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Solar air cooler


























Equipment Required:


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Solar Air Cooler

Solar panels (arrays of photovoltaic cells) make use of renewable energy from the sun,
and are a clean and environmentally sound means of collecting solar energy. The Solar Cooling

Solar air cooler

Fan Caps are specially designed for summer tourists as well as fishing and climbing mountains,
playing golf, sport meeting, people working outdoors and children. Its good for preventing
sunstroke and lowering the temperature and they make great gifts. The solar cell can transfer
solar energy directly into electric power which can turn on the fan. Its fanning can change
automatically depending on the availability of sunlight.

In this project Solar panel of 12V is used and a rechargeable battery is provided to store the
energy. An ON /OFF switch is provided for user controlled operation. The uniqueness of this
project is, the cap can sense the intensity of the sun light temperature and automatically switches
on the cooling fan without users interference.
An ON /OFF switch is provided for user controlled operation. The uniqueness of this project is,
the fan can sense the intensity of the sun light temperature and automatically switches on the
cooling fan without users interference. Here we are use LM35 sensor ,whenever temperature is
high the fan is TURN ON, temperature is low the fan is TURN OFF.

When LDR2 receives more light than LDR1, it offers lower resistance than LDR1,
providing a high input to comparators A1 and A2 at pins 4 and 7, respectively. As a result, output
pin 1 of comparator A2 goes high to rotate motor M1 in one direction (say, anti-clockwise) and
turn the Solar panel.
When LDR1 receives more light than LDR2, it offers lower resistance than LDR2, giving
a low input to comparators A1 and A2 at pins 4 and 7, respectively. As the voltage at pin 5 of
comparator A1 is now higher than the voltage at its pin 4, its output pin 2 goes high. As a result,
motor M1 rotates in the opposite direction (say, clock-wise) and the solar panel turns.





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This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage
regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac
output of secondary of 230/09V step down transformer.



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Fit and Forget system

Low cost and reliable circuit
Automatic operation
Man power is completely reduced.
Save the power

Industrial areas
Used in homes, colleges etc.

Gone are the days when you would look up at the Sun and curse yourself for being out on a
hot sunny day. Take pride; very soon you will be a walking energy station with people asking
you to help them charge their batteries with your clothes!



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This isnt a scene out of a Sci-Fi movie. It is the simple application of solar cells. They are
the only way we can convert sunlight into electricity directly and day by day they are getting
better, smaller and cheaper.
Nothing can dare challenge the sun when it comes to radiating energy. Every hour the energy
available from the sun is more than what humans require for an entire year. Petrol, diesel and
all these fossil fuels are nothing but suns energy concentrated over years and years. This
makes them very efficient in terms of energy per unit of the fuel. So why not tap it directly?
Solar energy isnt something new. People have used sun to dry and preserve things. Vedic
literatures in India even state the use of flying machines which were powered using the sun.
Come 21st century, we have come a long way in developing solar cells which are the devices
powering our future, converting suns energy into electricity.

Solar panels are simply solar cells lined up together in series and parallel so as get sufficient
voltage and are p-n junction semiconductor devices with pure silicon wafer doped with n
type phosphorous on the top and p type boron on the base. If the PV cell is placed in the
sun, photons of light strike the electrons in the p-n junction and energize them, knocking
them free of their atoms. These electrons are attracted to the positive charge in the n-type
silicon and repelled by the negative charge in the p-type silicon. Connecting wires across the
junction will have a current in them.
Solar cells have come a long way from bulky 6% efficient chunks to thin films with as much
as 30% efficiency. They are selling like hot cakes today given their necessity and utility. And
the reason being they are faithful good chaps unlike oil which will soon be more precious to

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us than diamonds and the black monster: coal which has polluted the air, hand in cuff with
the other fossil fuels.
We need to understand solar panels so as to understand their applications. Today, we have
mono- crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film panels. Mono-crystalline are so
far the most efficient, given that they have the maximum silicon in a unit area so more
current for the same number of photons. They are made out of a single silicon crystal as a
continuous lattice. While for the polycrystalline panels, molten silicon is poured into moulds
and separate boundaries can be seen due to this. Lesser quantity of silicon in a unit area
means lesser efficiency of production of electricity. Amorphous thin film panels are layers of
silicon on a glass surface and are the least expensive. Hence, they are used in applications
where you can do away with efficiency for lowering the costs.
Solar panels are really useful in broad daylight but we need energy when the Sun isnt
shining above our rooftops. Thats why we need solar chargers which will store energy in
rechargeable batteries. This project aims to make a solar charger using a voltage regulator IC
so as to charge a Lead Acid Battery with the constant output voltage obtained through this IC
LM317( Details explained later). Today there are many more options like a SOLAR
CHARGER IC LT3652. This is an IC with embedded MPPT (Maximum Power Point
Tracking) algorithm. MPPT simply means the IC gets the maximum possible power from the
solar panel by sampling its output and applying the proper load resistance. This small chip
simplifies life given its ease of use and maximum efficiency is always ensured.
Source : Wikipedia
Even 15% efficient solar panels installed across the worlds wasetelands can produce enough
clean energy to sustain mankind for a year.
Yet new technology is continuously being developed though solar energy generation is still in
its infancy. The concept of SOLAR FARMING is new and catching up fast in investors. India
is a tropical country and can soon become the Saudi Arabia of solar energy. With
Concentrated Photo Voltaics (CPV: which increase efficiency by concentrating large amount
of sunlight on the solar cells using mirrors) coming up in India, we are definitely headed
towards a cleaner future.
Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and cutting down on our carbon emissions is one of the
most important aspects of solar energy. Another crucial point is it can make any country,
especially tropical ones like India, self-sufficient in energy. With ambitious project like the

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National Solar missions aiming at producing 20GW (Indias energy consumption 2012:
100GW out of which 1GW was Solar energy) by 2020 is a big step toward progress. Rural
areas are now lit up with solar lamps. Solar parks are also an emerging trend with Charanka
Solar Park, Gujarat producing 20MW of energy. Government is also taking initiatives to
encourage people to make use of the sun by subsidizing electricity bills for consumers using
the solar panels. So if you make more energy than you use, you will end up in a profit
without even burning a calorie!
Going Solar is exciting but some challenges also need to be addressed. Space constraints,
weather constraints and expensive technology involved do hinder the process. But with
increase in production and development of technology, prices will fall, demands increase and
we will be living in a cleaner, safer environment, making the energy we need. Renewable
sources of energy alone can ensure sustainable development. Economic growth can also be
ensured by energy reaching to each and every household in turn increasing the productivity
of industries and standard of living of people. It is a bright future we have ahead of us; the
only thing is we need to focus the glare rather than evading it.

Equipment Required:


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A solar cell is

a device that converts the






electricity by

the photovoltaic effect.


the term solar cell is





specifically to capture energy from sunlight such as solar panels and solar cells, while the
term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified. Assemblies of cells
are used to make so lar panels, solar modules, or photovoltaic arrays. Photovoltaic is the
field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells in producing
electricity for practical use. The energy generated this way is an example of solar energy
(also known as solar power).
The highly efficient solar cell was first developed by Chapin, Fuller and Pearson in
1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction. In past four decades, remarkable progress
has been made. Megawatt solar power generating plants have now been built. Solar
cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module. Photovoltaic
modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side, allowing light to pass
while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements (rain, hail, etc.). Solar
cells are also usually connected in series in modules, creating an additive voltage.
Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current. Modules are then
interconnected, in series or parallel, or both, to create an array with the desired peak

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DC voltage and current. The power output of a solar array is measured in watts or
kilowatts. In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application, a
measurement in watt-hours, kilowatt-hours or kilowatt-hours per day is often used. A
common rule of thumb is that average power is equal to 20% of peak power, so that
each peak kilowatt of solar array output power corresponds to energy production of
4.8 kWh per day (24 hours x 1 kW x 20% = 4.8 kWh).
To make practical use of the solar-generated energy, the electricity is most often fed
into the electricity grid using inverters (grid-connected photovoltaic systems); in
stand-alone systems, batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed
Solar cells can also be applied to other electronics devices to make it self-power
sustainable in the sun. There are solar cell phone chargers, solar bike light and solar
camping lanterns that people can adopt for daily use.

Figure : Working of solar cell

When a photon hits a piece of silicon, one of three things can happen:
The photon can pass straight through the silicon - this (generally) happens for lower
energy photons, the photon can reflect off the surface, the photon can be absorbed by
the silicon, if the photon energy is higher than the silicon band gap value. This
generates an electron-hole pair and sometimes heat, depending on the band structure.
When a photon is absorbed, its energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice.
Usually this electron is in the valence band, and is tightly bound in covalent bonds

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between neighbouring atoms, and hence unable to move far. The energy given to it by
the photon "excites" it into the conduction band, where it is free to move around
within the semiconductor. The covalent bond that the electron was previously a part
of now has one fewer electron - this is known as a hole. The presence of a missing
covalent bond allows the bonded electrons of neighbouring atoms to move into the
"hole," leaving another hole behind, and in this way a hole can move through the
lattice. Thus, it can be said that photons absorbed in the semiconductor create mobile
electron-hole pairs.
A photon need only have greater energy than that of the band gap in order to excite an
electron from the valence band into the conduction band. However, the solar
frequency spectrum approximates a black body spectrum at ~6000 K, and as such,
much of the solar radiation reaching the Earth is composed of photons with energies
greater than the band gap of silicon. These higher energy photons will be absorbed by
the solar cell, but the difference in energy between these photons and the silicon band
gap is converted into heat (via lattice vibrations - called phonons) rather than into
usable electrical energy.
The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal
applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another
pair of terminals. This property is called gain. A transistor can control its output in
proportion to the input signal; that is, it can act as an amplifier. Alternatively, the
transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled
switch, where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements.
The two types of transistors have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit.
A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base, collector, and emitter. A small current
at the base terminal (that is, flowing from the base to the emitter) can control or
switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals. For a fieldeffect transistor, the terminals are labeled gate, source, and drain, and a voltage at the
gate can control a current between source and drain.
The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. Charge will
flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base.
Since internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode,
a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. The

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amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from, and is
referred to as VBE.

Solar energy applies energy from the sun in the form of solar radiation for heat or to
generate electricity. Solar powered electricity generation either photovoltaic's or heat engines
(concentrated solar power). A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and
cooling through solar architecture, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high
temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar
depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques
include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive
solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable
thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
Solar energy capture is also being linked to research involving water splitting and carbon dioxide
reduction for the development of artificial photosynthesis or solar fuels.

Solar energy is "the engine" beyond almost all renewable energy sources. Secondary
solar energy powered resources such as wind energy, wave power, hydroelectricity and
biomass, account for most of the available renewable energy on earth. Geothermal and
tidal energy are not considered as secondary products of solar energy because they exist
even without solar radiation.

At nights and on very cloudy days solar energy is not fully available and energy storage
systems are very important to save energy when it is available. Solar energy can be stored
in many forms, but most common are conversion to thermal energy, storing electrical
energy in rechargeable batteries and pumped storage systems - pumping water to higher
elevation when solar energy is available .



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Solar energy is renewable energy source because it cannot be depleted like fossil fuels.
Solar energy is also very clean source of energy after installation because there are no
harmful emissions or pollution caused by using solar panels or solar cells.

There are three basic types of solar energy usage:

Solar panels - Direct conversion of solar energy into heat. Mostly used for water heating.

Concentrating solar power - Focusing solar radiation using arrays of mirrors to

superheat some fluid. Superheated fluid is then used to generate electricity. This is the
main method used in today's solar power plants.

Solar cells - Conversion of solar energy directly into the electrical energy

Equipment Required:



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A transformer is a device that transfer electrical current from one circuit to another
through inductively coupled. Conductors-the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first
or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, and thus a
varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a
varying electromotive force or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called
mutually inductance.

Figure: Transformer Symbol

Transformer is a device that converts the one form energy to another form of energy like a



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Figure: Transformer

Basic Principle
A transformer makes use of faradays laws and the ferromagnetic properties of an iron
core efficiently raise or lower AC voltages. It of course cannot increase power so that if the
voltage is raised, the current is proportionally lowered and vice versa.
Transformer refers to the static electromagnetic setting which can transfer power from
one circuit to another one. In AC circuits, AC voltage, current and waveform can be transformed
with the help of Transformers. Each transformation is usually to transfer from one circuit to
another one by the way of electromagnetism, but it has no direct relation with this circuit. It also
can be transformed through electromagnetism (electrical manner). This electromagnetism is
known as auto-transformer. Transformer plays an important role in electronic equipment. AC and
DC voltage in Power supply equipment are almost achieved by transformer's transformation and
commutation. At the same time the electrical parameters transformed by transformer are not one
but a few ones. Most of the isolation, matching and impedance in the circuit carry out by
transformer.Most of isolation, matching and impedance in the circuit carry out by transformer,

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two windings and AC power supply. The winding is called the primary winding; another winding
is connected with load, and it is called secondary windings.

Figurer: Basic Principle

Transformer Working
A transformer consists of two coils (often called 'windings') linked by an iron core, as
shown in figure below. There is no electrical connection between the coils; instead they are
linked by a magnetic field created in the core.

Figure: Basic Transformer



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Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal
loss of power. They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing
magnetic field to be created in their core. Transformers can increase voltage (step-up) as well as
reduce voltage (step-down).
Alternating current flowing in the primary (input) coil creates a continually changing
magnetic field in the iron core. This field also passes through the secondary (output) coil and the
changing strength of the magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. If
the secondary coil is connected to a load the induced voltage will make an induced current flow.
The correct term for the induced voltage is 'induced electromotive force' which is usually
abbreviated to induced e.m.f.
The iron core is laminated to prevent 'eddy currents' flowing in the core. These are
currents produced by the alternating magnetic field inducing a small voltage in the core, just like
that induced in the secondary coil. Eddy currents waste power by needlessly heating up the core
but they are reduced to a negligible amount by laminating the iron because this increases the
electrical resistance of the core without affecting its magnetic properties.
Transformers have two great advantages over other methods of changing voltage:
They provide total electrical isolation between the input and output, so they can be safely
used to reduce the high voltage of the mains supply.
Almost no power is wasted in a transformer. They have a high efficiency (power out /
power in) of 95% or more.

Classification of Transformer

Step-Up Transformer

Step-Down Transformer

Step-Down Transformer

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Step down transformers are designed to reduce electrical voltage. Their primary voltage
is greater than their secondary voltage. This kind of transformer "steps down" the voltage applied
to it. For instance, a step down transformer is needed to use a 110v product in a country with a
220v supply.
Step down transformers convert electrical voltage from one level or phase configuration
usually down to a lower level. They can include features for electrical isolation, power
distribution, and control and instrumentation applications. Step down transformers typically rely
on the principle of magnetic induction between coils to convert voltage and/or current levels.
When voltage is applied to one coil (frequently called the primary or input) it magnetizes
the iron core, which induces a voltage in the other coil, (frequently called the secondary or
output). The turn's ratio of the two sets of windings determines the amount of voltage

Figure: Step-Down Transformer

An example of this would be: 100 turns on the primary and 50 turns on the secondary, a
ratio of 2 to 1.

Step down transformers can be considered nothing more than a voltage ratio device.
With step down transformers the voltage ratio between primary and secondary will mirror
the "turn's ratio" (except for single phase smaller than 1 kva which have compensated

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secondary). A practical application of this 2 to 1 turn's ratio would be a 480 to 240 voltage step
down. Note that if the input were 440 volts then the output would be 220 volts. The ratio
between input and output voltage will stay constant. Transformers should not be operated at
voltages higher than the nameplate rating, but may be operated at lower voltages than rated.
Because of this it is possible to do some non-standard applications using standard transformers.
Single phase step down transformers 1 kva and larger may also be reverse connected to
step-down or step-up voltages. (Note: single phase step up or step down transformers sized less
than 1 KVA should not be reverse connected because the secondary windings have additional
turns to overcome a voltage drop when the load is applied. If reverse connected, the output
voltage will be less than desired.)
Step-Up Transformer
A step up transformer has more turns of wire on the secondary coil, which makes a
larger induced voltage in the secondary coil. It is called a step up transformer because the

voltage output is larger than the voltage input.

Step-up transformer 110v 220v design is one whose secondary voltage is greater than its
primary voltage. This kind of transformer "steps up" the voltage applied to it. For instance, a step
up transformer is needed to use a 220v product in a country with a 110v supply.
A step up transformer 110v 220v converts alternating current (AC) from one voltage to
another voltage. It has no moving parts and works on a magnetic induction principle; it can be
designed to "step-up" or "step-down" voltage. So a step up transformer increases the voltage and
a step down transformer decreases the voltage.
The primary components for voltage transformation are the step up transformer core and
coil. The insulation is placed between the turns of wire to prevent shorting to one another or to
ground. This is typically comprised of Mylar, nomex, Kraft paper, varnish, or other materials. As
a transformer has no moving parts, it will typically have a life expectancy between 20 and 25



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Figure: Step-Up Transformer

Generally these Step-Up Transformers are used in industrial applications only

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a
constant voltage level. It may use an electro mechanic mechanism, or passive or active
electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC of
DC voltages. There are two types of regulator are they.

Positive Voltage Series (78xx) and

Negative Voltage Series (79xx)

'78' indicate the positive series and xx'indicates the voltage rating. Suppose 7805
produces the maximum 5V.'05'indicates the regulator output is 5V.
'78' indicate the negative series and xx'indicates the voltage rating. Suppose 7905
produces the maximum -5V.'05'indicates the regulator output is -5V.
These regulators consists the three pins there are
Pin1: It is used for input pin.

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Pin2: This is ground pin for regulator
Pin3: It is used for output pin. Through this pin we get the output.

Figure: Regulator

Output voltage regulation is good (tap switching) to very good (double conversion)
Ultrafast voltage correction speed
No restrictions on the number of correction cycles
Versatility of kVA rating, voltage and configuration
Very low or no
Poor current overload capacity (except the series transformer design)
More expensive than mechanical voltage regulators

A resistor is passive two-terminal electrical component
that implement electrical resistance as a circuit element. The
current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage
across the resistors terminal. This relationship is represented by
ohms law.
The Where I is the current through the conductor in units of
amperes, V is the potential different measured across the

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conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the
conductor in units of ohms. The ratio of the voltage applied
across a resistors terminals to the intensity of current in the
circuit is called its
constant(independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors
working with in their ratings.
Resisters are common elements of electrical net
works and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic
equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds
and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high
resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome).
Resistors are also implemented within
particularly analog drives, and can also



be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. The electrical

functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance. Common
commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than
nine orders of magnitude.
When specifying that resistance in an electronic
design, the required precision of the resistance may require
attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistors,
according to its specific application.
The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of
concern in some precision application. Practical resistors are also
specified as having a maximum power rating which must mainly
of concern in power electronics applications.
Resistors with higher power ratings are physically large and may
require heat sinks. In a high-voltage circuit attention must
sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the

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While there is no minimum working voltage for a given
resistor, failure to account for a resistors maximum rating may
causes the resistor to incinerate when current is run through it.
Practical resistor has a series inductance and a small parallel
capacitance; these specifications can be important in highfrequency applications. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp, the
noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue.
The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature
coefficient are namely dependent on the technology used in
manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified
individually for a particular family of resistor, manufactured using
a particular technology.
A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its
form factor, that is, the size of the device and the position of its
leads which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits



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Figure: Inverter

An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current
(AC); the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate
transformers, switching, and control circuits.
Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from
small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current
applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from
DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.

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The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early
mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse, and thus were "inverted", to
convert DC to AC.
Detailed operation
The simplified description above neglects several practical factors, in particular the
primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core, and the contribution to the field
due to current in the secondary circuit.
Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two
windings of zero resistance. When a voltage is applied to the primary winding, a small current
flows, driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. The current required to create the flux
is termed the magnetizing current; since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero
reluctance, the magnetizing current is negligible, although still required to create the magnetic
The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding.
Since the ideal windings have no impedance, they have no associated voltage drop, and so the
voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer, are equal to the corresponding
EMFs. The primary EMF, acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage, is sometimes
termed the "back EMF". This is due to Lenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would
always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field.
Inverters are mainly classified into following types
1. Based on number of phases
a) Single phase inverter
b) Three phase inverter
2. Based on nature of driving DC sources
a) Voltage source inverter

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b) Current sorceinverter
3) Based on type of commutation in thyristor
a) Line commutation
b) Forced commutation
c) Auxiliary commutation inverter
d) Complementary commutation inverter
4. Based on type of output voltage
a) Sine wave
b) Square wave
c) Quasi square wave
5. Based on type of connection
a) Series inverter
b) Parallel inverter
c) Bridge inverter
6. Based on circuit configuration
a) Half bridge
b) Full bridge
Output voltage is sinusoidal
Inductive loads like micro ovens and motors run firstly
Reduce audible and electrical noise in fans florescent lamps etc

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Prevent crushes in computer, weird printout and glitches and noise in monitors.


Figure: Rechargeable battery

A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells.

They are known as secondary cells because their electrochemical reactions are electrically
reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything
from a button cell to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution
network. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: leadacid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium
ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).


Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol
shows the direction in which the current can flow. Diodes are the electrical version of a
valve and early diodes were actually called valves.



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Figure: Diode Symbol

A diode is a device which only allows current to flow through it in one direction. In this
direction, the diode is said to be 'forward-biased' and the only effect on the signal is that
there will be a voltage loss of around 0.7V. In the opposite direction, the diode is said to be
'reverse-biased' and no current will flow through it.

BATTERY: An electric battery is a device consisting of two or more electrochemical

cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell
has a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode.
The terminal marked positive is at a higher electrical potential energy
than is the terminal marked negative.
The terminal marked positive is the source of electrons that when
connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an
external device. When a battery is connected to an external circuit,
Electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical
reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver
energy to the external circuit.
It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows current
to flow out of the battery to perform work. Although the term battery
technically means a device with multiple cells, single cells are also
popularly called batteries.

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Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and
discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during
discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights
and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable batteries)
can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition
of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include
the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for
portable electronics.
Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to
power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms
that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data
Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than
common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat offset by the higher
efficiency of electric motors in producing mechanical work, compared to
combustion engines.
Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the
voltaic pile in 1800.This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated
by brine soaked paper discs,

Principle of operation:-

Appreciate that the voltage was due to chemical reactions. He thought

that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, and that the
associated corrosion effects at the electrodes were a mere nuisance,
rather than an unavoidable consequence of their operation, as Michael
Faraday showed in 1834. Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical
energy. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells. Each cell consists of two halfMITS DEPT OF EEE

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cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and captions. One
half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the electrode to which anions
(negatively charged ions) migrate; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the positive
electrode to which captions (positively charged ions) migrate. Radix reactions power the
battery. Cautions are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode during charging, while
anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode during charging. During discharge,
the process is reversed. The electrodes do not touch each other, but are electrically connected
by the electrolyte. Some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell. A separator allows
ions to flow between half-cells, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes.
Each half-cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric
current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the cell is the difference
between the emfs of its half-cells.Thus, if the electrodes have emfs
emf is


, then the net

; in other words, the net emf is the difference between the reduction

potentials of the half-reactions.

The electrical driving force or

across the terminals of a cell is known as the terminal

voltage (difference) and is measured in volts. The terminal voltage of a cell that is neither
charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf of the cell.
Because of internal resistance, the terminal voltage of a cell that is discharging is smaller in
magnitude than the open-circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is charging
exceeds the open-circuit voltage.
An ideal cell has negligible internal resistance, so it would maintain a constant terminal
voltage of

until exhausted, then dropping to zero. If such a cell maintained 1.5 volts and

stored a charge of one coulomb then on complete discharge it would perform 1.5 joules of
work. In actual cells, the internal resistance increases under discharge and the open circuit
voltage also decreases under discharge. If the voltage and resistance are plotted against time,
the resulting graphs typically are a curve; the shape of the curve varies according to the
chemistry and internal arrangement employed.



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The voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the energy release of the
chemical reactions of its electrodes and electrolyte. Alkaline and zinccarbon cells have
different chemistries, but approximately the same emf of 1.5 volts; likewise NiCd and NiMH
cells have different chemistries, but approximately the same emf of 1.2 volts. The high
electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds give lithium cells
emfs of 3 volts or more.

The purpose of a rectifier is to convert an AC waveform into a DC waveform (OR) Rectifier
converts AC current or voltages into DC current or voltage.

There are two different

rectification circuits, known as 'half-wave' and 'full-wave' rectifiers. Both use components
called diodes to convert AC into DC.
The Half-wave Rectifier
The half-wave rectifier is the simplest type of rectifier since it only uses one diode, as shown
in figure.

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Figure : Half Wave Rectifier

Figure 2.8.1 shows the AC input waveform to this circuit and the resulting output. As you
can see, when the AC input is positive, the diode is forward-biased and lets the current
through. When the AC input is negative, the diode is reverse-biased and the diode does not
let any current through, meaning the output is 0V. Because there is a 0.7V voltage loss
across the diode, the peak output voltage will be 0.7V less than Vs.
The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the
bridge. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of
the bridge.

Figure: Half-Wave Rectification



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While the output of the half-wave rectifier is DC (it is all positive), it would not be suitable
as a power supply for a circuit. Firstly, the output voltage continually varies between 0V and
Vs-0.7V, and secondly, for half the time there is no output at all.
The Bridge Rectifier
The circuit in figure 3 addresses the second of these problems since at no time is the output
voltage 0V. This time four diodes are arranged so that both the positive and negative parts of
the AC waveform are converted to DC. The resulting waveform is shown in figure 4.

Figure : Bridge Rectifier

Figure: Bridge Rectification

When the AC input is positive, diodes A and B are forward-biased, while diodes C and D are
reverse-biased. When the AC input is negative, the opposite is true - diodes C and D are
forward-biased, while diodes A and B are reverse-biased.

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While the full-wave rectifier is an improvement on the half-wave rectifier, its output still isn't
suitable as a power supply for most circuits since the output voltage still varies between 0V
and Vs-1.4V. So, if you put 12V AC in, you will 10.6V DC out.



A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical
circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or
many sets of contacts. A relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input
circuit, it can be considered to be, in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier.



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Relays are usuallly SPDT (single pole double through switch)or DPDT (double
pole double through switch) but they can have many more sets of switch contacts,
for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available.

Basic operation of a relay:

An electric current through a conductor will produce a magnetic field at right angles to the
direction of electron flow. If that conductor is wrapped into a coil shape, the magnetic field



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produced will be oriented along the length of the coil. The greater the current, the greater the
strength of the magnetic field, all other factors being equal.

Inductors react against changes in current because of the energy stored in this magnetic
field. When we construct a transformer from two inductor coils around a common iron core, we
use this field to transfer energy from one coil to the other. However, there are simpler and more
direct uses for electromagnetic fields than the applications we've seen with inductors and
transformers. The magnetic field produced by a coil of current-carrying wire can be used to exert
a mechanical force on any magnetic object, just as we can use a permanent magnet to attract
magnetic objects, except that this magnet (formed by the coil) can be turned on or off by
switching the current on or off through the coil.
If we place a magnetic object near such a coil for the purpose of making that object move
when we energize the coil with electric current, we have what is called a solenoid. The movable
magnetic object is called an armature, and most armatures can be moved with either direct
current (DC) or alternating current (AC) energizing the coil. The polarity of the magnetic field is
irrelevant for the purpose of attracting an iron armature. Solenoids can be used to electrically

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open door latches, open or shut valves, move robotic limbs, and even actuate electric switch
mechanisms and is used to actuate a set of switch contacts

Relays can be categorized according to the magnetic system and operation:

Neutral Relays:

This is the most elementary type of relay. The neutral relays have a magnetic coil, which
operates the relay at a specified current, regardless of the polarity of the voltage applied.
Biased Relays:

Biased relays have a permanent magnet above the armature. The relay operates if the
current through the coil winding establishes a magneto-motive force that opposes the flux by the
permanent magnet. If the fluxes are in the same direction, the relay will not operate, even for a
greater current through the coil.
Polarized Relays:

Like the biased relays, the polarized relays operate only when the current through the coil
in one direction. But there the principle is different. The relay coil has a diode connected in series
with it. This blocks the current in the reverse direction.
The major difference between biased relays and polarized relays is that the former allows
the current to pass through in the reverse direction, but does the not operate the relay and the
later blocks the current in reverse direction. You can imagine how critical these properties when
relays are connected in series to form logic circuits.
Magnetic Stick Relays or Perm polarized Relays:

These relays have a magnetic circuit with high permanence. Two coils, one to operate
(pick up) and one to release (drop) are present. The relay is activated by a current in the operate
coil. On the interruption of the current the armature remains in picked up position by the residual
magnetism. The relay is released by a current through the release coil.



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Slow Release Relays:

These relays have a capacitor connected in parallel to their coil. When the operating
current is interrupted the release of relay is delayed by the stored charge in the capacitor. The
relay releases as the capacitor discharges through the coil.
Relays for AC:

These are neutral relays and picked up for a.c. current through their coil. These are very
fast in action and used on power circuits of the point motors, where high current flows through
the contacts. A normal relay would be slow and make sparks which in turn may weld the contacts
All relays have two operating values (voltages), one pick-up and the other other drop
away. The pick-up value is higher than the drop away value.

To control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of

modems or audio amplifiers,

To control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter

solenoid of an automobile,

To detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening

and closing circuit breakers (protection relays),

To isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are
at different potentials, for example when controlling a mains-powered device
from a low-voltage switch. The latter is often applied to control office lighting
as the low voltage wires are easily installed in partitions, which may be often
moved as needs change. They may also be controlled by room occupancy
detectors in an effort to conserve energy,

To perform logic functions. For example, the boolean AND function is realised
by connecting NO relay contacts in series, the OR function by connecting NO
contacts in parallel. The change-over or Form C contacts perform the XOR



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(exclusive or) function. Similar functions for NAND and NOR are accomplished
using NC contacts. The Ladder programming language is often used for
designing relay logic networks.

Early computing. Before vacuum tubes and transistors, relays were

used as logical elements in digital computers. See ARRA (computer),
Harvard Mark II, Zuse Z2, and Zuse Z3.

Safety-critical logic. Because relays are much more resistant than

semiconductors to nuclear radiation, they are widely used in safetycritical logic, such as the control panels of radioactive waste-handling

To perform time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or

delay closing a set of contacts. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay
would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly.
Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time,
lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a minute) delay, a
dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to
escape slowly. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the
flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is installed

DIODE:In electronics, a diode is a tow-terminal electronic component with asymmetric

conductance; it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current in one direction, and high
(ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type
today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to



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two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a
heated cathode semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic device. The
first mineral crystals such as galena. Today, most diodes are made of silicon, but other
semiconductors such as selenium or germanium are sometimes use.

MAIN FUNCTIONS:The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass opposite direction
(the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be views as a rectification, and is used to convert
alternating current to direct current, including extraction of modulating from radio signals in
radio receivers-these diodes are form of rectifiers. However, diodes can have more complicated
behaviour then these simple on-off actions, due to their nonlinear current-voltage characteristics.
The voltage drop across a forward-biased diode varies only a little with the current, and is a
function of temperature, this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference.
Semiconductor diodes current-voltage characteristic can be tailored by varying the
semiconductor materials and doping, introducing impurities into the materials. These are
exploited in special-purpose diodes that perform many different functions. For example, diodes
are used to regulate voltage (zener diodes), to protect circuits from high voltage surges(avalanche
diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receive, to generate radio frequency oscillation
(tunnel diodes, IMPATT diodes), and to produce light(light emitting diodes). Tunnel diodes
exhibit negative resistance, which makes them useful in some types of circuits.
LED Light Emitting Diode:A light emitting diode LED is a semiconductor light source. Leds are lighting appearing as
practical electronic components in 1962, early leads emitted low-intensity red light, but modern
versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high
When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons are able to recombine with holes within the
device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and
the colour of the light corresponding to the energy of the small in area less than 1 mm, and

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integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs have many
advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer life
time, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. However, LEDs powerful
enough for room lighting are relatively expensive, and require more precise current and heat and
heat management then compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.
Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive
lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new test, video
display, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced
communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many
commercial products including televisions, DVD players and other domestic appliances. LEDs
are also used in seven-segment display.




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The symbol for a photoresistor

A light dependent resistor
The internal components of a photoelectric control for a typical American streetlight. The
photoresistor is facing rightwards, and controls whether current flows through the heater which
opens the main power contacts. At night, the heater cools, closing the power contacts, energizing
the street light. The heater/bimetal mechanism provides a built-in light level transient filter.
A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases with
increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. It can also be
referred to as a photoconductor or CdS device, from "cadmium sulfide," which is the material
from which the device is made and that actually exhibits the variation in resistance with light
level. Note that CdS is not a semiconductor in the usual sense of the word (not doped silicon).
A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of
high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance.
A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own
charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only
available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to
excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called

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dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons
do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower
frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms
replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction.
This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. Photoresistors are basically photocells.[2]

Photoresistors come in many different types. Inexpensive cadmium sulphide cells can be found
in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarm devices,
and outdoor clocks.
They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or
light emitting diode to control gain reduction.
Lead sulphide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light dependent resistor) are used for
the mid infrared spectral region. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared
detectors available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy.

A capacitor (originally as a condenser) is a passive twoterminal electrical component used to store energy electro
statically in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary
widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated
by a dielectric (insulator). Capacitors are widely used as part of
electrical circuits in many common electrical devices.

When there is a potential difference across the conductors,

an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive
charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other
pate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor
is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance.

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This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the
potential difference between them. The SI units of capacitor are
farad, which is equal to one coulomb per volt.



The capacitor is a greatest when there is an arrow separation between large

areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductor are often called plates, referring to
an early means of construction. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes
a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, the
breakdown voltage. The conductor and leads introduce an undesired inductance
and resistance.
Capacitor is widely used in electronic circuits for blocking
direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog
filter network, they smooth the output of power supp frequencies.
In electric power transmission system they stabilize voltage and
power flow.

In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one

coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt

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across the device. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a
constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge Q on
each conductor to the voltage V between them.

C = Q/v

Sometime charge build up affects the capacitor

mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In this case,
capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes.
C = dQ /dV
lies. In resonant circuit

Transistors are active components and are found everywhere in
electronic circuits. They are used as amplifiers and switching devices. As
amplifiers, they are used in high and low frequency stages, oscillators,
modulators, detectors and in any circuit needing to perform a function.
There is a large number of manufacturers around the world who
produce semiconductors (transistors are members of this family of
components), so there are literally thousands of different types. There
are low, medium and high power transistors, for working with high and
low frequencies, for working with very high current and/or high



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The most common type of transistor is called bipolar and these are
Their construction-material is most commonly silicon (their
marking has the letter B) or germanium (their marking has the letter A).
Original transistor were made from germanium, but they were very
temperature-sensitive. Silicon transistors are much more temperaturetolerant and much cheaper to manufacture.

The working principle of a transistor:

Transistors are used in analog circuits to amplify a signal. They are also
used in power supplies as a regulator and you will also find them used as
The best way to explore the basics of transistors is by experimenting. A
simple circuit is shown below. It uses a power transistor to illuminate a
globe. You will also need a battery, a small light bulb (taken from a
flashlight) with properties near 4.5V/0.3A, a linear potentiometer (5k)
and a 470 ohm resistor. These components should be connected.
Resistor (R) isn't really necessary, but if you don't use it, you
mustn't turn the potentiometer (pot) to its high position, because that
would destroy the transistor - this is because the DC voltage UBE
(voltage between the base and the emitter), should not be higher than



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Turn the potentiometer to its lowest position. This

brings the voltage on the base (or more correctly
between the base and ground) to zero volts (UBE = 0).
The bulb doesn't light, which means there is no current
As we already mentioned, the potentiometers lowest
position means that UBE is equal to zero. When we turn
the knob from its lowest position UBE gradually
increases. When UBE reaches 0.6v, current starts to enter
the transistor and the globe starts to glow. As the pot is
turned further, the voltage on the base remains at 0.6v
but the current increases and this increases the current
through the collector-emitter circuit. If the pot is turned
fully, the base voltage will increase slightly to about
0.75v but the current will increase significantly and the
If we connected an ammeter between the collector and
the bulb (to measure IC), another ammeter between the
pot and the base (for measuring IB), and a voltmeter
between the ground and the base and
Repeat the whole experiment, we will find some interesting data.
When the pot is in its low position UBE is equal to 0V, as well as
currents IC and IB. When the pot is turned, these values start to rise until
the bulb starts to glow when they are: UBE = 0.6V, IB = 0.8mA and IB =

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36 mA (if your values differ from these values, it is because the 2N3055
the writer used doesn't have the same specifications as the
one you use, which is common when working with transistors).
The end result we get from this experiment is that when the current on
the base is changed, current on the collector is changed as well.

Let's look at another experiment which will broaden our

knowledge of the transistor. It requires a BC107 transistor (or any
similar low power transistor), supply source (same as in previous
experiment), 1M resistor, headphones and an electrolytic capacitor
whose value may range between 10u to 100F with any operating

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples
from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output


from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained



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constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received
at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.


As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to

it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically
maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V
and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and
7812 voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents
positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output
voltage levels.The L78xx series of three-terminal positive

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regulators is available in TO-220, TO-220FP, TO-3, D2PAK
and DPAK packages and several fixed output voltages,
making it useful in a wide range of applications.

These regulators can provide local on-card






with essentially indestructible. If adequate

heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1 A output

current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with single point

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regulation. Each type employs internal current limiting,
thermal shut-down and safe area protection, making it
external components to obtain adjustable voltage and

. Hence electronic circuits can be designed for the solar air cooler
and they provide very high efficiency and can be used for the
security reasons .there no system for air cooler purpose is
achieved by attaching a cooler to the room. By with automatic air
cooler, we ensure the security. But the thing is various sensors are
used for room air cooling. So here we are sensors for room
cooling purpose.
Solar air cooler applications:

Solar air coolers can be used in any place like parks,

theaters, hotels, restaurants, boats, ships, etc.

Air cooler can be also used as security reasons in some

applications, when the door is opened unconsciously.

Air cooler can be used in our home for safety purpose and it
is a very good precautionary measure to avoid thefts