0 Suka0 Tidak suka

22 tayangan11 halamanSampling sucessive

Jan 27, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

Sampling sucessive

© All Rights Reserved

22 tayangan

Sampling sucessive

© All Rights Reserved

- Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
- Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance
- Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science that Will Transform Your Sex Life
- Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams
- Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science that Will Transform Your Sex Life
- The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World
- The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson and the Opening
- The Bone Labyrinth: A Sigma Force Novel
- The Bone Labyrinth: A Sigma Force Novel
- Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
- Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams

Anda di halaman 1dari 11

KAUSTAV ADITYA

M.Sc. (Agricultural Statistics), Roll No. 4493

Chairperson: Dr. Ranjana Agarwal

Abstract: Surveys often get repeated on many occasions (over years or seasons) for

estimating same characteristics at different points of time. Successive sampling is such

kind of sampling scheme which consists of selecting sample units on different occasions

such that some units are common with samples selected on previous occasions. Generally,

the main objective of successive surveys is to estimate the change with a view to study the

effects of the forces acting upon the population. For this, it is better to retain the same

sample from occasion to occasion. For populations where the basic objective is to study the

overall average or the total, it is better to select a fresh sample for every occasion. If the

objective is to estimate the average value for the most recent occasion, the retention of a

part of the sample over occasions provides efficient estimates as compared to other

alternatives. In this sampling scheme, on the first occasion a simple random sample s of n

units is selected by SRSWOR from the population and then on the second occasion a

simple random sample s1of m units and a simple random sample s2 of (n-m) units is

selected independently from the population by SRS with out replacement. Here the sample

s1 is common on both the occasion.

Key words: Surveys, Sampling, SRSWOR, Successive Sampling, Efficient Estimates.

1. Introduction

Surveys often gets repeated on many occasions (over years or seasons) for estimating same

characteristics at different points of time. The information collected on previous occasion

can be used to study the change or the total value over occasion for the character and also

in addition to study the average value for the most recent occasion. For example in milk

yield survey one may be interested in estimating the

1.

Average milk yield for the current season,

2. The change in milk yield for two different season and

3.

Total milk production for the year.

The successive method of sampling consists of selecting sample units on different

occasions such that some units are common with samples selected on previous occasions.

If sampling on successive occasions is done according to a specific rule, with partial

replacement of sampling units, it is known as successive sampling. The method of

successive sampling was developed by Jessen (1942) and extended by Patterson (1950)

and by Tikkiwal (1950, 53, 56, 64, 65, 67) and also Eckler (1955). Singh and Kathuria

(1969) investigated the application of this sampling technique in the agricultural field.

Hansen et al. (1955) and Rao and Graham (1964) have discussed rotation designs for

successive sampling. Singh and Singh (1965), Singh (1968), Singh and Kathuria (1969)

have extended successive sampling for many other sampling designs.

Generally, the main objective of successive surveys is to estimate the change with a view

to study the effects of the forces acting upon the population. For this, it is better to retain

the same sample from occasion to occasion. For populations where the basic objective is to

study the overall average or the total, it is better to select a fresh sample for every occasion.

If the objective is to estimate the average value for the most recent occasion, the retention

of a part of the sample over occasions provides efficient estimates as compared to other

alternatives.

One important question arises in the context of devising efficient sampling strategies for

repetitive surveys is whether the same sample is to be surveyed on all occasions, or fresh

samples are to be chosen on each of the occasions; in what manner the composition of the

sample is changed from occasion to occasion. The answer depends on, apart from field

difficulties, the specific problems of estimation at hand. For instance if the aim is to

estimate only the difference between the item mean on the current ( Y ) and on the previous

( X ) occasion, then the sample on both the occasion would give rise to a better estimate

than the independent samples since the variance of the estimate in the former case viz,

V ( y - x ) = V ( y ) + V ( x ) 2Cov ( y , x ) < V ( y ) + V ( x ),

as y and x are highly correlated so that Cov ( y, x )>0 .

On the contrary, for estimating the average of the means the latter would be better than the

former in that

V ( y + x ) = V( y ) + V( x ) + 2Cov( y , x ) > V ( y ) + V ( x )

But, if the difference between the means and also their average are to be estimated

simultaneously, clearly neither of this alternatives are desirable ,hence arises the idea of

retaining a part (say S c ) of the previous sample (say S1 ) and supplement it by a set (

say S f ) of fresh units on the current occasion, and the data retaining to x on S1 , x and y

on Sc , and y on S f

estimate of X , would give rise to efficient result for difference between Y and X ,and

also their average .The question then would be that big or small the set S c of common

units , or set S f of fresh units, should be for the surveys on the current occasion ,how

should S c and S f be chosen and what procedure be employed for working out estimates.

The entire question is interrelated and depends ultimately on the regression of y on x. It is

known that regression of y on x is linear with significant intercepts then we may choose S c

from S1 by SRS with out replacement and then employ regression estimator, or when the

intercept is not significant the sample S c may be chosen by SRS and ratio estimator be

employed.

2. Sampling on Two Successive Occasions

It is assumed that the survey population remains unaltered from occasion to occasion .For

the purpose of generality, let the sample size for the first occasion be n1 and that for the

second occasion be n2 = n12 + n22 , where n12 is the number of common units between the 1st

and the 2nd occasion and n22 units to be drawn afresh on the second occasion ,where the

data obtained on current(i.e. 2nd in this case )occasion would be denoted by y and that on

the previous occasion (i.e. 1st in this case)by x. Now the sampling procedure consists of

the following steps:

Step (1.a): From the given survey population choose a sample S1 of size n1 units by SRS

without replacement for survey on the first occasion.

Step(1.b): On the second occasion choose a set, S c of n12 units from the sample taken at

step(1a) either by SRS or pps sampling depending on the situation at hand and supplement

it to another set, S f of n22 units taken independently from the unsurveyed N- n1 units of

the population by SRS without replacement, so that the total sample S2 = S c + S f on the

second occasion comprises n2 = n12 + n22 units, now as S1 ,acts as preliminary sample ,the

estimate say t c ,based on y and x values of Sc and x values of S1 , would be a double

n12

xi

1 n12 y j

p

=

,

X

=

,

where

sampling ratio or regression or pps estimate or tc =

i xi .

i

X

n12 j =1 p j

So we have,

E ( tc ) = Y

and V ( t c ) = A/ n1 + B/ n12 -

1 2

Sy

N

(2.1)

(here A = S , B =

2

y

= pi i Y )

i

Npi

2

ppx

Also in view of the selection of S f as noted in the step (1b), it is obvious for the mean y f

1

of S f ,where y f =

n22

n22

y

i =1

,

V ( y f ) = (1/ n22 - 1/N) S2 y

E ( yf ) = Y and

(2.2)

Cov(t c ,yf )= Cov[E( t c / S1 ),E( y f / S1 )]

= Cov y1 ,

N Y n1 y1

N n1

1 2

Sy

N

(2.3)

determine this we use the theorem that if ti, i =1,2,,n be statistics such that E ( ti ) = , V

( ti ) = 2 and cov(ti , t j ) = c, i j = 1, 2,..., n .Then the best in the of class of all linear

function ti, i =1,2,,n is given by

(1/ ) t .

=

(1/ )

2

i*

2

i*

a* =

22

+ 22

2

1*

12 22

( )=

V t

2

1*

+ 22*

+c.

So in this sampling on two successive occasion, the best minimum variance combination

of t c and yf is given by,

yss = atc + (1 a ) y f

with

a=

*

f

V +V

*

c

*

f

and V ( yss ) =

(2.4)

*

*

c

V fV

V f* + Vc*

+ Cov ( tc , y f

...(2.5)

where V f* = V ( y f ) Cov ( tc , y f ) =

1 2

Sy

n22

A B

Vc* = V ( tc ) Cov ( tc , y f ) = +

n1 n12

(2.6)

If n1 = n2 = n, say, n22 = n so that n12 = n(1 ), then the variance of yss would simplify

to

S y2 1

1

S y2

Vss =

...(2.7)

2

2

n 1 + N

where = B / S y2 and A = S y2 B for any of the estimates .

Now minimizing (2.7) with respect to the optimum value of the fraction of units to be

drawn afresh on the second occasion is given by,

1

(2.8)

* =

1+

For this value of , a=1/2 and the estimate of Y and its variance would reduce to

1

...(2.9)

y*ss = ( tc + y f )

2

and

1 +

1

(2.10)

Vss* = S y2

N

2n

Theorem 2.1: When the sampling procedure given by the steps (1,a-b) is employed for

getting a sample of n units on the both the occasions SRS with out replacement together

with ratio or regression estimate or pps with or with out replacement strategy of RaoHartley-Cochran, at step 1.b for selecting S c and building up a double sampling estimate

tc of Y from S c and then the best possible estimate of y on the second occasion would be

given by the average of the estimates obtained from S c and S f and its variance is as in

equation (2.10).

It may be noted that the quantity is always less tan unity in the particular situation under

2

i

Npi

In the above portion we have studied how and under what circumstances, the estimator for

the mean for the second occasion can be improved by utilizing the information collected on

the first occasion. Another important problem in sampling on two occasions is to

estimating the change in the total value of the study variate during the period. The

estimation of change presents how ever a different problem of applying information

provided by the samples.

Here we shall discuss the problem of estimating the change in the population mean over a

period, based on samples taken on two occasions.

Let the sample size for the first occasion be n1 and that for the second occasion

is n2 = n12 + n22 , where n12 is the number of common units between the 1st and the 2nd

occasion and n22 units to be drawn afresh on the second occasion also let the sample on

the first occasion be S1 of size n1 units which is drawn by SRS without replacement. On

the second occasion choose a set, S c of n12 units from the sample S1 of size n1 units chosen

on the first occasion, then supplement it by another set, S f of n22 units taken

independently from the unsurveyed N- n1 units of the population by SRS without

replacement. Then an estimator of the change may be given by,

d =

n12

n

[ yc xc ] + 22 y f x f

n1

n1

...(a)

yc = Mean per unit for the second occasion for S c which is common on both occasion.

5

xc = Mean per unit for the first occasion for S c which is common on both occasion.

y f = Mean per unit for the second occasion for S f which is drawn afresh on the first

occasion.

Mean

per unit for the first occasion for S f which is drawn afresh on the first occasion.

xf =

And it has sampling variance as,

2

n12 S y

V ( d ) = 2 1

n1 n1

(b)

from the sample and then the variance will be given by,

2

n Sy

V ( d ) = 2 1 12 r

n1 n1

(c)

In a population survey, the total no of inhabitants in 30 randomly selected villages in

subdivision is counted for two successive years to study the average number of inhabitants.

The total no of villages in the subdivision was 2032. Now estimate the average no of

person per village over two years and total no of persons in the sub division in the second

year, using the available information for the previous year.

The table given:

Villages

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

85-86

78

17

85

21

19

25

7

11

19

31

51

62

22

25

27

21

21

19

28

32

86-87

30

20

28

17

21

82

29

Villages

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

85-86

71

12

17

28

19

23

86-87

78

35

72

25

27

29

37

42

14

25

28

112

75

89

78

108

21

22

23

24

36

49

42

63

45

45

46

47

48

49

50

86

43

72

3

17

82

Solution: As per the notations discussed, N = 2032, n1 =30, n12 =10, n22 = 20, & n2 = 30,

2

i

Npi

1

Cov(t c ,yf )= S2 y = - 0.3599

N

N

2

y

Now the estimate of the average no of inhabitants on the current occasion using the

information from the previous occasion is given by:

yss =a tc + (1-a) y f

V f* = 36.55

Vc* = 61.18

V f*

then,

a=

or

and ,

V ( yss ) =

Vc* + V f*

= 0.374

V * f Vc*

V f* + Vc*

+ Cov ( tc , y f

Now for estimating the average of the total no of persons in the subdivision over the two

year, we have = 0.5035 and so we get

1

=0.6651,

* =

1+

For this value we will now get, the estimate of the average no of inhabitants in the two

years in the sub division,

y*ss =

1

( tc + y f

2

=39.4

1 +

1

= 20.47

Vss* = S y2

N

2n

So here we have obtained the estimate of the average no of inhabitants in two years in the

subdivision is = 39.4 and the variance of the estimator is 20.47 and the estimate of the

7

change in average no of inhabitants in the villages in the second year is=40.23.16 and

variance of the estimate is = 23.6401.

Now we will derive the estimator for sampling on several successive occasions by Yates

(1949).

4. Sampling on Several Successive Occasions

Let s k 1 , f be the sample of nk-1, k-1 unmatched unit drawn afresh using simple ransom

sampling with out replacement from the remaining population unit on the (k-1)th occasion,

k = 2,3.and s1f =s1, which is of n1 units. To draw a sample of nk unit on the kth occasion

adopt the following procedure:

Step (2a): From the sample s k 1 , f of nk-1, k-1 unmatched unit drawn on the (k-1)th occasion

select a skc of nk-1, k-1 units using some probability sampling procedure;

Step (2b): In addition to the above sample skc selected above , choose independently by

SRS with out replacement from the remaining N-nk-1, K-1 units of the population sample skf

of nk,k units for investigation on the k- th occasion , where nk-1,k +nk,k = nk for k=2,3.

It may be noted that skf, , k=1, 2. constitutes a simple random sample from the

population, and b step (VD.2a): skcis a sub sample of , s k 1 , f ,k = 2,3 If tkc is a statistics

based on the observations from skc such that

E (tkc / sk-1c) = yk 1,k 1

(4.1)

i.e the mean of y-observations of the nk-1,k-1 units of sk-1, f then tkc provides a double

sampling estimate of Y, the population mean on the k th occasion k=2,3so it may be

assumed in line with the preceding discussion on the two occasion case that

Vkc= V ( tkc ) = A

(k 1, k ) B(k 1, K ) 1 2

+

S y,

nk 1,k

N K 1, K 1

N

(4.2)

where A ( k 1, k ) and B (k 1, k ) are constant based on the population values of the study

variate relating to k th and or (k-1) occasion. Set y k,k to denote the mean of the item values

obtained from s kf.

Now the optimum combination of the t kc and y kk is given by

Y wk= ak y k,k +(1-ak) t kc,

(4.3)

V *kc

V *k ,k +V *kc

V *kc = V *kc -Cov (ykk, tkc), V *kc = V *kk -Cov (ykk, tkc).

where, a k =

and

...(4.4)

(4.5)

(4.5a)

But clearly

Cov ( y kk, ,tkc) = Cov[ E ( ykk / sk 1 f ), E (tkc / sk 1 f )]

Since for a given sk-1,f the sample skc, skf are independent.

nk 1,k 1

1

1

As

C ov{E ( ykk / sk 1, f ), E (tkc / sk 1, f )} = Cov[

V ( yk ,k )] = (

)S y 2

N nk 1,k 1

nkk N

It follows in view of (4.2) that

C ov{E ( ykk / sk 1, f ), E (tkc / sk 1, f )}

= Cov[

=

NY nk 1,k 1 yk 1,k 1

N nk 1,k 1

nk 1,k 1

N nk 1,k 1

, yk 1,k 1 ]

V ( yk 1,k 1 )

1 2

S y

N

Since the sample sk-1 of unmatched units always constitutes a simple random sample from

the population for all k=2, 3 For the reason

V ( yk , k ) = (

1

1

)S y 2

nkk N

(4.6)

The sampling procedure given by the step 2a and 2b together with (4.4) to (4.7) provides

the general frame for developing a optimum strategy for sampling on several successive

occasion. Avadhani and Sukhatme (1972) worked out the detailed formula controlled

simple random sampling with ratio estimator and RHC techniques for building up the

double sampling estimator

5. The Overview on Sampling on Several Successive Occasions with Equal and

Unequal Probabilities with out Replacement Discussed by Avadhani and

Sukhatme (1972)

This method was given by Avadhani and Sukhatme (1972) in their paper sampling on

several successive occasion for with equal and unequal probabilities and without

replacement.Hhere they have discussed the sampling on successive occasions for

estimating terms and relationship in a time series involves a number of problems in theory

and in practical survey design that need special attention. The problem arises because of

the need for estimating several parameters from a sample thus estimates are often needed

of aggregates or average at each period of time, such as for each month.

Since it is not desirable that the estimate at each period require the revision of the

preceding estimates, the problem of estimation in times series raises question such as

whether the sampling unit s should be identical at different pointing time, if not, what

9

proportion of units should be identical (i.e., matched) and how one should utilize the

information from the past occasion to improve the estimates for the current occasion. They

have proved that equal and unequal probability sampling without replacement strategies

for estimating the population mean on the current occasion is the most efficient way , in a

series of successive occasion where in information obtained from the past occasion is used

in the best possible way.

6. Use of SRSWOR to Obtain a Better Estimate

Using simple random sampling (SRSWOR) on both occasions a new scheme of selecting

the unmatched part of the sample on the second occasion is presented. This procedure is

discussed by Ravindra Singh (1972) in his paper A Note on Sampling over Two

Occasion. This proposed estimate of the population mean is more efficient than the

estimate given by Pathak and Rao(1967) for the same expected cost.

Here let be respectively denote the values of the study variable for the jth unit of the

population on the first and the second occasions (j=1,2..,N). Also let Y1 and Y2 denote the

population mean and S 22 and S 22 be the population variances for the two occasions.

Now we consider the following three schemes of sampling over two occasions:

a. On the first occasion a simple random sample s of n units is selected with out

replacement (SRSWOR) from . On the second occasion a simple random sample s1of

m units and a simple random sample s2 of (n-m) units is selected independently from

with out replacement.

b. Selection of samples s and s1 is same as (a) but instead of s2 of (a) an s2 (b) of u units is

selected from -s without replacement.

c. Selection of samples s and s1 is same as (a)in this case also but instead of s2 of(a) a s2

(c)of u units is selected from - s1 without replacement.

Scheme (a) has been considered by many authors like Cochran (1963, Pathak and Rao

(1967) and Sukhatme (1970), scheme (b) is used by Kulldroff (1963) and considerd by Rao

and Ghangurde (1969). Singh had proposed the scheme (c), which is more efficient than

the estimator given by the scheme (a) but less efficient than the estimator given by the

scheme (b ).

7. Application of Successive Sampling in Agriculture for Estimating the Incidence of

Pest and Diseases on the Field Crops

This work is done by T.P. Abraham, R.K.Khosla and O.P.Kathuria from Institute of

Agricultural Research Statistics, New Delhi-12, in the year 1969.

Surveys to estimate the incidence of pest and diseases on field crops have to be generally

repeated due to large variation in the incidence of pest and diseases from year to year .It is

therefore interesting to examine the partial replacement of units in such repeat surveys

especially when taking some of the sampling units common from one year to another is

operationally convenient. In particular we examine how far partial matching of sampling

units is helpful in obtaining a better estimate of,

10

3. Overall mean incidence over the two year.

For this a survey was conducted in Cuttack district of Orissa on major pest of rice (i.e. stem

borer and gallfly) and major disease was Helminthosporium oryzae , in each of the fields

periodical observation was on various pest and diseases are taken at an interval about a

month and up to and including harvest the first observation is taken after a month of

planting.

Now in each of the plots the no of the plots the number of the plants are recorded. The

number of dead hearts due to stem borer is recorded and silver shoot by gall fly is also

recorded. In case of helminthosporium disease, some plants are selected and the leaves with

maximum infection are chosen and the intensity of the infection was noted in comparison

with the standard chart given by Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack. Also the

manifestation by those pests also noted field wise average percentage of incidence of pest

and diseases was worked out.

Now the estimates in change in incidence of stem borer and gallfly was taken mainly on

kharif and rabi season and it is found after applying the method s of sampling on different

occasion it is seen that the incidence of stem borer and gallfly in the months of March and

October during rabi And kharif seasons respectively is more than any other months. it is

also found that the incidence of those pest is much more in kharif than in rabi season. So

we can see how this sampling scheme can be used in agricultural experiments.

References

Avadhani, M.S and Sukhatme, B.V. (1972). Sampling on several successive occasion with

equal and unequal probabilities and without replacement, Australian Journal of

Statistics, 14,109.

Eckler, Albert R. (1955)-Rotation Sampling, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 26,664.

Avadhani, M.S. (1991). Theory of sample survey and fields of application, Patanjali

publication,

Parimal M. (1998). Theory and methods of survey sampling, Prentice- Hall India

publication.

Singh, D. and Chaudhary, F.S. (1997). Theory and analysis of sample survey designs, New

age international (p) ltd, publishers,

Abraham,T.P., Khosla, R.K. and Kathuria, O.P. (1969). Some investigations on the use of

successive sampling in pest and diseases surveys, Journal of the Indian Society of

Agricultural Statistics, 21, 43.

Patterson, H.D. (1950). Sampling on successive occasion with partial replacement of

Units. J.Roy.Stat.Soc.Ser.B, 12, 241-245.

Yates, F. (1949). Sampling methods for census and surveys. Griffin pp.175-182, 233-235,

260-262.

Hanssen, M.H., Hurwitz, W.N. and Madow, W.G. (1953). Sample survey methods and

theory, John Wiley and Sons, vol.1, 490-503, vol.2. 268-279.

Singh, R. (1972). A Note on Sampling on Several Successive Occasions. Austral. J.

Statist., 14(2), 120-122.

Pathak, P.J. and Rao, T.J. (1967). Inadmissibility of customary estimators of sampling over

two occasions. Sankhya, (A), 31(4), 463-472.

11

- WELFARE FACILITY PROVIDED TO EMPLOYEES BY BANK OF INDIA project reportDiunggah olehkamdica
- Sampling Methods assignmentDiunggah olehShahrukh Malik
- Statistics for Management-2Diunggah olehR. Sidharth
- PS 1 QuestionsDiunggah olehAlp San
- ch03-solns-all_skuce_2eDiunggah olehgainesboro
- 47 QM-006 Dynamic Modification RuleDiunggah olehElan
- Burns05 Tif 12Diunggah olehXiaolinChen
- AuditNet Monograph Series Audit SamplingDiunggah olehbinuanb
- Surveillance.pdfDiunggah olehadhar
- Quality Checklist for UNESCO Evaluation Reports_ENDiunggah olehSergio Gaudencio
- engineering physicsDiunggah olehchandsix
- BBA_QT_L1Diunggah olehpbharadwaj3
- 103-s42Diunggah olehjjahaddin
- AJ - Research Scholar Meet Presentation, 05.05.2012Diunggah olehansumanj
- class03_14Diunggah olehDr. Ir. R. Didin Kusdian, MT.
- Nurul Hidayati S101808009-1Diunggah olehNurul
- Lesson 2-06 Expected Value and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable.docxDiunggah olehJamiefel Pungtilan
- STA301solvedfinalDiunggah olehchkashif_unique
- Articulo Investigacion Control de CalidadDiunggah olehjuan
- Final BA ReportDiunggah olehAsad Ismail
- Stat HWDiunggah olehRalph
- Project based on work ethicsDiunggah olehdopeinder music
- OLAH DATA_Humam Juzaili Afif_J3E116060.docxDiunggah olehHumam Juzaili Afif
- T-Test_ Independent Q4Diunggah olehtasara83
- Understanding Data and Ways to Systematically Collect Data (1)Diunggah olehTammyQuiwaHermosa
- OUTPUT.docDiunggah olehAnonymous Y30cQIJIRg
- 9709_m18_qp_72Diunggah olehLaura Wu
- big bazar Anand ProjectDiunggah olehpraveenyarandole
- 2 Part the Brand Positioning of l&tDiunggah olehAJESH
- 90876-2014-syllabusDiunggah olehmirmoulabux

- MIS - Chapter 14 - Building Information SystemsDiunggah olehapi-3807238
- Cadence VhdlinDiunggah olehMohamed Farag
- BA006SENDiunggah olehAlberto Fierro
- CodesDiunggah olehalin444444
- Cmmands NetDiunggah olehShrikant Wawge
- Finite Difference Method for 2 d Heat Equation 2Diunggah olehSonakshi Singh
- Cofferdam sDiunggah olehfatinamilin
- Sample Questions For Valuation Fundamentals.pdfDiunggah olehJasonSpring
- 1999 Biology Paper I Marking SchemeDiunggah olehtramysss
- 606847.pdfDiunggah olehRodriguez Wilson
- creating phone listDiunggah olehGenji Ryuzaki
- Fischer SEADiunggah olehhelloyvn
- What Are CarotenoidsDiunggah olehChandra Reddy
- 15_PotentiometryDiunggah olehgangwar
- 2014 Optimization of MPP Field PetropiarDiunggah olehkalvarez
- AAC2Diunggah olehcuami
- Bodies in EquilibriumDiunggah olehMichael Carnovale
- Axios Systems Customer Case Study Dr. D.Diunggah olehAxiosSystems
- Thermo LawsDiunggah olehstefandanstefan
- Wire ManDiunggah olehrajneeshengg
- Laminar transitional and turbulent flow of yield stress fluidDiunggah olehLeslie Quintana
- Load Balancing With Apache and Jboss AsDiunggah olehdaxter123
- Thesis Proposal Presentations Outline STUDENTDiunggah olehNathanniel Pogado Gonzales
- Bulgarian Mathematical Olympiads (Third and Fourth Rounds From 1995 to 2000) (More Than 300 Problems With Solutions) - 260p[1]Diunggah olehAndré Luiz Aulas Matemática Física
- Manual Tli 102 wDiunggah olehJuan
- Utilization of Coal Combustion Ashes for the Synthesis of Ordinary and Special Cements.pdfDiunggah olehyinglv
- Chapter 1-Electrical CircuitDiunggah olehDKM 2A
- 17. Sound.docxDiunggah olehWei Zhe Chua
- Important Statistics FormulasDiunggah olehS
- Lecture 1Diunggah olehAmber Younas

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.