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ISRO electronics and electrical model questions

• 1. A is m x n full rank matrix with m>n and I is an identity matrix. Let

matrix A' = (A A) A . Then, which one of the following statements is false ?

T

­1 T

 a) AA' A = A b) (AA' ) 2 (Ans) c) A' A = I d) AA' A = A Expl : Given A T = ( T A A) A ­1 T = A (A ) A ­1 T ­1 T = A (A ) (A ) = A / = A ­1 ­1 ­1 T T ­1 ­1 [:. AA = 1] ­­­­­­(1) T (a) LHS = AA A A[(A A) A ].A = (A.A )A = I.A = A = T ­1 T ­1 (True) (b) (AA ) = [AA ] =[l] = l 2 1 2 ­1 2 [From Eqn. (i)] (False)

=> it is not an orthogonal matrix

• (c) LHS A A = A A = l = orthogonal matrix

T

­1

[From Eq.(i)]

(True)

• 2. A differential equation dx/dt = e

­2t

u(t) has to be solved using

trapezoidal rule of integration with a step size h = 0.01 s. Function u(t)

indicates a unit step function. If x(0 ) =0, then value of X at t = 0.01 s will be given by

­

• a) 0.00099

• b) 0.00495

• c) 0.0099 (Ans)

• d) 0.0198

• 3. The surface S (x, y) = 2x + 5y­3 is integrated once over a path

consisting of the points that satisfy (x+1)2 + (y­1)2 = √2. The integral

evaluates to

• a) 17√2

• b) 17/√2

• c) √2/17

• d) 0 (Ans)

• 4. A fair coin is tossed three times in succession. If the first toss

produces a head, then the probability of getting exactly two heads in three

tosses is

• a) 1/8

• b) (Ans)

1/2

• c) 3/8

Expl : Total samples = (H,T), (H,T),(H,T)

 Given, first toss produces a head, Then, total chance becomes = H, (H,T), (H,T) For exactly two heads in three tosses = H,H,H So, probability = Total favourable events = 6 = 1 Total sample 3 2

2 ­x

• 5. For the function f(x) = x e , the maximum occurs when x is equal to

a) 2

(Ans)

• b) 1

• c) 0

• d) ­1

2 ­x

Expl : Given, f(x) = x e

2 ­x

f'(x) = x (e ) + 2xe

­x

= e (2x ­ x )

­x

2

­1

For max and min values of f (x),

f '(x) =

0

e (2x ­ x ) =

­x

2

0

=> x(2­x) = 0 => x=0, 2

f"(x) =

e (2­2x)­ e (2x­x )

­x

­x

2

At x = 0 f"(0) = e (2­0) ­ e (0­0) => At (x=2),

0

0

f"(2) =

e (2­4) ­ e (4­4)

­2

­2

2>0 (Minima)

2

­2/e ­ 0 = <o So, the f (x) is maximum at x=2

(Maxima)

• 6. For the scalar field u = x2

 point (1,3) is a) √13/9 b) √ 9/2 c) √ 5 (Ans) d) √9/2

+ y3, magnitude of the gradient at the

• 7. For the equation x"(t) + 3x'(t)+2x(t) = 5, the solution x(t) approaches

which of the following values as t —> ∞ ?

• a) 0

• b) (Ans)

5/2

• c) 5

• d) 10

• 8. Which of the following statements holds for the divergence of electric

and magnetic flux densities ?

• a) Both are zero

• b) These are zero for static densities but no­zero for time varying

densities

• c) It is zero for the electric flux density

• d) It is zero for the magnetic flux density (Ans)

9.

The inductance of a long solenoid of length 1000 mm wound

uniformly with 3000 turns on a cylindrical paper tube of 60 mm diameter is

• a) 3.2 μH

• b) 3.2mH

• c) 32.0 mH (Ans)

• d) 3.2 H

Expl : Inductance of solenoids is given by

L =

2

μ N Ax

0

Where, N = number of turns A = cross ­sectional area = πd (d is diameter) X = length

2

L = 4 x 10 x (3000) x π x 60 x10

­7

2

2

­6

4

= 31.97 mH = 32mH

• 10. Two incandescent light bulbs of 40W and 60W ratings are connected

in series across the mains. Then

• a) the bulbs together consume 100 W

• b) the bulbs together consume 50 W

• c) the 60 W bulb glows brighter

(Ans)

• d) the 40 W bulb glows brighter

• 11. A unit step voltage is applied at t=0 to a series R­L circuit with zero

initial conditions

Which of the following statements is correct ?

• a) The possible for the current to the oscillatory

+

• b) The voltage across the resistor at t=0 is zero

(Ans)

• c) The energy stored in the inductor in the steady state is zero

• d) The resistor current eventually falls to zero

Expl : The inductor does not allow change in current instantaneously.

The voltage across inductor

 V L = L dl dt V L + dl ( 0 + ) = 0 dt (t =0 + ) = 0

V

L

(t =0 ) = L dl ( 0 )

+

dt

• 12. A passive 2­port network is in a steady state. Compared to its input,

the steady state output can never offer

• a) highest voltage

• b) lower impedance

• c) (Ans)

greater power

• d) better regulation

• 13. An electron with velocity u is placed in an electric field E and

magnetic field B. The force experienced by the electron is given by

• a) ­eE

• b) ­eu x B

• c) ­e (u x E + B)

• d) (Ans)

­e(E + u x B)

 14. 2 A voltage waveform V(t) = 12t is applied across a 1H inductor for t>0, with initial current through it being zero. The current through the inductor for t>0 is given by a) 12 t b) 24 t c) 12 t 3 3 d) (Ans) 4 t 15. A capacitor made with a polymeric dielectric having an ε, of 2.26 and a dielectric breakdown strength of 50 kV/cm. The permittivity of free space is 8.85 pF/m. If the rectangular plates of the capacitor have a width of 20 cm and a length of 40 cm then the maximum electric charge in the capacitor is a) 2μC b) 4μC c) 8μC (Ans) d) 10μ C 16. A zero mean random square value is uniformly distributed between limits ­ a and +a and its mean square value is equal to its variance. Then the rms value of the signal is a) (Ans) a √3 b) a √2 c) a√2 d) a√3 Expl : Mean square value = variance = [a­ (­a)] 12 = 4a2 = a 12 3 = 2 /a = a :. rms value √ 3 √3
• 17. A lossy capacitor Cx, rated for operation at 5 kV, 50 Hz is

represented by an equivalent circuit with an ideal capacitor C in parallel with a resistor R . The value of C is found to be 0.102 μF and the value of Rp = 1.25 MΩ. Then the power loss and tan δ of the lossy capacitor operating at the rated voltage, respectively, are

p

p

p

• a) 10 W and 0.0002

• b) 10 W and 0.0025

• c) 20 W and 0.025 (Ans)

• 18. A parallel plate capacitor has an electrode area of 100 mm2, with a

spacing of 0.1 mm between the electrodes. The dielectric between the

plates is air with a permittivity of 8.85 x 10­12 F/m. The charge on the capacitor is 100 V. The stored energy in the capacitor is

• a) 8.85 pJ

• b) 440 pJ

• c) 22.1 nJ

• d) 44.3 nJ (Ans)

• 19. In an AC voltage wave is corrupted with an arbitrary number of

harmonics, then the overall voltage waveform differs from its fundamental

frequency component in terms of

• a) Only the peak values

• b) Only the rms values

• c) Only the average values

• d) all the three measures (peak, rms and average values) (Ans)

• 20. In a transformer, zero voltage regulation at full load is

• a) not possible

• b) possible at unity power factor load

• d) possible at lagging power factor load

• 21. The DC motor, which can provide zero speed regulation at full load

without any controller , is

• a) series

• b) shunt (Ans)

• c) cumulative compound

• d) differential compound

• 22. In transformers, which of the following statements is valid ?

• a) In an open circuit test, copper losses are obtained while in short

circuit test, core losses are obtained

• b) In an open circuit test, current is drawn at high power factor

• c) In a short circuit test, current is drawn at zero power factor

• d) In an open circuit test, current is drawn at low power factor (Ans)

• 23. For a single ­phase capacitor start induction motor, which, of the

following statements is valid ?

• a) The capacitor is used for power factor improvement

• b) The direction of rotation can be changed by reversing the main

winding terminals (Ans)

• c) The direction of rotation cannot be changed

• d) The direction of rotation can be changed by interchanging the supply

terminals

• 24. In a DC machine, which of the following statements is true ?

• a) Compensating winding is used for neutralizing armature reaction

while interpole winding is used for producing residual flux.

• b) Compensating winding is used for neutralizing armature reaction

while interpole winding is used for improving commutation (Ans)

• c) Compensating winding is used for improving commutation while

interpole winding is used for neutralizing armature reaction

• d) Compensating winding is used for improving commutation while

interpole winding is used for producing residual flux.

• 25. The equivalent circuit of a transformer has leakage reactances X ,

1

X' and magnetizing reactance X . Their magnitudes satisfy

 2 a) X1>>X'2>>X M b) X1<>X M d) M magnetizing current. X' a X :. 2 = 2 2 2 2 X 1 ≈ a X 2 2 — 2 ≈ a . X' a :. X ≈ X' => X ≈ X' <

X1≈X'2<<X (Ans)

M

Expl : The magnetizing reactance XM has very high value to reduce

But in approximate equivalent circuit,

• 26. Which three ­phase connection can be used in a transformer to

o

introduce a phase difference of 30 C between its output and

corresponding input time voltages ?

• a) Star­Star

• b) Star­Delta (Ans)

• c) Delta­Delta

• d) Delta ­Zigzag

Expl : The phase difference of can be introduced only in Δ ­Y and Y­ Δ

connections of transformer windings

• 27. On the torque/speed curve of induction motor shown in the figure four

points of operation are marked as W, X, Y and Z. Which one of them

represents the operation at a slip greater than 1 ?

• a) W (Ans)

• b) X

• c) Y

• d) Z

• 28. The output of a logic gate is 1 when all its inputs are at logic 0. The

gate is either

• a) a NAND or an Ex­OR gage

• b) a NOR or an Ex­OR gate

• c) an AND or an Ex­NOR gate

• d) a NOR or an Ex­NOR gate (Ans)

Expl : The output of NOR or an Ex­NOR gate is 1 when all its inputs are

at logic 0.

• 29. A 500 MW, 3­phase Y­connected synchronous generator has a rated

voltage of 21.5 kV at 0.85 PF. The line current when operating at full load

rated conditions will be

• a) 13.43kA

• b) 15.79 kA (Ans)

• c) 23.25 kA

• d) 27.36 kA

Expl : Power = 500 MW

or 3 V I cos Φ = 500

L L

I

L

=

500

3

3 * 21.5*10 * 0.85 = 15.79 kA

• 30. A rotating electrical machine having its self ­inductances of both the

stator and the rotor windings, independent of the rotor position will be

definitely not developed.

• a) starting torque

• b) synchronizing torque

• c) hysteresis torque

• d) reluctance torque

• 31. Modern warfare has changed from larger scale clashes of armies to

suppresion, of civilian populations. Chemical agents that do their work silently appear to be suited to such warfare; and regretfully, there exist people in military establishment who think that chemical agents are useful tools for their cause.

Which of the following best sums up the meaning of the above passage ?

• a) Modern warfare has resulted in civil strife

• b) Chemical agents are useful in modern strife

• c) Use of chemical agents in warfare would be undesirable

• d) People in military establishments like to use chemical agents in

war (Ans)

• 32. If 137 + 276 = 435, how much is 731 + 672 ?

• a) 534 (Ans)

• b) 1403

• c) 1623

• d) 1513

Expl : If 137 and 276 are written in reverse order, then 731 and 672 are

obtained So, 731 + 672 = reverse order of 435 =534

• 33. 5 skilled workers can build a wall in 20 days; 8 semi­skilled workers

can build a wall in 25 days; 10 unskilled workers can build a wall in 30

days. If a team has 2 skilled, 6 semi­skilled and 5 unskilled workers, how long will it take to build the wall ?

• a) 20 days

• b) 18 days

• c) 16 days

• d) 15 days (Ans)

Expl : 5 skilled workers can build a wall in 20 days

:. 2 skilled workers can build the wall in 20 x 5 days = 50 days

 2 8 semi­skilled workers can build the wall in 25 x 8 days = 100 days 6 3

10 unskilled workers can build a wall in 30 days :. 5 unskilled workers can build the wall in 60 days.

One day work of a team of 2 skilled, 6 semi­skilled and 5 unskilled worker =1/50 + 3/100 + 1/60

=

6+9+5 = 20 = 1

300

300

15

So, this team can complete the work in 15 days.

• 34. Given digits 2,2,3,3,3,4,4,4,4, how many distinct 4 digit numbers

greater than 3000 can be formed ?

• a) 50

• b) 51 (Ans)

• c) 52

• d) 54

• 35. Hari (H), Gita(G), Irfan(I) ans Sara (S) are siblings (i.e., brothers and

sisters). All were born on 1st January. The age difference between any two successive sibling (that is born one after another) is less than 3 year. Given the following facts :

I. Hari's age + Gita's age > Irfan's age + Saira's age

II. The age difference between Gita and Saira is 1 yr. However, Gita is not the oldest and Saira is not the youngest III. There are not twins In what order were they born (oldest first)?

• a) HSIG

• b) SGHI (Ans)

• c) IGSH

• d) IHSG

• 36. Instead of walking along the adjacent sides of a rectangular field, a

boy takes a short cut along the diagonal of the field and saves a distance equal to half the longer side. The ratio of the shorter side to that of the longer side is

• a) 1:2

• b) 2:3

• d) 3:4 (Ans)

• 37. The proportion of milk and water in two samples is 5:2 and 7:5. If a

mixture comprising of equal quantities of two samples is made, the

proportion of milk and water in the mixture is

• a) 12:7

• b) 7:12

• c) 109:59 (Ans)

• d) 59:109

• 38. An express train moving at a speed of 80 km/h, overtakes a goods

train twice as long as the express train and moving in the same direction

at a speed of 40 km/h, in 54s. The time taken by express train to go through a station 400 m long is

• a) 27 s (Ans)

• b) 54 s

• c) 18 s

• d) None of these

• 39. A child was asked to add first few natural numbers (that is

1+2+3+.....)

so long his patience permitted. As he stopped, he gave the

sum as 575. When the teacher declared the result wrong the child discovered he had missed one number in the sequence during addition. The number he missed was

• a) less than 10

• b) 10

• c) 15

• d) more than 15 (Ans)

• 40. A colony of bacteria in a container grows by each bacterium

splitting into eight next generation bacteria. However, because of

environmental conditions only 50% of the bacteria in a generation can split as above. A colony of first generation was put in container and it was found that the number of seventh generation bacteria was 4096 million. What was the size of the first generation population initially put in the container ?

• a) 2 million

• b) 8 million

• c) 1 million (Ans)

• d) 4 million

• 41. Out of the following plant categories

(i) Nuclear (ii) Run­of­river (iii) Pump storage (iv) Diesel

The base load power plants are

• a) (i) and (ii)

• b) (ii) and (iii)

• c) (i), (ii) and (iv) (Ans)

• d) (i), (iii) and (iv)

• 42. For a fixed value of complex power flow in a transmission line having

a sending end voltage V, the real power loss will be proportional to

 a) V b) V 2 d) 1/V

2

• c) 1/V (Ans)

• 43. A 50 Hz, 4­pole, 500 MVA, 22kV turbo­generator is delivering rated

MVA at 0.8 power factor. Suddenly a fault occurs reducing is electric power output by 40%. Neglect losses and assume constant power input

to the shaft. The accelerating torque in the generator in MNm at the time of the fault will be

• a) 1.528 (Ans)

• b) 1.018

• c) 0.848

• d) 0.509

Expl :

P = 500 * 0.8 = 400 MW After fault, P = 0.6 x 400 = 240 MW

Torque =

240

2π * 1500/60

= 1.528 MW

• 44. A hydraulic turbine having rated speed of 250 rpm is connected to a

synchronous generator. In order to produce power at 50 Hz, the number of

poles required in the generator are

• a) 6

• b) 12

• c) 16

• d) 24 (Ans)

Expl : No. of poles = 120 f n

= 120 * 50 = 24

250

• 45. For a linear electromagnetic circuit, which of the following statements

is true ?

• a) Field energy is equal to the co­energy

(Ans)

• b) Field energy is greater than the co­energy

• c) Field energy is lesser than the co­energy

• d) Co­energy is zero

• 46. High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission is mainly used for

• a) bulk power transmission over very long distances

(Ans)

• b) interconnecting two systems with the same nominal frequency

• c) eliminating reactive power requirement in the operation

• d) minimizing harmonics at the converter stations

• 47. The insulation strength of an EHV transmission line is mainly

governed by

• b) switching over voltages (Ans)

• c) harmonics

• d) corona

• 48. A cascade of 3 linear time­invariant systems is causal and unstable.

From this, we conclude that

• a) each system in the cascade is individually causal and unstable

(Ans)

• b) at least one system is unstable and at least one system is causal

• c) at least one system is causal and all systems are unstable

• d) the majorities are unstable and the minorities are causal

Expl : A cascade of 3 linear systems is causal and unstable. If each system in the cascade is individually causal and unstable

• 49. For economic operation, the generator with highest prohibitive

incremental transmission loss will operate at

• (a) the highest positive incremental cost of production

• (b) the highest negative incremental cost of production

• (c) the lowest positive incremental cost of production (Ans)

• (d) the lowest negative incremental cost of production

• 50. During no load test an induction motor draws power

• (a) for core, windage and friction loss (Ans)

• (b) for core, loss and copper loss

• (c) for copper, windage and friction loss

• (d) only for the very small copper loss

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