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Different views of Communion

Ordinance = Command (Something We Do)


Memorial Christ is not really present in the elements of the bread and the wine. The
Lords Supper is a memorial meal where we simply remember Christs sacrifice for us.
Sacrament = Means of Grace (Something God Does In and For Us)
Transubstantiation/Transelementation Christ is really present in the elements of the
bread and wine. The bread and wine are substantially transformed into the actual body
and blood of Christ even though their appearance remains the same.
Consubstantiation/Sacramental Union Christ is really present in the elements of the
bread and wine. The elements retain both their substance and appearance as bread and
wine while also taking on the substance of Christ. Christ is contained in the host but the
host is not converted.
Rev. Greg Neal (Grace Incarnate Ministries):
As a means of grace, Holy Communion is not our action but God's action; it is not
our act of faith that is in focus here, it is God's act of giving us the divine presence
of Jesus. Through the sacrament of Holy Communion we are re-membered to the
Body of Christ, we are given the wonderful, life transforming grace of our Savior
which makes the Christian life possible.
Exile and Exodus
There were a variety of Messianic expectations in the first century. Amidst all the different
expectations there was a common hope for deliverance from exile in a New Exodus. This New
Exodus would manifest itself in four major ways: (1) the coming of a new Moses, (2) the making
of a new covenant, (3) the building of a new temple, and (4) the journey to a new promised land.
Jesus is the fulfillment of these expectations.

Messianic Expectations
o Conquering King (Gen. 49:10-11; Dan. 7:14)
o Royal Priest (Psa. 110:4)
o Anointed Prophet (Deut. 18:15-19)
o Suffering Servant (Isa. 52:13-53:12)

Exile Theme
o Adam and Eves Exile (Gen. 3:23-24)
o Exile Prophesied (Deut. 28:63-68)
o Israels Exile (2 Kings 17:7-23)
o Judahs Exile (2 Kings 24:8-25:30)

New Exodus
o Foundational Texts Deut. 30:1-10; Isa. 40:1-11; 61:1-11; 63:7-19; Jer. 3:16-19; 31:114; Hos. 2:14-15; Tob. 13:1-6.
o New Moses Matt. 2 (Escapes Death); Matt. 4 (Fasts 40 Days in Wilderness); Matt. 57 (Gives Law); Matt. 14 (Feeds Crowds with Bread from Heaven; Leads Disciples
Across Water); Matt. 26 (Institutes Covenant in Blood); Luke 4 (Sets Captives Free);
John 4 (Provides Living Water).
o New Covenant Exod. 24:5-11 (Covenant Made in Blood); Jer. 31:31-33 (New
Covenant with Judah, Israel, and Nations); Matt. 26:28 (New Covenant in Jesus
Blood).
o New Temple Mic. 4:1-2; Isa. 56:6-7; 60:1-7; Ezek. 37:24-28; Hag. 2:6-9; Matt. 12:1-8
(One Greater than the Temple); John 2:19-22 (Destroy this Temple); John 1:14
(Tabernacled Among Us).
o New Promised Land Isa. 60:21; Amos 9:14-15; Hos. 1:10-11; 2:16-23; Isa. 64:17-18;
65:18-22; Jer. 3:15-19; Ezek. 36:33-35 (New Eden); Jesus speaks repeatedly about the
coming kingdom throughout the Gospels; he inaugurates the coming of the Kingdom
at his death. Rev. 21-22 (New Jerusalem/New Eden).