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Problem #1: How many moles of gas are contained in 890.0 mL at 21.0 C and 750.

0
mm Hg pressure?
Solution:
Rearrange the Ideal Gas Law to this:
n = PV / RT
Substitute values into the equation:
n = [ (750.0 mmHg / 760.0 mmHg atm1) (0.890 L) ] / (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1)
(294.0 K)
Please note the division of 750 by 760. This is done in order to convert the pressure
from mmHg to atm, because the value for R contains atm as the pressure unit. If we
used mmHg, the pressure units would not cancel and we need to have them cancel
because we require mol (and only mol) to be in the answer.
Problem #2: 1.09 g of H2 is contained in a 2.00 L container at 20.0 C. What is the
pressure in this container in mmHg?
Solution:
Rearrange the Ideal Gas Law to this:
P = nRT / V
Substitute values into the equation:
P = [ (1.09 g / 2.02 g mol1) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (293.0 K) ] / 2.00 L
Please note the division of 1.09 by 2.02. This is done in order to convert grams to
moles, because the value for R contains mol as the unit for amount of substance. If we
used g, the mol unit in R would not cancel and we need to have it cancel because we
require atm (and only atm) to be in the answer.
Multiply the answer (which is in atm) by 760.0 mmHg atm 1 to get mmHg
Problem #3: Calculate the volume 3.00 moles of a gas will occupy at 24.0 C and
762.4 mm Hg.

Solution:
Rearrange the Ideal Gas Law to this:
V = nRT / P
Substitute values into the equation:
V = [ (3.00 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (297.0 K) ] / (762.4 mmHg / 760.0
mmHg atm1)
Note the conversion from mmHg to atm in the denominator.
Problem #4: How many moles of gas would be present in a gas trapped within a
100.0 mL vessel at 25.0 C at a pressure of 2.50 atmospheres?
Solution:
Rearrange the Ideal Gas Law to this:
n = PV / RT
Substitute values into the equation:
n = [ (2.50 atm) (0.1000 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol 1 K1) (298.0 K) ]
Problem #5: How many moles of a gas would be present in a gas trapped within a
37.0 liter vessel at 80.00 C at a pressure of 2.50 atm?
Solution:
Rearrange the Ideal Gas Law to this:
n = PV / RT
Substitute values into the equation:
n = [ (2.50 atm) (37.0 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol 1 K1) (353.0 K) ]
Problem #6: What volume will 1.27 moles of helium gas occupy at STP?

Solution:
Rearrange the Ideal Gas Law to this:
V = nRT / P
Substitute values into the equation:
V = [ (1.27 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ] / 1.00 atm
or (22.4 L / 1.00 mol) = (x / 1.27 mol)
Would it make any difference in the answer if the gas were oxygen? Krypton? Carbon
dioxide? Methane?
Answer: no, no, no, no. The exact identity of the gas makes no difference to the
number of moles present. By the way, note that, since the temperature and pressure
would be the same, the same volume will contain the same number of molecules of
gas, i.e. moles of gas. This is Avogadro's Hypothesis.
Video: Ideal Gas Law II A problem like #6 just above.
Problem #7: At what pressure would 0.150 mole of nitrogen gas at 23.0 C occupy
8.90 L?
Solution:
P = nRT / V
P = [ (0.150 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (296.0 K) ] / 8.90 L

Problem #8: What volume would 32.0 g of NO2 gas occupy at 3.12 atm and 18.0 C?
Solution:
V = nRT / P
V = [ (32.0 g / 46.0 g mol1) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (291.0 K) ] / 3.12 atm

Note the conversion from grams to moles (the 32.0/46.0).

Problem #9: How many moles of gas are contained in a 50.0 L cylinder at a pressure
of 100.0 atm and a temperature of 35.0 C? If the gas weighs 79.14 g, what is its
molecular weight?
Solution:
n = PV / RT
n = [ (100.0 atm) (5.00 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol 1 K1) (308.0 K) ]
n = 19.7828 mol (I kept some guard digits.)
molec. wt. = 79.14 g / 19.7828 mol = 4.00 g/mol (to 3 significant figures)
Video: Ideal Gas Law I A problem like #9 just above.
Problem #10: An amount of an ideal gas at 290.9 K has a volume of 17.05 L at a
pressure of 1.40 atm. What is the pressure of this gas sample when the volume is
halved and the absolute temperature is multipled by four?
Solution:
1) Calculate the moles of gas (I left off the units):
n = [(1.40) (17.05)] / [(0.08206) (290.9)] = 1.00 mol
2) Use PV = nRT again, but divide the volume by two and multiply the temperature by
4. Use the mole value from just above and solve for P:
P = [(1.00) (0.08206) (290.9 x 4)] / (17.05/2) = 11.2 atm
There is another, more conceptual way, to explain the answer. First, we will think of
the relationship between pressure and volume (they are inversely proportional). Then,
we will think of the relationship between absolute temperatre and pressure (they are
directly related).
If volume decreases by a factor of two, what happens to the pressure? The pressure
INCREASES by a factor of two. So, your pressure would be doubled. P = 1.40 times
2 = 2.80 atm.

If the absolute temperature increases, pressure increases by the same amount.


Therefore, since temperature is multiplied by 4, then pressure should be multiplied by
4. P = 2.80 times 4 = 11.2 atm

Problem #11: A balloon has a mass of 0.5 g when completely deflated. When it is
filled with an unknown gas, the mass increases to 1.7 g. You notice on the canister of
the unknown gas that it occupies a volume of 0.4478 L at a temperature of 50 C. You
note the temperature in the room is 25 C. Identify the gas.
Solution:
1) Use Charles' Law to get volume at 25 C:
0.4487 / 323 = x / 298
2) Assume balloon is at 1.00 atm. Use PV = nRT to get moles of gas:
(1.00) (0.41397) = (x) (0.08206) (298)
3) Divide grams of gas (1.7 g - 0.5 g = 1.2 g) by moles to get molec weight:
1.2 g / 0.016929 mol = 70.9 g/mol
The gas is chlorine, Cl2
By the way, the use of Charles' law in step one assumes that the entire contents of the
gas cannister has been discharged. If we were to assume the cannister has only been
partially discharged, then we cannot solve this problem.

Problem #12: A 10.20 g sample of a gas has a volume of 5.25 L at 23.0 C and 751
mmHg. If 2.30 g of the same gas is added to this constant 5.25 L volume and the
temperature raised to 67.0 degrees Celsius, what is the new gas pressure?
Solution:
1) Use PV = nRT to determine moles of 10.20 g sample:
(751 mmHg/760 mmHg atm-1) (5.25 L) = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1) (296 K)

n = 0.21358 mol
2) Determine molecular weight of gas:
10.20 g / 0.21358 mol = 47.757 g/mol
3) Determine moles of 2.30 g of gas:
2.30 g / 47.757 g/mol = 0.04816 mol
4) Determine new pressure with new amount of moles and at new temperature:
(P) (5.25 L) = (0.26174 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol -1 K-1) (340 K)
P = 1.39 atm

Problem #13: A gas consisting of only carbon and hydrogen has an empirical formula
of CH2. The gas has a density of 1.65 g/L at 27.0 C and 734.0 torr. Determine the
molar mass and molecular formula of the gas.
Solution:
1) Use PV = nRT to determine moles of the gas in 1.00 L:
(734.0 torr/760.0 torr atm-1) (1.00 L) = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1) (300. K)
n = 0.039231 mol
2) Determine molecular weight of gas:
1.65 g / 0.039231 mol = 42.06 g/mol
3) Determine the molecular formula:
The "empirical formula weight" of CH 2 = 14.027
"Empirical formula weight" units of CH 2 present:
42.06 / 14.027 = 2.998 = 3
The molecular formula is C3H6

Please be aware that "empirical formula weight" is not a standard term in chemistry.

Problem #14: 13.9 grams of an unknown gas is placed in a 5.00 L container.It has an
initial pressure at 58.6 kPa and initial temperature at 60.0 C. What is the name of this
gas?
Solution:
1) Use PV = nRT:
(58.6 kPa) (5.00 L) = (n) (8.31447 L kPa mol-1 K-1) (333 K)
n = 0.10582 mol
I found the value for R here.
2) Determine molecular weight:
13.9 g / 0.10582 mol = 131.4 g/mol
Examining a periodic table leads us to identifying the gas as xenon.

Problem #15: A 19.5 L flask at 15 C contains a mixture of three gases: N 2 (2.50


mol), He (0.38 mol), and Ne (1.34 mol). Calculate the partial pressure of neon gas in
the mixture.
Solution:
1) Determine total moles of gas:
2.50 + 0.38 + 1.34 = 4.22 moles
2) Use PV = nRT:
(x) (19.5 atm) = (4.22 mol) (0.08206) (288 K)
x = 5.115 atm
Determine the partial pressure for neon:

5.115 x (1.34/4.22) = 1.62 atm


Note: (1.34/4.22) determines the mole fraction of neon.
Question
6.2 liters of an ideal gas are contained at 3.0 atm and 37 C. How many moles of this gas
are present?
Solution
The ideal gas law states
PV = nRT where
P = pressure
V = volume
n = number of moles of gas
R = gas constant = 0.08 L atm / mol K
T = absolute temperature in Kelvin
Step 1
Convert C temperature to K
T = C + 273
T = 37 C + 273
T = 310 K
Step 2
Solve ideal gas law for number of moles
n = PV / RT
n = ( 3.0 atm x 6.2 L ) / ( 0.08 L atm /mol K x 310 K)
n = 0.75 mol
Answer
There are 0.75 mol of the ideal gas present in the system.