35yearsandolder)
Paralympicfootballmodifiedgameforathleteswithadisability.[109]Includes:
Football5asideforvisuallyimpairedathletes
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Football7asideforathleteswithcerebralpalsy
Amputeefootballforathleteswithamputations
Deaffootballforathleteswithhearingimpairments
Powerchairfootballforathletesinelectricwheelchairs
Beachsoccer,beachfootballorsandsoccervariantmodifiedforplayonsand
Streetfootballencompassesanumberofinformalvariants
Rushgoalieavariationinwhichtheroleofthegoalkeeperismoreflexiblethannormal
HeadersandVolleyswheretheaimistoscoregoalsagainstagoalkeeperusingonlyheadersand
volleys
Crabfootballplayersstandontheirhandsandfeetandmovearoundontheirbackswhilst
playing
Swampsoccerthegameasplayedonaswamporbogfield
Jorkyball
Rushball
Therearealsomotorsportvariationsofthegame.

Rugbyschoolfootballanddescendants
Thesecodeshaveincommontheabilityofplayerstocarrytheballwiththeirhands,andtothrowitto
teammates,unlikeassociationfootballwheretheuseofhandsisprohibitedbyanyoneexceptthegoal
keeper.Theyalsofeaturevariousmethodsofscoringbaseduponwhethertheballiscarriedintothe
goalarea,orkickedthroughatarget.
Rugbyfootball
Rugbyunion
Minirugbyavarietyforchildren.
RugbysevensandRugbytensvariantsforteamsofreducedsize.
Rugbyleagueoftenreferredtosimplyas"league",
andusuallyknownsimplyas"football"or"footy"in
theAustralianstatesofNewSouthWalesand
Queensland.
RugbyleaguesevensandRugbyleaguenines
variantforteamsofreducedsize.
Beachrugbyrugbyplayedonsand
Touchrugbygenericnameforformsofrugby
footballwhichdonotfeaturetackles,onevarianthas
beenformalized
TagRugbynoncontactvariantinwhichaflag
RugbysevensFijivWalesatthe
attachedtoaplayerisremovedtoindicateatackle.
2006CommonwealthGamesin
Gridironfootball
Melbourne
Americanfootballcalled"football"intheUnited
StatesandCanada,and"gridiron"inAustraliaand
NewZealand.
Ninemanfootball,eightmanfootball,sixmanfootballvariantsplayedprimarily
bysmallerhighschoolsthatlackenoughplayerstofieldfullteams.
Streetfootball/backyardfootballplayedwithoutequipmentorofficialfieldsand
withsimplifiedrules
Touchfootballnontacklevariants
Canadianfootballcalledsimply"football"inCanada"football"inCanadacanmean
eitherCanadianorAmericanfootballdependingoncontext.Allofthevariantslistedfor
AmericanfootballarealsoattestedforCanadianfootball.
Flagfootballnoncontactvariantinwhichaflagattachedtoaplayerisremovedto
indicateatackle.
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Indoorfootball,arenafootballindoorvariants

IrishandAustralianvarieties
Thesecodeshaveincommontheabsenceofanoffsiderule,the
prohibitionofcontinuouscarryingoftheball(requiringaperiodic
bounceorsolo(toekick),dependingonthecode)whilerunning,
handpassingbypunchingortappingtheballratherthanthrowing
it,andothertraditions.
Australianrulesfootballofficiallyknownas"Australian
football",andinformallyas"football","footy"or"Aussie
rules".Insomeareasitisreferredtoas"AFL",thenameof
themainorganisingbodyandcompetition
Internationalrulesfootballtest
AuskickaversionofAustralianrulesdesignedbythe
matchfromthe2005International
AFLforyoungchildren
RulesSeriesbetweenAustralia
Metrofooty(orMetrorulesfooty)amodifiedversion
andIrelandatTelstraDome,
inventedbytheUSAFL,foruseongridironfieldsin
Melbourne,Australia.
NorthAmericancities(whichoftenlackgroundslarge
enoughforconventionalAustralianrulesmatches)
Kicktokickinformalversionsofthegame
9asidefootyamoreopen,runningvarietyofAustralianrules,requiring18playersin
totalandaproportionallysmallerplayingarea(includescontactandnoncontactvarieties)
Recfooty"RecreationalFootball",amodifiednoncontactvariationofAustralianrules,
createdbytheAFL,whichreplacestackleswithtags
TouchAussieRulesanontacklevariationofAustralianRulesplayedonlyintheUnited
Kingdom
SamoaruleslocalisedversionadaptedtoSamoanconditions,suchastheuseofrugby
footballfields
MastersAustralianfootball(a.k.a.Superules)reducedcontactversionintroducedfor
competitionslimitedtoplayersover30yearsofage
Women'sAustralianrulesfootballwomen'scompetitionplayedwithasmallerballand
(sometimes)reducedcontact
GaelicfootballPlayedpredominantlyinIreland.Commonlyreferredtoas"football"or"Gaelic"
LadiesGaelicfootball
InternationalrulesfootballacompromisecodeusedforgamesbetweenGaelicandAustralian
Rulesplayers

Survivingmedievalballgames
InsidetheUK
TheHaxeyHood,playedonEpiphanyinHaxey,Lincolnshire
ShroveTuesdaygames
ScoringtheHalesinAlnwick,Northumberland
RoyalShrovetideFootballinAshbourne,Derbyshire
TheShrovetideBallGameinAtherstone,Warwickshire
TheShroveTuesdayFootballCeremonyofthePurbeckMarblersinCorfeCastle,Dorset
HurlingtheSilverBallatStColumbMajorinCornwall
TheBallGameinSedgefield,CountyDurham
InScotlandtheBagame("BallGame")isstillpopulararoundChristmasandHogmanayat:
Duns,Berwickshire
Scone,Perthshire
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KirkwallintheOrkneyIslands
OutsidetheUK
CalcioFiorentinoamodernrevivalofRenaissancefootballfrom16thcenturyFlorence.
laSouleamodernrevivalofFrenchmedievalfootball
leloburtiaGeorgiantraditionalfootballgame

SurvivingUKschoolgames
GamesstillplayedatUKpublic(independent)schools:
Etonfieldgame
Etonwallgame
Harrowfootball
WinchesterCollegefootball

Recentinventionsandhybridgames
Keepieuppie(keepup)theartofjugglingwithafootball
Harrowfootballplayersafteragame
usingthefeet,knees,chest,shoulders,andhead.
atHarrowSchool.
Footbagseveralvariationsusingasmallbeanbag
orsandbagasaball,thetrademarkedtermhacky
sackissometimesusedasagenericsynonym.
Freestylefootballparticipantsaregradedfortheirentertainmentvalueandexpressionof
skill.
BasedonFArules
Threesidedfootball
Triskelion
Basedonrugby
Forceembacksa.k.a.forcingback,forcemanback
Hybridgames
AustusacompromisebetweenAustralianrulesandAmericanfootball,inventedinMelbourne
duringWorldWarII.
BossaballmixesAssociationfootballandvolleyballandgymnasticsplayedoninflatablesand
trampolines.
FootvolleymixesAssociationfootballandbeachvolleyballplayedonsand
FootballtennismixesAssociationfootballandtennis
KickballahybridofAssociationfootballandbaseball,inventedintheUnitedStatesinabout
1942.
SpeedballacombinationofAmericanfootball,soccer,andbasketball,devisedintheUnited
Statesin1912.
UniversalfootballahybridofAustralianrulesandrugbyleague,trialledinSydneyin1933.[110]
VolataagameresemblingAssociationfootballandEuropeanhandball,devisedbyItalianfascist
leader,AugustoTurati,inthe1920s.
WheelchairrugbyalsoknownasMurderball,inventedinCanadain1977.Basedonicehockey
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andbasketballratherthanrugby.
Note:althoughsimilartofootballandvolleyballinsomeaspects,Sepaktakrawhasancientoriginsand
cannotbeconsideredahybridgame.

Tabletopgames,videogamesandotherrecreations
BasedonAssociationfootball
Subbuteo
Blowfootball
Tablefootballalsoknownasfoosball,tablesoccer,babyfoot,barfootballorgettone
Fantasyfootball(soccer)
ButtonfootballalsoknownasFuteboldeMesa,JogodeBotes
Pennyfootball
FIFAVideoGamesSeries
ProEvolutionSoccer
MarioStrikers
LegoFootball
BasedonAmericanfootball
Paperfootball
BloodBowl
Fantasyfootball(American)
MaddenNFL
BasedonAustralianfootball
AFLvideogameseries
ListofAFLvideogames
BasedonRugbyLeaguefootball
Sidhe'sRugbyLeagueseries
RugbyLeague3
AustralianRugbyLeague

Seealso
Footballfield(unitoflength)
Listoftypesoffootball
Listofplayerswhohaveconvertedfromonefootballcodetoanother
Namesforassociationfootball
1601to1725insports:Football
Footgolf
Underwaterfootball

Notes
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37. VivekChaudhary,"Who'sthefatblokeinthenumbereightshirt?"
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09.
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Retrieved20100619.
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46. Cox,RichardWilliamRussell,DaveVamplew,Wray(2002).EncyclopediaofBritishFootball.Routledge.
p.243.ISBN9780714652498.
47. exampleofballhandlinginearlyfootballfromEnglishwriterWilliamHone,writingin1825or1826,quotes
thesocialcommentatorSirFrederickMortonEden,regarding"FootBall",asplayedatScone,Scotland:
Thegamewasthis:hewhoatanytimegottheballintohishands,run[sic]withittillovertakenby
oneoftheoppositepartandthen,ifhecouldshakehimselfloosefromthoseontheoppositesidewho
seizedhim,herunonifnot,hethrewtheballfromhim,unlessitwaswrestedfromhimbytheother
party,butnopersonwasallowedtokickit.(WilliamHone,182526,TheEveryDayBook,"February
15."(http://www.uab.edu/english/hone/etexts/edb/daypages/046february15.html)Accessdate:March
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49. THESURREYCLUBBell'sLifeinLondonandSportingChronicle(London,England),Sunday,October
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51. JohnHope,AccountsandpapersofthefootballclubkeptbyJohnHope,WS,andsomeHopeCorrespondence
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56. TheexactnameofMrLindonisindispute,aswellastheexacttimingofthecreationoftheinflatable
bladder.Itisknownthathecreatedthisforbothassociationandrugbyfootballs.However,sitesdevotedto
footballindicatehewasknownasHJLindon(http://www.richardlindon.com),whowasactuallyRichards
Lindon'sson,andcreatedtheballin1862(ref:SoccerBallWorld
(http://www.soccerballworld.com/History.htm)),whereasrugbysitesrefertohimasRichardLindoncreating
theballin1870(ref:Guardianarticle(http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,1699545,00.html)).Both
agreethathiswifediedwheninflatingpig'sbladders.Thisinformationoriginatedfromwebsiteswhichmay
beunreliable,andtheanswermayonlybefoundinresearchingbooksincentrallibraries.
57. soccerballworld.com,(nodate)"CharlesGoodyear'sSoccerBall"
(http://www.soccerballworld.com/Oldestball.htm)Downloaded30/11/06.
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fife/scots_invented_beautiful_game_1_1121849)TheScotsman,14June2006
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Pppinghaus
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61. Blackwood'sMagazine,PublishedbyW.Blackwood,1862,page563
62. Bell'sLifeinLondonandSportingChronicle(London,England),Saturday,January07,1865Issue2,229:
"TheSheffieldparty,however,eventuallytookalead,andthroughsomescientificmovementsofMrJWild,
scoredagoalamidgreatcheering"
63. Bell'slifeinlondon,November26,1865,issue2275:"Wecannothelprecordingthereallyscientificplay
withwhichtheSheffieldmenbackedeachotherup
64. Wall,SirFrederick(2005).50YearsofFootball,18841934.SoccerBooksLimited.ISBN1862231168.
65. [Cox,Richard(2002)TheencyclopaediaofBritishFootball,Routledge,UnitedKingdom]
66. Bell'sLifeinLondonandSportingChronicle,18December1869
67. Bell'sLifeinLondonandSportingChronicle,5November1870,issue2
68. Bell'sLifeinLondonandSportingChronicle,18November1871,issue2,681
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350190.
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78. Murphy,Brendan(2007).FromSheffieldwithLove.SportsBookLimited.pp.4143.ISBN9781899807
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96. Watterson,John(2001)."TinyMaxwellandtheCrisisof1905:TheMakingofaGridironMyth"(PDF).
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originalon22September2009."Theinternationalgameiscalledfootballandwerepartoftheinternational
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103. "newname&logoforSamoanfootball".Sportingpulse.com.20091128.Retrieved20120416.
104. "FootballprogressinSamoa".Samoaobserver.ws.Archivedfromtheoriginalon5March2012.
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collegeteams,RutgersandPrinceton.Butthegamewasplayedunderrulesbasedontheassociationfootball
rulesofthetime.Duringthelatterhalfofthe1870s,collegesplayingassociationfootballswitchedtothe
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108. Somehistorianssupportthetheorythattheprimaryinfluencewasrugbyfootballandothergamesemanating
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AustralianrulesfootballandGaelicFootballhavesomecommonorigins.SeeOriginsofAustralianrules
football.
109. Summers,Mark."TheDisabilityFootballDirectory".
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References
Eisenberg,ChristianeandPierreLanfranchi,eds.(2006):FootballHistory:International
PerspectivesSpecialIssue,HistoricalSocialResearch31,no.1.312pages.
Green,Geoffrey(1953)TheHistoryoftheFootballAssociationNaldrettPress,London
Mandelbaum,Michael(2004)TheMeaningofSportsPublicAffairs,ISBN1586482521
Williams,Graham(1994)TheCodeWarYorePublications,ISBN1874427658
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Football&oldid=701567929"
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