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ANTIVIRALS

ADVERSE REACTIONS:
Nausea, vomiting Diarrhea
Headache Rash Fever Insomnia
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
* history of allergies to the drug or other antivirals.
CIDOFOVIR (VISTIDE) should not be given to patients who have renal impairment
RIBAVIRIN should not be used in patients with unstable cardiac disease.
PRECAUTIONS:
*history of epilepsy
*history of respiratory disease
INTERACTIONS:
*probenecid-gout treatment/increases anti infective serum levels
*cimetidine-gastric upset/increases valacyclovir serums
*ibuprofen-pain/Increased serum level of the antiviral adefovir
*imipenem-cilastatin- anti infective/With ganciclovir only, increased risk of seizures.
*anticholinergic agents-management of bladder spasms/ With amantadine only, increased
adverse reactions of anticholinergic agent.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the process of using drugs from five
drug classes in various combinations in the pharmacotherapy of HIV/AIDS.
TYPES OF DRUGS ARE USED IN HAART:

Protease inhibitors, which block the protease enzyme so the new viral particles
cannot mature
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which block the reverse transcriptase enzyme so
the HIV material can not change into DNA in the new cell

Respiratory syncytial virus: RSV infection is highly contagious and affects mostly
children, causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia. 6M. In adults, RSV causes colds and
bronchitis, with fever, cough, and nasal congestion.
Influenza: Most people recover within 1 to 2 weeks. May cause pneumonia.

Human immunodeficiency virus: HIV or AIDS is a type of viral infection transmitted


through an infected person's bodily secretions, such as blood or semen. Symptoms - chills
and fever, night sweats, dry productive cough, dyspnea, lethargy, malaise, fatigue, weight
loss, and diarrhea.
Herpes zoster: (shingles) is caused by the varicella (chickenpox) virus. The virus may
become reactivated later in life.
Herpes simplex virus: HSV is divided into HSV-1, which causes oral, ocular, or facial
infections, and HSV-2, which causes genital infection. heal within 2 weeks.
Cytomegalovirus: CMV, a virus of the herpes. Healthy individuals may become infected,
yet have no symptoms. Symptoms - malaise, fever, pneumonia, and superinfection.
Infants may acquire the virus from the mother while in the uterus, resulting in learning
disabilities and mental retardation. CMV can infect the eye.
retrovirus: HIV, the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a
retrovirus.
ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS are used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS.
ADVERSE REACTIONS:
Nausea, vomiting Diarrhea Altered taste *NUMBNESS AND TINGLING IN THE
CIRCUMORAL AREA (AROUND THE MOUTH) OR PERIPHERALLY, OR BOTH
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
*Antiretrovirals should not be prescribed to the patient who is using cisapride, pimozide,
triazolam, midazolam, or an ergot derivative.
PRECAUTIONS:
diabetes mellitus, impaired hepatic function, pregnancy, or hemophilia.
INTERACTIONS:
*antifungals-Increased serum level of the antiretroviral
*clarithromycin-Treat bacterial infection/ increased levels of both drugs
*sildenafil-Treat erectile dysfunction / Increased adverse reactions of sildenafil.
*opioid analgesics-pain releif/Risk of toxicity with ritonavir.
*anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, and antiparasitic agents-Prevent blood clots, seizures,
parasitic infections, respectively/"Decreased effectiveness when taking ritonavir
*interleukins-Prevent severely low platelet counts usually related to chemotherapy/risk
for antiviral toxicity.