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Chapter 20


What factors contributed to the growth of government in the late nineteenth
abundant large materials, a large and growing labor supply, a surge in
technological innovation, a fed. gov. eager to assist the growth of business, and
expanding domestic market
1. Why are state and local governments getting bigger?
The government was smaller, they still believed that the government shouldnt
make part of the business.
2. How did the Civil War make the federal government bigger?
The government sold bonds for the first time and Congress approved the first
national banking system. The Agriculture Department was born to help farmers. A
national cemetery system was created to bury the Union dead. Congress passed
the nations first income tax, etc
3. What new departments were created?
Agriculture department
4. What is a regulatory agency?
is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising
autonomous authority over some area of human activity in aregulatory or
supervisory capacity.
5. Describe the Interstate Commerce Commission and its power.
a regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act
of 1887. The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and
later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate
other aspects of common carriers, including interstate bus
lines and telephone companies.
6. What was the Democratic Partys position on the size of the federal
Small government with not a lot of market regulation
7. Why did the issue of tariffs separate the two parties?
Republican party believe in tariffs to built a strong government.
Democratic party believe in no tariffs because government shouldnt be tariffing

8. How did party politics change after 1870?

The third party system emerged from divisions over slavery. The two major
parties of the 1850s continued to dominate American politics after the Civil War.
They are the same parties still in existence today, but their issues, beliefs, and
supporters have changed many times. But this 3rd party didnt have success
9. What is the spoils system?
the practice of a successful political party giving public office to its supporters.
10. How did the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act change the federal
is a federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be
awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation. [1] The act provided
selection of government employees by competitive exams, [1] rather than ties to
politicians or political affiliation. It also made it illegal to fire or demote
government officials for political reasons and prohibited soliciting campaign
donations on Federal government property.
What role did farmers and workers organizations play in the politcs of the 1880s
and 1890s?
11. What is populism?
doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as hopes and fears)
of the general population, especially when contrasting any new collective
consciousness push against the prevailing status quo interests of any
predominant political sector.
12. What were the origins of the Grange and what was its purpose?
A group of farmers, looking for making a law to low the taxes prices.
13. What caused the increase in the Grange membership?
Increase in the railroads fees
14. What were the main problems of the Grangers?
he Grange had become far more political than educational in nature and, ably
assisted by a host of unaffiliated farmers' clubs, was in the thick of the fight for
state regulation of railroads and elevators. At Granger lodge meetings and
picnics, farmers exhorted one another to nominate and elect to office only those
who shared their views. In case corporation control over the Republican and
Democratic Parties could not be overthrown, they planned to form independent,
reform, or antimonopoly parties through which to carry on the fight.
15. Who did the Grangers blame for their problems?
Blame the government and rich people

16. What was the purpose of the Granger Laws and why werent they effective?
They wanted to take care of some social problems and it wasnt what the rich
people agreed with.
17. How did Southern farmers deal with the falling price of cotton?
They try to find different ways of making money
18. How effective was the Southern Farmers Alliance?
Was effective some how, some laws were made, but things didnt really change
19. Compare the Grange and the Farmers Alliance.
The Farmers' Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement among
U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. First formed in 1876 in Lampasas,
Texas, the Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through
collective action by groups of individual farmers. The movement was strongest in
the South and Great Plains, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by
the power of commodity brokers. Despite its failure, it is regarded as the
precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the
Alliance in 1889.
20. How successful were labor parties in local government?
Not successful
21. What role did women play in the Grange and Farmers Alliance?
They were helping to organize people and groups. They believed that if they help
in their movement they will get their rights eventually.
22. What were the goals of the WCTU?
to protect the home from evil influences and strengthen family life, but its primary
objective was to promote total abstinence from alcohol.
23. Who is Frances Willard?
American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist.
24. Describe the Farmers Alliance platform that was decided at the Ocala
economic and political reform that was later adopted by the People's Party.
25. Describe the platform of the new Peoples Party (Populist Party) that was
created in St. Louis.
short-lived agrarian-populist political party in theUnited States that most
historians agree was on the left-wing of American politics. It was highly critical of
capitalism, especially banks and railroads, and allied itself with the labor

20.3 How did the depression that began in 1893 threaten the existing political
26. How did a European depression lead to the American depression in 1893?
It caused the panic of 1893, How did a European depression lead to the
American depression in 1893
27. How did depression affect poorer Americans?
Most of them were without a job, and a lot people lost their money that was in the
28. What was the purpose of Coxeys Army and how successful was it?
protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio
businessman Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the
second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United
States history to that time.
29. How were workers affected by the depression and how did they fight back
Along with the job crisis and food shortages that affected all U.S. workers,
Mexicans and Mexican Americans had to face an additional threat: deportation.
As unemployment swept the U.S., hostility to immigrant workers grew, and the
government began a program of repatriating immigrants to Mexico.
30. What were protective associations?
American anti-Catholic secret society established in 1887 by Protestants,
especially Irish Protestants from Canada. It was strongest in the Midwest, and
came under heavy attack from Democrats until its collapse in the mid-1890s.
31. Describe the origin, methods and results of each of the following strikes.
a. Coeur dAlene strike- had its roots in the first pay cut by the Bunker Hill
Mining Company in 1887. Immediately after the reduction in wages miners
organized the first union at Wardner on November 3, 1887.The response to that
violence, disastrous for the local miners' union, became the primary motivation
for the formation of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) the following year.
b. Homestead Strike was an industrial lockout and strike which began on
June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security
agents on July 6, 1892.
c. Pullman Strike a nationwide railroadstrike in the United States on May
11, 1894. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against
the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the
United States under President Grover Cleveland

32. Who is Eugene V. Debs? (You may as well get to know himhes not going
away for a long time)
American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers
of the World, and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for
President of the United States.
33. Describe the social gospel movement, its members and results.
Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th
century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian
ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic
inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean
environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger
of war
20.4 In what ways did the election of 1896 represent a turning point in U.S.
political history?
34. What is a soft money policy and how does it benefit farmers?
Farmers and other domestic economy manufacturers wanted Soft or Easy
Money in other words, a monetary policy which had a pro-inflation bias. hough
they might not have understood all the subtleties and long-term and big-picture
effects of inflation farmers knew that when the value of money fell, the price of
their crops rose. Also, many farmers were convinced that crop prices would rise
FASTER than other prices thus making farmers the relative gainers in an
inflationary environment.
35. What is the importance of the Coinage Act of 1873?
In abolishing the right of holders of silver bullion to have their metal struck into
legal tender dollar coins, it ended bimetallism in the United States, placing the
nation firmly on the gold standard. Because of this, the act became contentious
in later years, and was denounced by people who wanted inflation as the "Crime
of '73".
36. What was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 and how did it benefit
The measure did not authorize the free and unlimited coinage of silver that
the Free Silver supporters wanted; however, it increased the amount of silver the
government was required to purchase on a recurrent monthly basis to 4.5 million
ounces.The Sherman Silver Purchase Act had been passed in response to the
growing complaints of farmers' and miners' interests
37. How did the depression of 1893 affect the monetary policy?

Because of the depression in the Europe it affected the monetary policy of united
38. How did the depression of 1893 affect the political parties?
It created a new party, however, it wasnt successful.
39. Who is William Jennings Bryan and why did the Populists choose him as
their candidate?
an American orator and politician from Nebraska, and a dominant force in the
populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's
candidate for President of the United States
40. What is the importance of Bryans Cross of Gold speech?
a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic
National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896. In the address, Bryan
supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation
prosperity. He decried the gold standard, concluding the speech, "you shall not
crucify mankind upon a cross of gold".
41. What was the Democratic platform and who did it appeal to?
The Democratic party in National Convention assembled, reposing its trust in the
intelligence, patriotism, and discriminating justice of the people; standing upon
the Constitution as the foundation and limitation of the powers of the government,
and the guarantee of the liberties of the citizen; and recognizing the questions of
slavery and secession as having been settled for all time to come by the war, or
the voluntary action of the Southern States in Constitutional Conventions
assembled, and never to be renewed or reagitated; does, with the return of
peace, demand,
42. Who was the Republican candidate and what was his platform?
43. Describe McKinleys presidency.
McKinley won the Republican presidential nomination in 1896 thanks to his
congressional and gubernatorial experience, his longtime support of
protectionism and the skilled maneuvering of his chief supporter, the wealthy
Ohio industrialist Marcus Alonzo Hanna. In the general election, McKinley
faced William Jennings Bryan, who ran on a platform attacking the gold standard
and supporting the coinage of silver as well as gold.
44. What is nativism?
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants
against those of immigrants.
45. Describe the following measures that were put in place in the South to limit
or deny rights:

a. Jim Crow laws state and local lawsenforcing racial segregation in the
Southern United States.
b. segregation separation of humans into ethnic or racial groups in daily
c. Plessy v Ferguson was a landmark United States Supreme Court
decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation
in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
d. Cummings v Richmond was a class action suit decided by the
Supreme Court of the United States. It is a landmark case, in that it sanctioned
de jure segregation of races in American schools.
e. grandfather clauses statute enacted by many American southern states
in the wake of Reconstruction (1865-1877) that allowed potential white voters to
circumvent literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics designed to disfranchise
southern blacks.
46. What was the effect of these measures on voting?
Black and immigrants started voting to the opposite party .
47. Who is Ida B Wells and what did she attempt to do?
was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist, sociologist,
Georgist, and an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement
20.5: How did the Spanish-American War change the place of the United States
in world affairs?
48. Who was Josiah Strong and what did he do?
American Protestant clergyman, organizer, editor and author. He was a leader of
the Social Gospel movement, calling for social justice and combating social evils.
49. How did missionaries spread their message?
Trough books and helping people that need and making them change their
50. Why did business and political leaders seek to control other lands?
Is was too expansive
51. What is imperialism?
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or
military force.
52. What is the importance of the following?

a. Purchase of Alaska
The Treaty with Russia was negotiated and signed by Secretary of State William
Seward and Russian Minister to the United States Edouard de Stoeckl.
b. Annexation of Canada
c. Bilateral treaties with Mexico, Colombia, British West Indies, El Salvador
and the Domincan Republic Allowed American business to dominate over
the local business.

53. What is a Good Neighbor Policy?

foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin
Roosevelt towards Latin America.
54. Who is Alfred Thayer Mahan and what is the importance of his book The
Influence of Sea Power?
Alfred Thayer Mahan was a United States Navy admiral, geostrategist, and
historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the
nineteenth century."
55. How were the people of Cuba treated by Spain?
They were treated as slaves.
56. What is yellow journalism and what was its role in the Spanish American
journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration.
57. Who is William Randolph Hearst?
American newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain
and whose methods profoundly influenced American journalism.
58. What event led to the U.S. declaration of war in Cuba?
Spanish American war
59. Briefly describe the war in Cuba.
Was unfair, because people in cuba werent prepared for it. And a lot of people
60. Why did the U.S. go to war in the Philippines?
The conflict arose when First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of
the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the
Philippines from Spain ending the SpanishAmerican War.
61. Explain the arguments against imperialism.

New sources for raw materials, New markets for finished goods, Nationalism expansion of European culture, Missionary activity - expansion of Christianity,
Strategic military and naval bases, A place for excess population to migrate,
Social and economic opportunities, Humanitarian reasons, The "White Man's