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Fig. 1-Principal depositional envlronmente.

Introductionto Geologic Models

tLCi.Richardson, SPE, Richardson, $angree & Sneider
J,B. $angree, SPE, Richardson, Sangree & Sneider
R.M. Sneidor, SPE, Robert M, Sneider Exploration
Interspersed within the Technology Today Series, JPT
will present several short papers during the coming
} >ardescribing the characteristics of different types
of sandstone reservoirs. Two appear in this issue.
These papers will feature conceptual geologic models
that illustrate how depositional environments affect
the quality and continuity of pay and nonpay in
sandstone reservoirs. Subsequent papers wiil discuss
crtgincering use of the geologic information in
mathematical and computer models to study reservoir
The purpose of these papers is to communicate to
our engineering socicty some of the tremendous
advances during the last 10 or 15 years in geologists
ability to describe reservoirs, It is hoped that these
papers will enhance the understanding of the need for
teamwork among engineers mtd geologists cm projects
to incrcasc rccovcry of oil and gas.
The recentgeologic literature dcscribcs numerous
studies of Rcccnt sediments imd outcropsdepositedby
rivers, in ocecns, or by winds on land. Descriptions
and measurements on cores from these deposits have
provided cvicfencc of how the cnviromncnts and the
wtcrgy Icvcls and variations of the currents present
during their formation before burial affect their
reservoir characteristics, By reservoir chamcteristics,
we mean the quality of the payi,c,, Icvel and
distribution of porosity and permeability-and of the
Mcral and vertical continuity of the piiy and non~~y
formations. The conceptual geologic models that ha :C
evolved from studies of the datu on Recent sediments,
outcrops, and reservoirs are the best foundations on
which to build descriptions of reservoir characteristics



19B7 SocieIy ot P@WJeum Englneer8

of Pctrolcunr Technology, April 1987

between wells. The geologic models, combined with

data from well tests, cores, logs, and seismic
surveys, provide a basis for averaging permesbilities
and porosities and for developing the reservoir
framework. Reservoir framework means the
structure of the reservoir and the distribution of
impermeable barriers and faults within the reservoir.
The geologic models, combined with seismic data on
the aquifers, also provide the best basis of
extrapolation of reservoir data for describing the
characteristics of the aquifers.
While such diagenetic processes as compaction,
formation of pore-filling minerals (quartz
overgrowths, calcite, pyrite, or clays), and leaching
can greatly alter the rooks after they are deposited,
discussion of these effects is deferred to future
This series will include papers on geologic models
of sandstone deposits in various types of land, river,
delta, and deep marine environments (see Fig. 1).
The impact of model properties on well location,
perforating policies, and reservoir performance will
be discussed. A brief paper describes application of
geophysical data in reservoir description, Short
engineering papers will describe how the geologic
models can be used to assess the potential importance
of gravity drainage, viscous crossflow, and coning in
oil recovery,

1. LcMmc,


l, ./PT (My

and Continuity
1977) 776-92.

of Sandstone

Th18 paper k qPE !6776. Technology Today 8wI.8 MC108 provide u8efUl Wmmary
Informallon on bmh clna81c and smefglng concepls In Wlroloum en@ln@orlng, Pur.
poM: Toprovide ihe gonernl reader with@ basic undoralandlng ot a slunlficant con.
cept, Iechnlquo, or devdcpmenl
wihkr a SPOCNC ~re~ of t8chnoW.