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Running Head: Applied Case Analysis

Applied Case Analysis: NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc


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Applied Case Analysis

INTRODUCTION
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biotechnology company headquartered in Emeryville,
California. The organization was founded in 1996 by Ron Najafi and it specializes in the
production and sale of synthetic anti-infective compounds. This is an important industry in the
United States as a result of the extensive demand for synthetic anti-infective compounds in the
healthcare sector. While some of these products are used in the treatment of chronic wounds,
others are vital in cosmetic surgery (Amrik, 2013). In view of the sensitivity of pharmaceutical
products, the operations, functions and products developed by NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
are subject to approval by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). All companies in this
sector cannot supply their respective products in the market without the approval of the FDA.
State and Federal authorities of health care also play an important role in the regulation and
monitoring of companies in the pharmaceuticals industry.
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is publicly listed at the New York Stock Exchange, and it
had an enterprise value of $6.89 million as of January 2016. As a publicly traded company,
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has a board of directors. This board has the responsibility of
making key decisions at the company.
While this organization has been highly successful since its establishment, it has not fully
exploited the numerous emerging e-commerce opportunities. The goal of this analysis is to
demonstrate the significance of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals pursuing the e-commerce initiative of
electronic customer relationship management (ECRM). This is an initiative that encompasses the
integration of modern technology systems that are largely based on the internet into the
companys framework of customer relationship management. It is notable that modern business

Applied Case Analysis

organizations such as NovaBay Pharmaceuticals can benefit immensely from the implementation
of electronic customer relationship management systems into their respective operational
frameworks (Iyer, 2014).
One of the outstanding benefits of this e-commerce initiative pertains to the enhancement
of the overall standards of customer loyalty. This will be achieved as a result of the ability of
ECRM to provide reliable data on the needs, tastes and preferences of customers. Such data goes
a long way towards ensuring that the companys products and services are strongly aligned to
market requirements. The e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management
will also be beneficial in terms of promoting the brand of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals. It is notable
that a companys brand is enhanced when it is characterized by a business approach that
accentuates on communication with customers. ECRM is one of the most effective platforms that
can be used by businesses when communicating or interacting with customers (Kumar, 2012).
This is an indicator of the fact that ECRM will be instrumental towards promoting and
strengthening the brand of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals. The security, legal and ethical issues
associated with this e-commerce initiative will be analyzed in order to ensure that NovaBay
Pharmaceuticals implements it successfully. The successful implementation of the proposed
initiative is strongly dependent on the extent to which the company will develop and actuate
measures and mechanism that are geared towards addressing these issues.
PART A: E-COMMERCE SECURITY
Security is one of the most important issues as far as e-commerce is concerned. The
success of any e-commerce initiative is strongly dependent on the quality of security plans,
systems and infrastructure. When an e-commerce initiative is based on effective infrastructure,

Applied Case Analysis

the overall standards of security are enhanced. Additionally, the alignment of an e-commerce
initiative towards the stipulated standards also goes a very long way towards the enhancement of
security. In line with these aspects, the proposed electronic customer relationship management
system for NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is not an exception. It is immensely pertinent that this
initiative is founded on a reliable and highly effective security platform. This will not only
enhance the systems efficiency, but also ensure that NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. benefits
optimally from its implementation. On the other hand, the absence of an effective plan for the
security of the e-commerce initiative will compromise its impact and overall benefits on the
company.
Infrastructure
In order for NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to implement electronic customer
relationship management systems, it is inevitable that such systems be supported by the relevant
infrastructure. The absence of the relevant infrastructure components can have a negative impact
on the implementation of electronic customer relationship management systems. One of the most
pertinent infrastructural components for this e-commerce initiative pertains to a cloud computing
system. Cloud computing is a vital aspect of electronic customer relationship management
because it facilitates for the transfer and storage of data (Muther, 2012). At NovaBay, a
framework for cloud computing will go a long way towards ensuring that the company can
gather and evaluate data from customers.
Apart from a cloud computing system, another vital infrastructural component for the
actuation of the e-commerce initiative is a central server. The server will be essential in that it
will act as the main coordination point for the electronic customer relationship management

Applied Case Analysis

system. The server must be highly secured from unauthorized access. This is due to the fact that
such attacks can compromise the privacy of data or even lead to the disclosure of sensitive
information to unintended parties. The capacity of the main server to detect and mitigate threats
will be an integral aspect of the security framework of the e-commerce initiative of electronic
customer relationship management at NovaBay. The other pertinent infrastructural requirement
for the initiative encompasses an enterprise resource planning system.
The enterprise resource planning system is essentially customized software that captures
and analyzes data for maximum efficiency in the different departments or units that comprise an
organization. The integration of the enterprise resource planning system into the proposed ecommerce initiative will be immensely beneficial in terms of attaining the highest standards of
operational efficiency at the organization (Robertson, 2015). This highlights why ERP is an
integral component of the infrastructural needs for the implementation of electronic customer
relationship management systems at NovaBay. From another standpoint, it is immensely
pertinent for the e-commerce initiative to be based on highly effective security software. This
software will be integrated into the different computers and servers at the company in order to
prevent computer viruses and hacking. Such software must be updated and monitored regularly
in order to ensure that the stipulated goals for the security of the e-commerce initiative are
attained.
Diagrammatic representation of the infrastructure for ECRM at NovaBay
Main Servers

Enterprise
resource
planning (ERP)
Infrastructure

Software/Oper
ating systems
Local Area
Networks

Wide area
networks

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Information Assets the Company will manage


In the actualization of the e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship
management systems at NovaBay, it is important to highlight the fact that there are various
information assets that must be managed by the company. The effective management of these
assets will play an integral role towards the attainment of the optimum level of efficiency for the
initiative. When such an initiative is not aligned to the existing information assets, the overall
level of efficiency is compromised. This accentuates the reason as to why it is immensely
pertinent to ensure that the e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship
management systems is aligned to the information assets.
One of the most notable assets pertains to customer data. The ECRM initiative will
encompass the collection, analysis and interpretation of data from customers. For instance, it is
important for the company to evaluate data about the preferences of different customers (Schust,
2008). This data helps in determining whether the products and services developed by NovaBay
are consistent with the distinctive needs of the market. The data collected from customers is also
important because it will serve as the basis for the formulation of the marketing and branding
strategies of the organization. Apart from customer data, another information asset that will be
vital in the actualization of the e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship
management systems at the company pertains to sales data. This data is vital because it helps in
determining the areas whereby the volume of sales is high or low. In essence, information on
sales will play a vital role in terms of decision making. The framework of information assets also
encompasses data on competitors. One of the main goals of the implementation of the ecommerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems in any company is

Applied Case Analysis

the enhancement of the overall standard of competitiveness in the market. This is why
information about different competitors and the strategies they are using is immensely pertinent.
Major Security Issues, Threats, and Risks the Company will face
It is inevitable that the implementation of an e-commerce initiative in any given
organization is associated with different security threats. While some threats are critical, others
are less critical. Additionally, some threats might be high technical while others are nontechnical. These considerations must always be prioritized while implementing any e-commerce
initiative. In line with this stipulation, the proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer
relationship management systems at NovaBay is not an exception. Following is an evaluation of
the different security threats, issues and concerns that will characterize the implementation of the
initiative at NovaBay.
Most Critical Security Threat- Hacking
Hacking is one of the outstanding threats of e-commerce systems around the world. This
occurs when unauthorized users access computer or database systems of an organization. The
proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems for
NovaBay will be characterized by extensive information assets such as customer data,
organizational strategy and competitor information among others. In the event that this
information is hacked, the security of the company will be immensely compromised (Kumar,
2012). The cloud computing systems can also be hacked, and this is immensely undesirable as it
will undermine the effectiveness of the ECRM system.

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Minimally Critical Threat- Computer Viruses


Computer viruses also pose considerable security threat to the proposed e-commerce
initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems. Such viruses can emanate
from the internet or even integrated manually into computer servers and systems. The entry of
such viruses into the ECRM system of NovaBay would hamper the overall effectiveness of the
initiative.
Least Critical Threat- Data Manipulation
The manipulation of data by employees of the company is the least critical security threat
for the proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems.
This would occur when malicious employees tamper with one or more of the information assets
constituting the ECRM system.
Major Mechanisms, Tools and Measures for Protecting the E-commerce system
In view of the aforementioned security threats and issues, it is pertinent for NovaBay to
ensure that the; relevant tools, measures and mechanisms are implemented for the purposes of
safeguarding or protecting the system. One of the most important security tools is a firewall. The
firewall should be installed into the different networks comprising the ECRM. This implies that
all the computers and servers constituting the e-commerce system must be aligned to the firewall
(Iyer, 2014). The main role of the security firewall is to protect the proposed e-commerce
initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems from computer viruses and
hacking. Apart from a firewall, another pertinent security tool for the e-commerce initiative
pertains to an antivirus. The antivirus software is a special program designed to identify and
block malware and computer viruses within the system. From another standpoint, it is also

Applied Case Analysis

massively pertinent for the organization to ensure that the data or information is encrypted before
it is stored in a cloud system (Amrik, 2013). The encryption of data is one of the most effective
ways in which the security of information assets can be enhanced. When data has been
encrypted, it is immensely complex for unauthorized or malicious users to access it. Such an
approach will hence go a long way towards boosting the security of the proposed e-commerce
initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems at NovaBay.
Chart for the Major Mechanisms, Tools and Measures for Protecting the E-commerce
system

Data
Encryp
tion
Tools and
Measures for
security
Firewall

Antivir
us
softwar
e

Employ
ee
Trainin
g

PART B: E-COMMERCE LEGAL ISSUES


The Environment in which the business will undertake its new initiative
The proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management
systems for NovaBay will encompass a lot of privacy issues, digital assets as well as relationship
with customers. This is a highly sensitive environment as far as legal issues are concerned.
Relationship with customers is an aspect that will serve as an important component of the

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environment that constitutes the implementation of the ECRM system. This is due to the fact that
the initiative encompasses interactions with customers in order to obtain important information
especially through their feedback. The issue of relating with customers will also involve
gathering personal data such as age, location and gender. This is sensitive personal information
that might potentially create legal dilemmas for the company if the stipulated laws are not
adhered to (Iyer, 2014).
Apart from relationship with customers, the environment for the implementation of the
proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems also
encompasses digital assets. For instance, the buying trends of certain products serve as a
sensitive digital asset that belongs to the company. The digital assets also encompass the
software and computer programs developed specifically for the ECRM initiative.
Privacy Issues the company might face and the relevant solutions
From the perspective of legal and professional regulations, it is notable that NovaBay will
potentially face different privacy issues and concerns. It is immensely pertinent that the relevant
measures and mechanisms are implemented in order to ensure that such issues are addressed
accordingly. The absence of such measures will have a negative impact on the overall
effectiveness of the implementation process of the proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic
customer relationship management systems. On the other hand, the implementation of the
relevant measures will be vital towards aligning the e-commerce initiative towards the
companys operational framework and hence the attainment of the different stipulated goals and
objectives.

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One of the most notable privacy issues pertains to the disclosure of personal information
of customers. It is against the law for any company organization to reveal personal information
of customers without their consent. In the event that NovaBay discloses such information
without the owners consent, then the company is liable for legal action and potential fines. In
order to address this privacy issue, it is vitally important tor NovaBay to maintain the highest
standards of confidentiality when handling any information concerning customers (Robertson,
2015). The companys employees must also be trained on the importance of information
confidentiality so as to ensure that company does not breach the stipulated legal guidelines.
Another issue of concern as far as privacy is concerned pertains to the process or method
used to gather information from customers. It is notable that the proposed e-commerce initiative
of electronic customer relationship management systems will involve the enhancement of
interactions and communications between the company and customers. However, the law has
outlined the different limits that should govern such communications. For instance, it is against
the law for the company to coerce or force an individual to give certain information. In essence,
the communication between the company and customers must be voluntary. It hence important
for NovaBay to develop a policy that facilitates for voluntary interactions and communications
with customers. In the event that a given customer is unwilling to take part in the ECRM
initiative, the company must not coerce him or her. Additionally, the interactions should be done
at a time that is convenient to the customer. In essence, this is an approach that is geared towards
ensuring that NovaBay does not encroach or infringe on private space of customers.
It is vitally important to highlight the fact that the company might also be potentially
faced with the privacy issue of employees tampering with the data provided by customers. This

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would be tantamount to the breach of the existing laws as far as privacy is concerned. In such
situations, the company must compensate the customer and also take action against the culprit.
Companys digital assets and intellectual property related to the e-commerce initiative
There are various digital assets and intellectual properties that are strongly related to the
proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management system at
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. One of the most notable digital assets in the organization pertains
to the enterprise resource planning system. This system is used to ensure that the highest
standards of efficiency are attained in all departments. Additionally, the enterprise resource
system is developed in such a way that it aligns the companys activities and operations towards
the stipulated goals and organizational objectives (Schust, 2008). Apart from the enterprise
resource planning system, another pertinent digital asset related to the proposed initiative
encompasses the wide area and local area networks. The network systems are vital in that they
facilitate for the transfer and sharing of information across different departments. This digital
asset is hence a vital component with regard to the actualization of the proposed e-commerce
initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems at NovaBay.
In terms of intellectual property, the companys strategic plan is a notable asset of
concern. The strategic plan is strongly aligned to the proposed initiative and must hence be
adequately protected in order to ensure that the efficiency of the proposed initiative is not
compromised. The website and the companys name also serves as another pertinent intellectual
property related to the proposed initiative.

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Risks and Problems the Company could face in relation to copyrights and intellectual
property
As outlined in the previous section, it is evident that NovaBay has numerous digital
assets and intellectual properties that are strongly related to the proposed e-commerce initiative
of electronic customer relationship management systems. It is vitally important to highlight the
fact that there are various risks and problems that the company could face in relation to these
intellectual properties and digital assets. One of the main risks pertains to the issue of piracy.
This would occur when other companies or individuals replicate the ideas and strategies used by
NovaBay. For instance, some competitors might develop an e-commerce initiative that is
identical to the one proposed for NovaBay. Additionally, some competitors might use software
and computer programs that are based on what NovaBay had developed. This would be
tantamount to a breach of the existing laws and regulations on copyrights and intellectual
property.
Measures and Solutions to address the risks and problems
In order to address the aforementioned risks and problems, it is immensely pertinent for
the company to implement highly effective software for monitoring and detecting unauthorized
access into the database and cloud computing systems. Such a monitoring system must be
implemented in line with the stipulated legal guidelines. Apart from extensive monitoring, it is
also vital for the company to constitute a specialized team of legal experts focusing on litigation
procedures arising from potential legal breaches (Amrik, 2013). The team would also play an
advisory role for guiding the company as far as the different legal issues related to the proposed
e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems are concerned.

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Evaluation of the companys proposed practices for consumer protection and compliance
with existing legal regulations
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has developed a comprehensive blueprint for consumer
protection as well as the enhancement of the companys compliance with the current professional
and legal regulations. One of the outstanding tenets of this blueprint pertains to quality
assurance. It is notable that NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has a quality assurance department.
This docket is tasked with the mandate of monitoring and upholding the highest standards of
quality in the development of the companys products. All products must be approved by this
department before they are released into the market or sold to consumers. It is also important to
highlight the fact that NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is fully compliant with the guidelines and
standards stipulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is a federal authority that
monitors and implements regulations and policies for consumer safety especially as pertains to
medical products. Additionally, the company has a highly effective training program for all
employees (Kumar, 2012). This program goes a long way towards ensuring that the employees
are familiar and competent with the expected standards both in terms of quality and consumer
safety.
Emerging Trends that the company might need to consider in the future as they pursue the
e-commerce initiative
There are various emerging trends of significance to NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as it
implements the proposed ECRM system. It is immensely pertinent to highlight the fact that
cyberterrorism is among the emerging threats in cyber security. This is whereby terrorists use the
internet to execute their strategies. For instance, some terror groups have resorted to the internet

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as a platform for recruiting new members. This implies that such groups can potentially hack into
the databases of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and access personal data of customers and then
use such information to recruit new members. It is extremely important for NovaBay
Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to be wary and aware of such threats.
PART C: E-COMMERCE ETHICS
Social Environment for the e-Commerce Initiative
The implementation of the proposed electronic customer relationship management
systems for NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. will encompass different sociological components.
The alignment of the e-commerce initiative to these sociological components will go a long way
towards ensuring that it is successful both in the long-term and also in the short-term. Among the
outstanding sociological components pertains to cultural issues. It is vitally important for the
company to ensure that it is considerate of the cultural practices and values of the targeted
customers. An example of a crucial cultural issue encompasses the norms and behavioral
attributes of an individual.
During the implementation of the proposed electronic customer relationship management
systems, the company must not compromise or undermine such cultural values. Apart from
culture, another issue of sociological significance as pertains to the implementation of the
electronic customer relationship management systems encompasses religion (Robertson, 2015).
Religion is a strongly sensitive social issue that must always be considered when interacting or
communicating with customers. The respective religious values and practices of customers must
hence be considered by NovaBay while implementing the e-commerce initiative of electronic
customer relationship management systems. From another standpoint, race is also a vital social

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issue that comprises the social environment for the implementation of the proposed initiative. In
essence, different customers are from different races. However, it is pertinent for the company to
employ a nondiscriminatory approach when dealing or interacting with customers irrespective of
their races.
The values and practices of NovaBay are founded on the tenets of respect and equity.
These values are vital in how the company relates with the different stakeholders including
employees, board members and customers. For instance, the company does not tolerate
favoritism or nepotism in any given way. This is a value that goes a long way towards the
promotion and enhancement of equity.
Potential Ethical Risks and Issues that may emerge from the pursuit of the e-commerce
initiative
In the pursuit of any e-commerce initiative or opportunity, it is always essential for a
company to critically evaluate the ethical risks and issues that might potentially arise. This helps
in the avoidance of legal problems while also enhancing or strengthening the brand of a
company. In line with this stipulation, the proposed electronic customer relationship management
system for NovaBay is not an exception (Muther, 2012). The identification of the various ethical
risks and issues that might emerge from the implementation of the initiative helps in the
development and actuation of the relevant solutions. On the other hand, the absence of an
effectual interventional mechanism compromises the overall success of the proposed initiative.
These stipulations accentuate the importance of evaluating the different ethical risks and issues
that might arise.

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In the pursuit of the electronic customer relationship management systems initiative, one
of the main ethical risks that might emerge is the violation of customers cultural values and
norms. This ethical issue would have detrimental implications on the overall success and
effectiveness of the initiative especially in terms of branding. An example is when the company
communicates with customers using a language that is foreign or new to them. This would
complicate the entire process of gathering information from customers and hence undermine the
effectiveness of the proposed electronic customer relationship management systems for
NovaBay. The violation of the cultural values of can also occur in the event that the company
addresses some customers using a disrespectful tone. Such an eventuality would also have a
detrimental effect on the actualization of the electronic customer relationship management
systems initiative at NovaBay.
From another perspective, another ethical issue that might arise during the
implementation of the initiative is the problem of racial stereotyping. This can arise when a
companys employee assumes some issues about a customer based on his or her ethnic
background (Amrik, 2013). This is a critical ethical issue that can put the companys brand into
disrepute. It is vitally pertinent that a nondiscriminatory and equitable approach is used by the
company when communicating or sharing information with all stakeholders including the
customers.
The ethical issues that might emerge from the implementation of the proposed electronic
customer relationship management systems initiative might also encompass the demand of
financial compensation from some stakeholders. It is unethical for the company to use financial
incentives when seeking information from any stakeholder involved in the implementation of the
e-commerce initiative.

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Policies and guidelines the company will need to follow in understanding the initiative
In order to actualize the proposed initiative of electronic customer relationship
management systems at NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, it is vital for the company to institute specific
guidelines and policies. These policies and guidelines would serve as important mechanisms for
governing the implementation of the initiative while also ensuring that ethical risks and issues
and addressed.
One of the important policies that must be implemented by the company encompasses
zero tolerance to discrimination of any stakeholder. This policy is geared towards addressing
various ethical issues and risks within the framework of actualizing the proposed e-commerce
initiative. For instance, the policy would discourage employees from stereotyping customers
based on their race, skin color or ethnic background. In essence, this highlights the fact that the
policy would play an instrumental role towards the attainment of the highest standards of
inclusivity when the e-commerce initiative is being actualized at the company.
Another vital policy that should be adopted by the company encompasses strict fines for
employees who infringe on the different sociological values outlined for the initiative. The goal
of this policy is to promote equity, fairness and the highest standards of professionalism among
employees and other stakeholders as they are implementing the initiative (Iyer, 2014). The policy
would be instrumental towards enhancing the companys ability to maintain the stipulated
standards of ethicality.
In terms of guidelines, a code of conduct would be developed in order to govern the
behavior of all stakeholders when handling information assets related to the initiative. The code
of conduct would serve as an important reference point for the different stakeholders as far as

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their behavior is concerned. Additionally, it is pertinent to highlight the fact that the guideline on
the code of conduct would also be helpful in terms of promoting the required standards of
professionalism and accountability among stakeholders within the implementation framework of
the proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer relationship management systems at
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. A code of conduct can make a big difference in terms of
determining whether the proposed initiative for e-commerce will be successful or not. This is due
to the fact that it also serves as a platform for compliance. In the absence of such a code of
conduct, it would be immensely complex for the company to attain the required standards of
compliance.
In the process of undertaking the proposed e-commerce initiative of electronic customer
relationship management systems at NovaBay, another pertinent guideline required by the
company encompasses the terms and conditions for engagement with customers. This guideline
would specify the obligations of the company towards the customers. Similarly, the guideline
would also be comprised of the specification of the different obligations of the customer while
engaging or communicating with the company. This is a pertinent guideline that would be
immensely beneficial in the prevention of numerous ethical risks (Robertson, 2015). For
instance, some stakeholders might demand compensation from the company after being asked
some questions related to electronic customer relationship management systems. Such an ethical
dilemma can be prevented effectively through the development and alignment of the guideline
towards the implementation.
It is also important for the company to have a guideline that contractually binds all
developers or software developers involved in the e-commerce initiative. For instance, the
software developers would be required to maintain the highest standards of confidentiality when

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handling all systems and data related to the initiative. This would prevent them from sharing
information with other parties or individuals. The main reason behind this guideline is to
promote privacy and ethicality in the handling of data assets.
Conclusion
The analysis has focused on an evaluation of the legal, ethical and security issues that
may emerge from the implementation of the proposed electronic customer relationship
management systems at NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This is a major company that specializes
in the production and sale of pharmaceutical products across the United States. The company is
publicly traded at the New York Stock Exchange. The proposed e-commerce initiative is geared
towards enhancing how the company relates with customers, promote customer loyalty and also
gather important data for strategic planning at NovaBay. From the perspective of legal issues,
some of the notable aspect includes potential litigation from disgruntled customers. In terms of
the security issues that might characterize the pursuit of the e-commerce initiative include
unauthorized access into the database systems, hacking and computer malware among others. It
is imperative that the company installs firewall and also encrypt data in order to deal with some
of the aforementioned security threats. The ethical issues that might characterize the
implementation process include disregard for the cultural values of stakeholders and coercion of
customers to give feedback against their will.

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References
Amrik, S. (2013). Supply chain professionals: A study of competencies, use of
technologies, and future challenges. International Journal of Operations &
Production

Management, 33(11):1532-1554

Iyer, G. R. (2014). Customer Relationship Management in Electronic Markets. London:


Routledge
Kumar, V. (2012). Customer Relationship Management: Concept. New York, NY: Springer
Muther, A. (2012). Customer Relationship Management. New York, NY: Springer
Robertson, N. (2015). Electronic Customer Relationship Management. London: Routledge
Schust, P. (2008). ECRM: Using the Internet for Customer Relationship. Berlin: GRIN Verlag