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2MarkQuestion
Beltdrives
Abeltisaflexiblepowertransmissionelementthatseatstightlyonasetofpulleysor
sheaves.Whenthebeltisusedforspeedreduction,thetypicalcase,thesmallersheaveis
mountedonthehighspeedshaft,suchastheshaftofanelectricmotor.Thelargersheaveis
mountedonthedrivenmachine.Thebeltisdesignedtoridearoundthetwosheaveswithout
slipping.

LawofBelting
Thelawofbeltingstatesthatthecenterlineofthebeltwhenitapproachesthepulleymustlie
inthemidplaneofthatpulleywhichshouldbeperpendiculartotheaxisofthepulley.
Otherwisethebeltwillrunoffthepulley.

Centrifugaleffectonbelts
Inoperationasthebeltpassesoverthepulleythecentrifugaleffectduetoitsselfweight
tendstoliftthebeltfromthepulleysurface.Thisreducesthenormalreactionandhencethe
frictionalresistance.Thecentrifugalforceproducesanadditionaltensioninthebelt.

BeltCreep
Achangeinbelttensionduetofrictionforcesbetweenthebeltandpulleywillcausethebelt
toelongateorcontractandmoverelativetothesurfaceofthepulley.Thismotioniscalled
elasticcreep.

Slip
Whenthebeltmovesforwardwithouttakingthebeltwithitisknownasslipofabelt.Slipis
typeoflossoccurringinthebeltdrive.Slipoccurswhenthefrictionalforcebetweenthebelt
andpulleyisnotsufficientduetowhichthereisweakergripbetweenthebeltandpulley.

Tightsideandslackside
Whenthebeltistransmittingpower,frictioncausesthebelttogripthedrivingsheave,
increasingthetensioninoneside,calledthe"tightside,"ofthedrive.Thetensileforceinthe
beltexertsatangentialforceonthedrivensheave,andthusatorqueisappliedtothedriven
shaft.Theoppositesideofthebeltisstillundertension,butatasmallervalue.Thus,itis
calledthe"slackside."

Typesofdrivebelt
1. OpenBeltDrive
2. QuarterturnBelt
3. DriveCrossedBeltDrive

AdvantagesofBeltDrives
1.Beltspermitflexibilityrangingfromhighhorsepowerdrivestoslowspeedandhigh

speeddrives.
2.Beltdrivesarelessexpensivethanchaindrivesforlowhorsepowerandlowratio
applications.
3.Beltsrequirenolubrication.
4.Singlebeltdriveswillacceptmoremisalignmentthanchaindrives.
5.Flatbeltsarebestforextremelyhighspeeddrives.
6.Beltdrivescushionshockloadsandloadfluctuations.
7.Beltswillslipunderoverloadconditions,preventingmechanicaldamagetoshafts,
keys,andothermachineparts.

DisadvantagesofBeltDrives
1.Beltscannotbeusedwhereexacttimingorspeedisrequiredbecauseslippage
doesoccur(onlytimingbeltscanbeused).
2.Beltsareeasilydamagedbyoil,grease,abrasives,somechemicals,andheat.
3.Beltscanbenoisyalsolooseorwornbeltscanbeamajorcauseofmachinery
vibration.

IdlerPulleys
AproperlydesignedVbeltdrivedoesnotrequireanidlertodeliverfullyratedhorsepowerif
properbelttensionandareaofcontactaremaintained.Idlersputanadditionalbendingstress
onthebelt,whichreducesbeltlife.Also,thesmallertheidlerpulley,greaterreductioninbelt
life.
Thebestlocationforaninsideidlerisontheslacksideofthedrive.

Beltrating
Flatbeltsaremadeofdifferentsizessuchas3ply,4plyandVbeltsaremadeofdifferent
gradessuchasA,B,C,DandEgradebelts.Beltratingisdefinedasthepowertransmitting
capacityofunitsizeflatbeltoraparticulargradesingleVbelt.

Factorsshouldbeconsideredduringtheselectionofabeltdrive
1.Amountofpowertobetransmitted
2.Peripheralandangularspeeds
3.Speedratio
4.Efficiency
5.Centredistancebetweenstaffs
6.Spaceavailable
7.Workingenvironment

Flatbelts
Theflatbeltisthesimplesttype,oftenmadefromleatherorrubbercoatedfabric.Thesheave
surfaceisalsoflatandsmooth,andthedrivingforceisthereforelimitedbythepurefriction
betweenthebeltandthesheave.Somedesignerspreferflatbeltsfordelicatemachinery
becausethebeltwillslipifthetorquetendstorisetoalevelhighenoughtodamagethe
machine.

Theplyofbelt
Flatbeltsaremadeofthinstripsandlaminatedoneovertheotherinordertogetthickbelt.
Thesethinstripsorsheetsarecalledaspliesofbelt.Usuallyflatbeltsaremadeof11ply,4
ply,5ply,6plyand8plybeltetc.And4plybeltisthickerthan3plybeltandsoon.

Typesofjointsemployedforjoiningflatbelts
1.Cementedjoints
2.Lacedjoints
3.Crestjoints
4.Hingedjoints

Lifeofbelts
Thelifeofabeltisafunctionofthecentredistancebetweenthedriveranddrivenshafts.The
shorterthebelt,themoreoftenitwillbesubjectedtoadditionalbendingstresseswhile
runningaroundthepulleysatagivenspeed,andquickeritwillbedestroyedduetofatigue.
Hence,alongerbeltwilllastmorethanashorterbelt

Wipping
Ifthecentredistancebetweentwopulleysistoolongthenthebeltbeginstovibrateina
directionperpendiculartothedirectionofmotionofbelt.Thisphenomenoniscalledas
wipping.Wippingcanbeavoidedbyusingidlerspulleys.

Vbelts
Awidelyusedtypeofbelt,particularlyinindustrialdrivesandvehicularapplications,istheV
beltdrive.TheVshapecausesthebelttowedgetightlyintothegroove,increasingfriction
andallowinghightorquestobetransmittedbeforeslippingoccurs.Mostbeltshavehigh
strengthcordspositionedatthepitchdiameterofthebeltcrosssectiontoincreasethetensile
strengthofthebelt.Thecords,madefromnaturalfibres,syntheticstrands,orsteel,are
embeddedinafirmrubbercompoundtoprovidetheflexibilityneededtoallowthebelttopass
aroundthesheave.

VBeltCrossSections
ThecrosssectionaldimensionsofVbeltshavebeenstandardizedbymanufacturers,with
eachsectiondesignatedbyaletterofthealphabet(A,B,C,D,E)forsizesininch
dimensions.

Vbeltdrivebeingpreferredtoflatbeltdrive

Vbeltdriveispreferredtotheflatbeltdriveduetothefollowingadvantages
1.Powertransmittedismoreduetowedgingactioninthegroovedpulley.
2.Highervelocityratio(upto10)canbeobtained.
3.Vbeltdriveismorecompact,quietandshockabsorbing.
4.Thedrivepositivebecausetheslipisnegligible

Designofchaindrives
Achaindriveisaflexiblemechanicaldrivewhichmaybeconsideredtobeintermediate
betweenbeltdriveandgeardriveinthatithasfeaturescommontoboth,Chainsaresuitable
forlongaswellasshortcentredistancedrivesandgiveamorecompact,drivethanis
possiblewithbelts.Chaindrivesaresimilartobeltdrivesinwhichthechains,areoperated
betweentoothedwheelscalledassprockets.

Applicationsofchaindrives
Chaindrivesareemployedintransportationmachinerieslikemotorcycle,bicycles,
automobilesandtechnologicalmachineries,likeagriculturalmachines,crushesetc.

Advantagesofchaindrives
1.Arehavingmorepowertransmittingcapacity.
2.Havehigherefficiencyandcompactsize.
3.Exertlessloadonshaftssincenoinitialtensionisappliedonthesprocketshafts.
4.Requireeasymaintenance

Drawbacksofchaindrives
1.Thedesignofchaindriveismorecomplicated.
2.Theoperationisnoisyandproductioncostishigh.
3.Theyrequiremoreaccurateassemblybfshaftsthanforbelts.

Chordalactioninchaindrives
Chordalactionresultsinapulsatingandjerkmotionofachain.Inordertoreducethevariation
inchainspeed,thenumberofteethonthesprocketshouldbeincreased.

Whatisasilentchain
Invertedtoothchainsarecalledsilentchainsbecauseoftheirrelativelyquietoperation.Silent
Drivesarepreferredforhighpower,highspeed,andsmoothoperation.

Typesofropes
1.Fibreropes
2.Wireropes

Wireropesaresuperiortofibreropes
1.Wireropesarestronger,moredurablethanfibreropes.
2.Wireropescanwithstand'shockloads.
3.Their'efficiencyinhigh.
4.TheycanbeoperatedforVerylongcentredistanceevenupto1000m.

Wireropesclassification
Basedonnup4berofstrandsandwires
1.6x7
2.6x19
3.6x37
4.8x19
Basedonthedirectionofwirewithrespecttostrandsintwisting
1.Crosslayropes.
2.Parallellayropes.
3.Compoundlayropes.

Wireropesdesignated
Awireropeisdesignatedbythenumberofstrandsandthenumberofwiresineachstrand.
Forexample,awireropehavingsixstrands,andeachstrandcontainingnineteenwirescan
bedenotedas6x19rope.

Variousstressesinducedinwireropes
1.Directtensileloadduetoloadandselfweightoftherope.
2.Bendingstresswhentheropewindsroundthedrum.
3.Stressesduetochangesinstartingandstoppingetc.

Gear
Itisamachinepartwithgearteeth.Whentwogearsruntogether,theonewiththelarger
numberofteethiscalledthegear.

Pinion
Itisamachinepartwithgearteeth.Whentwogearsruntogether,theonewiththesmaller
numberofteethiscalledthepinion.

Geardrivessuperiortobeltdrivesandchaindrives
1.Thegeardrivespossesshighloadcarryingcapacity,highcompactlayout.

2.Theycantransmitpowerfromverysmallvaluestoseveralkilowatts.

Materialsformakinggears
1.Ferrousmetalssuchascarbonsteels,alloysteelsofnickel,chromiumand
vanadium.
2.Castironofdifferentgrades.
3.Nonferrousmetalssuchasbrass,bronze,etc.
4.Nonmetalslikephenolicresinsnylon,Bakeliteetc.
Amongthemsteelwithproperheattreatmentisextensively,employedinmanyofthe
engineeringapplications.

Possiblegearsfailures
1.Toothbreakage
2.Pittingoftoothsurface.
3.Abrasivewears
4.Seizingofteeth

Correctgearing(or)statethelawofgearing
Thelawofgearingstatesthatforobtainingaconstantvelocityratio,atanyinstantofteeththe
commonnormalateachofcontactshouldalwayspassthroughapitchpoint,situatedonthe
linejoiningthecentresofrotationofthepairofmatinggears.

Gearratio(i)
Itistheratioofnumberofteethoflargergeartothatofsmallergear.Atisalsodefinedasthe
ratioofhighspeedtothelowspeedinageardrive.Usually,thegearratioshouldalwaysbe
greaterthan1.

Factorsinfluencebacklash
Thefactorslikeerrorsintooththickness,pitch,toothspacing,mountingmisalignment,etc.
influencethebacklash.

Stressesareinducedingeartooth
1.Surfacecompressivestress
2.Bendingstress

Pinionisharderthangear
Becausetheteethofpinionundergomorenumberofcyclesthanthoseofgearandhence
quickerwear.

Methodsofmanufacturingagear

1.Gearmilling
2.Geargenerating(Gearhobbing,Gearshaping)
3.Gearmolding(Injectionmolding,Diecasting,Investmentcasting)

Advantagesofhelicalgears
1.Transmitmorepower
2.Providesmoothandsoundlessoperation
3.Canbeusedforhighspeedandhighvelocityratioprocesses

Helixangle
Helixangleistheanglebetweentheaxisofthegearandthethroughtoothface.Forhelical
gear,teetharecutataninclinedaxis,specifiedashelixangleanditsvaluerangesfrom80to
25thecaseofspurgear,tootharecutparalleltotheaxis,thespurgeariszero.

Herringbonegears
Aherringbonegearismadeoftwosinglehelicalgearsattachedotherhencecalledasdouble
helicalgearinwhichtheteethofbesetintheoppositedirectiontotheteethofanothergear
arrangement.Sometimes,asinglecylindricalblockisovaployodformakingherringbone
gears.

Designofbevelgears
Bevelgearisthetypeofgearforwhichtheteetharecutonconicalsurfaceincontrastwith
spurandhelicalgearsforwhichtheteetharecutoncylindricalsurfaces.Thestructureof
bevelgearissimilartoanduniformlytruncatedfrustumofacone.Whenthepoweristobe
transmittedinanangular,direction,i.e.,betweentheshaftswhoseaxesintersectingatan
angle,bevelgearsareemployed.Bevelgearsareclassifiedintwowaysbasedontheshape
ofteeth.
1.Straightbevelgears.
2.Spiralbevelgears

Crowngear
Acrowngearisatypeofbevelgearwhoseshaftangleis90degreeandangleofpinionisnot
equaltothepitchangleofgear.

Mitregear
Mitregearisthespecialtypeofcrowngearinwhichtheshaftanglesis90andthepitch
anglesofpinionandgearareequalandeachangleto45.

Designofwormgears
Wormgear,drivefindwideapplicationslikemillingmachineindexinghead,tablefan,and
steeringrodofautomobileandsoon.Whenwerequiretotransmitpowerbetweennonparallel

andnonintersectingshaftsandveryhighvelocityratio,ofabout100,wormgears,canbe
employed.Alsowormgearsprovideselflockingfacility.

Meritsofwormgears
1.Usedforveryhighvelocityratioofabout100
2.Smoothandnoiselessoperation.
3.Selflockingfacilityisavailable.

Demeritsofwormgears
1.Lowefficiency.
2.Moreheatwillbeproducedandhencethisdrivecanbeoperatedinsideanoil
reservoirorextracoolingfanisrequiredinordertodissipatetheheatfromthedrive.
3.Lowpowertransmission.

Purposeofgearboxhousing
Gearboxhousingorcasingisusedascontainerinsidewhich,thegears,shafts,bearings
andothercomponentsare"mounted.'Alsoitpreventstheentryofdustinsidethehousingand
reducesnoiseofoperation.Thatis,thehousingSafeguardtheinnercomponents.

Functionofspacersinagearbox
Spacersaresleevelikecomponents,whicharemounted,inshaftsinbetweengearsand
bearingsoronegearandanothergearinordertomaintainthedistancebetweenthemsoas
toavoidinterruptionbetweenthem.

Speeddiagramorstructuraldiagramofgearbox
Speeddiagramorstructuraldiagramisthegraphicalrepresentationdifferentspeedsof
outputshaft,motorshaftandintermediateshafts.

Purposeweareusinggearbox
Sincethegearboxisprovidedwithnumberofgearsofdifferentsizearrangedisdifferent
forms,wecangetnumberofoutputspeedsbyoperatedmotor/engineatsinglespeed.

Raydiagramofgear
Theraydiagramorkinematicarrangementofagearboxindicatesarrangementofvarious
gearsinvariousshaftsofthegearboxinordertoobtainthedifferentoutputspeedsfromthe
singlespeedofthemotor.

Stepratio
Stepratioistheratioofonespeedoftheshafttoitspreviouslowerspeedsincethespindle
speedsarearrangedingeometricprogression,theratiosadjacentspeeds(i.e.,stepratios)
areconstant

PreferredNumbers
Preferrednumbersaretheconventionallyroundedoffvaluesderivedfromgeometricseries.
TherearefivebasicseriesdenotedasR5,R10,R20,R40andR80series

Slidingmeshgearbox
Slidingmeshgearboxistheoldestandsimplestformofgearbox.Inordertomeshgearson
thesplinedmainshaftwithappropriategearsonthelayshaftforobtainingdifferentspeeds,
theyaremovedtotherightorleft.Itderivesitsnamefromthefactthatthemeshingofthe
gearstakesplacebyslidingofgearsoneachother.

Constantmeshgearbox
Inconstantmeshgearboxallthegearsarealwaysinmeshandtheengagementbetweenthe
gearswhicharefreelyrotatingonthetransmissionmainshaftandthetransmissionmainshaft
iseffectedbymovingthedogclutches.

Typesofbrakes
1.Radialbrakes(Bandbrakes,blockbrakes,andinternalexpandingrim)
2.Axialbrakes(Conebrakesanddiscbrakes)

Typesofbrakelinings
1.Organiclinings
2.Semimetalliclinings
3.Metalliclinings

Selflockingbrake
Whenthefrictionalforceissufficientenoughtoapplythebrakewithnoexternalforce,then
thebrakeissaidtobeselflockingbrake.

Selfenergizingbrake
Whenthemomentofappliedforceandthemomentofthefrictionalforceareinthesame
direction,thenfrictionalforcehelpsinapplyingthebrake.Thistypeofbrakeisknownasa
selfenergizingbrake.

Positiveclutch
Whichtransmitspowerfromdrivingshafttothedrivenshaftbyjawsorteethiscalledpositive
clutch.Noslippingisthere.

Poweristransmittedbyclutches
Inclutches,powertransmissionisachievedthrough
1.Interlocking

2.Friction
3.Wedging

Coneclutchesbetterthandiscclutches
Sincetheconediscsarehavinglargefrictionalareasandtheycantransmitalargertorque
thandiscclutcheswith,thesameoildiameterandactuatingforceandhenceconeclutches
arepreferredoverdiskclutches.Butusuallyconeclutchesaremainlyusedinlowperipheral
applications

Needforgeneratedheatdissipatedinclutchoperation
Inordertosavethefrictionplatesandmaterialsfrommeltingbytheheatproducedduring
operation,thegeneratedheatshouldbedissipated.

Theoriesappliedforthedesignoffrictionclutches.
1.UniformPressuretheory
2.Uniformweartheory

Differencebetweenclutchesandbrakes
Theclutchusedtoengagethedrivinganddrivenmembersandkeepthemmoving(i.e.,
rotating)together,whereasbrakesareemployedtostopamovingmemberorreduceits
speed.

Clutchesareusuallydesignedonthebasicofuniformwear
Inclutches,thevalueofnormalpressure,axialloadforthegivenclutchislimitedbytherate
ofwearthatcanbetoleratedinthebrakelinings.Moreover,theassumptionofuniformwear
rategivesalowercalculatedclutchcapacitythantheassumptionofuniformpressure.Hence
clutchesareusuallydesignedonthebasisofuniformwear.

Cam
Camisarotatingmechanicalmemberusedfortransmittingdesiredmotiontoafollowerby
directcontact.

Angleofascendanddescend
Theangleofrotationofthecamfromthepositionwhenthefollowerbeginstorisetillit
reachesitshighestpointsisangleofascend.
Theanglethroughwhichthecamrotatesduringthetimethefollowerreturnstotheinitial
positionisangleofdescend.

Dwell
Thezerodisplacementortheabsenceofmotionofthefollowerduringthemotionofthecam
iscalleddwell.

Angleofdwell

Itistheanglethroughwhichthecamrotateswhilethefollowerremainsstationaryatthe
highestorthelowest.

Angleofaction
Thetotalanglemovedbythecamduringitsrotationbetweenthebeginningofriseandthe
endofreturnofthefollower

Radialordisccams
Inradialcamsthefollowerreciprocatesoroscillatesinadirectionperpendiculartothecam
axis.Thecamsareallradialrams.Inactualpractice,radialcamsarewidelyusedduetotheir
simplicityandcompactness.