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Department of Facilities Services

Steam System Design Requirements Design Guidelines

8.2.1.5. Elongation without failure shall be at least 1000%.


8.2.1.6. Resilience (elongation recovery) shall be at least 95%.
8.2.1.7. Moisture vapor transmission shall be no greater than 0.02 gm/sq.ft./hr.
8.2.1.8. Shall be impenetrable to water up to 30 psig.
8.2.1.9. Shall bond to the concrete with a pull off force not less than 820 psf.
8.2.1.10. Shall remain stable and bonded up to 240 degrees F.
8.2.2. The primary waterproofing backfill protection membrane shall be a high strength polyethylene
geomembrane slip sheet, and shall meet or exceed the following requirements.
8.2.2.1. Have a minimum thickness of 10 mils.
8.2.2.2. Have a minimum puncture resistance of 70 lbs.
8.2.2.3. Have a minimum tensile strength of 25 psi.
8.2.3. An example of these types of materials can be found at http://www.eproserv.com in the EcoLine-R,
EcoLine-S, and EcoShield-E line of products, as manufactured by EPRO Waterproofing Systems.
8.3. Manhole Waterproofing Methods
8.3.1. Manhole waterproofing shall be a three step process consisting of detailing cold joints and
penetrations, applying a sprayed on / rolled on membrane to provide overall waterproofing, and the
application of a backfill protection membrane.
8.3.2. The first, or detailing step consists of applying a roll on coat of the waterproofing compound to all
cold joints and penetrations at least 3 inches on either side of the joints and radial out from the
penetrations. While still wet, an embedding fabric shall be placed in the membrane coat. Then a second
coat shall be applied to the embedding fabric until saturated.
8.3.3. The second, or membrane application step is performed by rolling or spraying membrane material
to the manhole exterior surface in wet lifts until the material is not less than 60 mils thick on the concrete
surface. The surface shall be fully coated, and free of gaps and cracks.
8.3.4. The third, or protection layer is a process of applying a polyethylene geomembrane slip sheet that
will protect the waterproofing membrane from backfill. This membrane shall be applied such that the
overlaps are not less than 12, and are sealed with a roller compressed wet layer of water proofing
material. Waterproofing seal tape shall be applied to seam overlapping 2 inches on either side of the
seam.
8.3.5. In some circumstances there is a fourth process of applying a drainage membrane on the outside of
the protection membrane to aid in ground water drainage away from the structure. In most cases however, the
manhole is backfilled with a layer of pea-gravel which acts as the drainage mechanism.

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Design Guidelines

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Department of Facilities Services


Steam System Design Requirements Design Guidelines

9. Walk-Through Tunnels
9.1. Where walk through utility tunnels are applicable to the project, the walk through tunnel containing
the steam systems shall be built and waterproofed to the same standards as defined in the manholes
section of this document.
9.2. The only other utility that may share the tunnel space with the steam, condensate, and heating hot
water is UNC Chilled Water. Standards of agreement are in place for the joint use of the tunnel for those
two departments (Cogeneration Systems and Chilled Water Systems). All other utilities such as electric
duct, sewer, domestic water, storm drainage, etc. are expressly forbidden.
9.3. All walk-through tunnels shall have a minimum of 8 feet of head clearance, and 3 feet of clear aisle
space for walking and carrying materials.
9.4. All walk-through tunnels shall be cast-in-place.
9.5. Personnel shall have a means of egress at a maximum of 300 feet in any direction (600 feet between
egress points).
9.6. The walk-through tunnel system shall have natural ventilation with fan powered assist. The fans shall
be designed such that the noise emitted is not greater than 50 dbA at five feet (measured on the surface,
distance from the inlet/exhaust). The fans shall have a hand/off/auto switch. In auto mode they shall be
controlled by local thermostat.
9.7. Repairs to the piping systems will be made within the tunnel system. Provisions must be made to
provide access points where 21 foot random length piping can be lowered into to the tunnel and moved to
the necessary locations. Room to make repairs to the piping shall be provided in the design.
9.8. Adequate lighting shall be provided through out the tunnel for egress, operation, and maintenance.
9.9. Walk-through tunnels are the only place in the steam distribution system where expansion joints are
allowed instead of expansion loops as a means of accommodating thermal expansion. Expansion joints
used in walk-through tunnel systems shall meet the following requirements:
9.9.1. Expansion joints shall be designed for pressure, temperature, movement, spring rate and
cycle life per Expansion Joint Manufactures Association (EJMA) standards.
9.9.2. Expansion joints shall be weld-end, packless, constructed of externally pressurized, doubleply (minimum) bellows.
9.9.3. The bellows material shall be 625 stainless, with carbon steel fittings.
.9.4. Control Rings shall be constructed of cast steel, or high grade cast nickel-iron.
.9.5. Expansion joints shall be suitable for continuous operation at 200 psig and 450F.
9.9.6. Provide joints with equalizing rings to reinforce the roots and walls of the corrugations
against internal pressure.
9.9.7. Stretching of expansion joint to correct for piping misalignment or to accommodate
available end-to-end spacing shall not be allowed.
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Design Guidelines

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Department of Facilities Services


Steam System Design Requirements Design Guidelines

9.9.8. Remove all shipping rods and spacers and clean inside of expansion joints thoroughly
before putting joints into service.
9.9.9. Anchors and guides shall be installed per the project documents and per the manufactures
guidelines prior to conducting piping system pressure tests or putting joints into service.
9.9.10. Manufacturer shall be present to instruct the Contractor and witness the installation of all
expansion joints.
9.9.11. Manufacturer shall be required to review and approve, in writing, the alignment and
installation of all expansion joints prior to conducting piping system pressure tests, or operation
of system.
9.9.12. All expansion joints shall be provided with a minimum 5 year full replacement warranty.
10. Concrete Reinforcing Steel
10.1. All re-enforcing steel used in underground steam system structures including, butnot limited to
manholes, pre-cast members, tunnel slab, tunnel walls, etc. shall be epoxy coated.
10.2. Non-coated re-enforcing steel, bar or wire mesh, will not be accepted.
10.3. The epoxy coated re-enforcing steel shall be produced by a manufacturer who holds an Epoxy
Coating Plant Certification issued by the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI).
10.4. The coated re-enforcing materials shall meet or exceed the latest versions of all the following
standards.
10.4.1. ASTM A775: Standard specification for epoxy coated steel reinforcing bars
10.4.2. ASTM A934: Standard specification for prefabricated epoxy coated steel reinforcing bars
10.4.3. ASTM D3963: Standard specification for the fabrication and job site handling of epoxy
coated steel reinforcing bars
10.4.4. ASTM A884: Stand specification for epoxy coated steel wire and welded wire fabric for
reinforcement.
11. Underground Steam System Routing
11.1. The Contractor shall coordinate the routing of all steam and steam condensate piping with other
contractors prior to installation.
11.2. Furnish and install valves as required to allow for complete system venting and drain down.
11.3. Grade piping and piping conduit systems not less than 1/8th inch per foot in the direction indicated
on the drawings.

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Design Guidelines

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Department of Facilities Services


Steam System Design Requirements Design Guidelines

11.4. Proper standoff shall be provided to protect other utilities from damage from construction,
maintenance, or operating conditions. Consideration shall be given to potential damage to other utilities
from high temperatures near steam lines.
11.5. Standoff from electrical utilities or systems shall be a minimum of 10 feet. When adequate standoff
cannot be achieved, any portion of a duct bank within ten (10) feet of steam conduit in any direction shall
be insulated with two (2) inches thick cellular glass on the three sides closest to the steam line, until at a
point not closer than ten (10) feet.
11.6. Standoff from chilled water lines shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet. When adequate standoff
between chilled water and steam lines and the chilled water lines cannot be achieved, the chilled water
lines shall be insulated with a minimum of two (2) inches cellular glass insulation.
11.7. When steam and chilled water lines cannot be separated by ten (10) feet or more and they must run
parallel for a distance of more than 50 feet, then consideration shall be given to a combined walk-through
utility corridor, where the steam and chilled water systems share a common tunnel system.
11.8. Piping in non-walk-able systems shall have a locating wire and warning tape installed meeting the
following requirements:
11.8.1. Direct bury a bright yellow plastic warning tape buried 12 inches above the center of the
steam conduit structure. The tape shall read WARNING STEAM WARNING STEAM
WARNING STEAM.
11.8.2. Along with the warning tape 12 above the steam conduit direct bury a locating wire. The
wire shall be equivalent to Annixter #6Q-1202-05 (bright Yellow), direct burial 2 conductor, 12
gage stranded copper.
11.8.3. The wire shall penetrate the manholes through a one inch PVC sleeve, and be coiled on a
hook inside of the manholes. The sleeve shall be sealed with a high temperature silicone sealant
around the wire.
11.8.4. The wire shall not continue through manholes, but shall be broken inside of each manhole.
The coiled wire inside of the manholes shall be of sufficient length that it will extend out of the
manhole doors 10ft.
11.8.5. This wire will be used with Cogeneration Systems locating equipment to aid in finding
buried steam lines. The wire shall be clearly labeled on the hooks inside of the manholes to say
Trace Wire
12. Steam, Condensate, and Heating Hot Water Piping
12.1. All piping in the steam, condensate, and heating hot water piping distribution systems shall be built
in accordance with the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code. As dictated by the specifications, the
requirements may be greater than explicitly implied in the code.
12.2. All steam, condensate, and heating hot water piping in the distribution system shall have welded
joints. No threaded, flanged, or union joints will be permitted (except at pumps, traps, and pressure
control valves).

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