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SUITABILITY OF WATER

QUALITY OF BOLGODA LAKE


WATER FOR DRINKING WITH
SIMPLE TREATMENT

NAME

: TISSERA P.M.R.

INDEX

: 110582T

GROUP

: B3

DATE OF SUB

: 27.07.2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

OVERALL OBJECTIVE.............................................................................................

2.

SELECTION OF LOCATION FOR INTAKE.................................................................

3.

IDENTIFICATION OF ALGAE...................................................................................

4.

JAR TEST...............................................................................................................

5. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE AND FINDING THE BREAK POINT


OF THE CHLORINE....................................................................................................
6.

MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS OF WATER...................................................

7.

CONCLUSION......................................................................................................

8.

REFERENCES......................................................................................................

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1. OVERALL OBJECTIVE
The basic objective of this assignment is to get an insight view of a simple drinking water
treatment facility. In achieving this, the selection of the location, identification of presence
of algae if any, determining the coagulant dosage to be added, estimation of the amount of
Chlorine to be added as the disinfectant and the identification of pathogenic
microorganisms with the aid of coliform as the indicator are the intended sub objectives
that are to be carried out. These sub objectives will be carried out and the results from each
step are to be presented along with an evaluation in the form of a discussion. Necessary
guidelines will be used as applicable to comment on the results. And at the end, a
conclusion is to be presented to evaluate the overall suitability of the water treatment
facility.

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2. SELECTION OF LOCATION FOR INTAKE


2.1.

INTRODUCTION

The location for water intake is one of the most important aspect to consider in the design
process of the water treatment facility since the intake source must be able to satisfy
following criteria.

Availability throughout the year without a remarkable fluctuation


Free from algal blooms
No unacceptable activities carried nearby (washing vehicles, dumping industrial
waste)
Free or less amount of floating waste

2.2.

OBJECTIVES

Identification of the suitable location for the water intake


Compare with guidelines to get an insight view

2.3.

METHODOLOGY

Site visit was carried out and the field measurements were obtained using the sampling
apparatus for open area and shaded area separately.

2.4.

OBSERVATIONS

Following observations were obtained for open and shaded areas.


Parameter
Conductivity (mS/m)
Turbidity (NTU)
Salinity (%)
TDS (g/l)
2.5.

Location 1(Open)
37.1
64.9
0.1
0.2

Location 2(Shaded)
38.8
118.3
0.1
0.2

Location 3(shaded)
38.6
109.4
0.1
0.2

DISCUSSION

Conductivity
This is a measure of ability to pass electricity through the water. The main reason for the
conductivity is the dissolved inorganic solids (both anions and cations). Primarily the
conductivity may be due the geological factors, but this can also be due to discharges to
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stream. Especially a failing sewage system will increase the conductivity with the presence
of chloride, phosphate, and nitrate ions. (WHO recommendation = 250 mS/m)

Turbidity
This is a measure of clarity of water due to suspended material. This indicates how much a
passage of light gets decreased, so that causing many problems associated with the
increment of turbidity. (WHO recommendation = 5 NTU)

Salinity
Salinity is not one of the most important parameters that needs to be considered. But in our
choice of water source, Bolgoda Lake has both upstream and downstream flows resulting
in mixing of sea water. Due to this reason, salinity becomes one of important factor. (WHO
recommendation = 0.05 %)

TDS
Total dissolved solids TDS is a qualitative measure of dissolved ions. Water being a good
solvent pics up the impurities easily and hence this can also be used as a measure of
impurity. The erosion and the discharges in to the water body may affect TDS mainly.
(WHO recommendation = 1.5 g/l)

Even though the above parameters (except salinity) agrees with the WHO
recommendations, in addition there are few aspects to be considered in designing the water
treatment facility.

Pollution at the upstream


There may be future problems arising due to the waste dumping at Karadiyana which is in
the upstream of the place where we are evaluating the possible intake location. There is a
possibility of leachate form that waste dump entering in to the stream causing major
environmental and health problems.

Seasonal variation of availability of water


Even though Bolgoda Lake does not has a much variation in the water quantity with the
season, the water quality may be varied due to flow direction changes, etc. making the
intake water quality inconsistent in considerable amounts.

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3. IDENTIFICATION OF ALGAE
3.1.

INTRODUCTION

Algae are a diverse group of organisms that makes their habitats over a wide range of
environments. Basically they possess the ability to photosynthesis and hence they generate
their own foods.
Being of a diverse group in diverse habitats, the effects they induce are also of a diverse
range, which simply means there are both advantages and disadvantages that comes along
with the presence of algae. Being an important part of the aquatic food chains due to the
photosynthesising ability and utilisation in liquid waste treatment are few advantages that
the algae come with. On the other hand, Oxygen depletion, clogging in water filters,
affecting taste and odour can be mentioned as disadvantages. And also the presence of
blue-green algae may make water toxic and unable to treat or even identify the toxicity
with simple facilities. Hence it is very important to identify the presence of algae in
selecting a water source or an intake for a drinking water treatment facility.

3.2.

OBJECTIVES

To get an understanding about the effects associated with the presence of algae in
water

3.3.

METHODOLOGY

1. The collected water sample from Bolgoda Lake was used for this experiment.
2. Slides were prepared for the identification of algae by placing the glass slides on
a flat surface, adding a drop of sample and lowering the cover slips to spread the
sample without forming any air bubbles.
3. Slides were placed under the microscope to observe the algae.

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3.4.

OBSERVATIONS

Anabaena

Chlamydomonas and Actinastrium

Chlorococcum

Pinnularia and Chlamydomonas

Clostridium

Oscillatoria (moving)

Shaded area

Open area

It was possible to identify the following types of algae from our sample.

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Lyngbya and Oscillatoria


3.5.

Oscillatoria

DISCUSSION

Short descriptions on algae types found are presented below.


Anabaena
A nitrogen fixing blue-green algae which lives as a plankton on shallow water. A common
type of a cyanobacteria.

Chlamydomonas
A single cell green algae which is considered to be a primitive form of life. It has the
ability to absorb the nutrients through the cell surface.

Actinastrium
It has a cigar like cells arranged radially in the form of a star. Found in the plankton of
nutrient-rich lakes and ponds. Can be abundant in sewage ponds.

Oscillatoria
A widely seen cyanobacteria in the nature and participate in creating mats on stagnant
water bodies. It can perform anoxygenic photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria
A family of algae which is also called blue-green algae. It stay near the surface of shallow
waters utilizing a mechanism such as air vesicle controlling their buoyancy according to
the light and nutrient level variation. Since the presence of the cyanobacteria (Anabaena,
Oscillatoria) may cause health risks, the decision to intake water is questionable. The
WHO says that 100,000 cells/mL may cause moderate human health risks, there are no
clear guidelines to evaluate it.

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4. JAR TEST
4.1.

INTRODUCTION

The end product of the treatment process for drinking water is expected to be free of any
colour or odour. This is to ensure that the consumer receives the acceptable quality at the
end. To achieve this, the turbidity should be controlled.
Turbidity may cause due to both

Colloidal solids
Suspended solids

Surface water which is the most common source of water for treatment plants in general, is
having high quantities of both the colloidal solids and suspended solids. So during the
sedimentation step followed by coagulation and flocculation steps the turbidity is removed
or else minimized to an acceptable limit. Hence the coagulation and flocculation processes
are much more important in a water treatment plant.
In jar test, what we do is the estimation of the optimum coagulant dose in optimum pH
value so that a maximum amount of sedimentation can be achieved in minimum time for
the given sample of water.

4.2.

OBJECTIVES

Determination of optimum coagulant dose for the water sample from Bolgoda lake

4.3.

METHODOLOGY

1. Each of 1 l beakers were filled with water samples of 1 l.


2. Each of them were placed in position on the apparatus.
3. Alum solutions of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml and 14 ml were placed in the test
tubes provided.
4. The speed of the apparatus was adjusted to 100 rpm and allowed the apparatus to
stir the samples for 30s after adding the alum solutions to each sample at the same
time.
5. The speed was reduced to 30 rpm and kept stirring the samples for another 20 min.
6. The apparatus was stopped and the flocks were allowed to settle for 30 min.
7. At the end of the 30 min, the turbidity of each sample was measured.

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4.4.

OBSERVATIONS

For the completeness of the test the observations from the other group (sample no. 7 to 12)
also included here.

jar no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Alum quantity (ml)


4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Turbidity (NTU)
7.5
5.5
3.3
2.8
2.2
2.2
1.7
2.5
2.8

* Used alum concentration was 5 g/l


4.5.
jar no
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

CALCULATIONS

Alum quantity (ml)


4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Coagulant dosage (mg/l)


20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Turbidity (NTU)
7.5
5.5
3.3
2.8
2.2
2.2
1.7
2.5
2.8

Specimen calculation of coagulant dose: consider jar no. 3


Concentration of alum solution

= 5 g/l

Coagulant concentration

= 0.008 l x 5 g/l
= 0.040 g/l
= 40 mg/l

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Turbidity(NTU) vs. alum dose


8

Final turbidity (NTU)

10

12

14

16

18

20

Alum dose (ml)

Optimum alum dosage

= 14.8 x 5 mg/l
= 74 mg/l

4.6.

DISCUSSION

Turbidity in water due to colloidal particles should be expelled before issuing water to the
consumers since the presence of cloudiness does not make a good impression and also the
colloidal particles may become carrier media for the pathogenic microorganisms
increasing the health risk associated with. The method to remove those colloidal particles
that used in water treatment is the sedimentation followed by coagulation and flocculation
processes. Hence it is important to estimate the optimum coagulant dosage at optimum pH
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22

value even though we only made the assumption that the sample is at the optimum pH
value.

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5. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE AND FINDING THE


BREAK POINT OF THE CHLORINE
5.1.
INTRODUCTION
Water treatment process generally concludes with the disinfection step. The disinfectants
used in this step can be listed as

Chlorine
Fluorine
Bromine
Iodine
Ozone
UV radiation

Among them, Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant. It is used in various forms
such as

Cl2 gas
liquid Chlorine
Bleaching powder

It is selected according to the need, available facilities, and the suitability.


The reasons for the wide usage of Chlorine are,

Lesser cost
Wider availability
Effectiveness of disinfection

The amount of Chlorine to be added depends on the Chlorine demand of water so that a
residual amount is retained for the disinfection of water.
This Chlorine demand of water may cause by

Iron
Manganese
Hydrogen Sulphide
Other inorganic or organic material in the water.

Providing Chlorine in excess will satisfy the demand and also a free residual can be
obtained so that the disinfection will occur against the pathogenic microorganisms present
in water even over the distribution network for a certain extent.

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5.2.

OBJECTIVES

Estimation of breakpoint of Chlorine and determine a suitable amount to achieve


the breakpoint Chlorination

5.3.

METHODOLOGY

1. Six samples were created adding different amounts of Chlorine as follows


Sample no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Amount of
Chlorine added (ml)
1
2
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

2. A crushed tablet of DPD no. 1 was added to each of the test tubes
3. Test tubes were filled up to 10 ml and mixed well
4. Absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer at 520 nm

5.4.

OBSERVATIONS

For the completeness of the test the observations from the other group (sample no. 7 to 12)
also included here.
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Transmittance (%)
94
89
83
87
90
82
75
60
48
24
12
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12

5.5.
CALCULATIONS
Chlorine (DPD) table was used in this calculations
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Cl2 added (ml)


1
2
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

Transmittance (%)
94
89
83
87
90
82
75
60
48
24
12
4

Residual Cl2 (mg/l)


0.07
0.14
0.22
0.16
0.12
0.22
0.32
0.48
0.85
1.7
2.72
5

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Residual C l2 Vs. C l2 Added


6

Residual Cl2 (mg/l)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Cl2 added (ml)

Breakpoint

= 12.5 ml

Chlorine concentration used = 217 mg/l


5.6.

DISCUSSION

The last step in a general treatment process is the disinfection. The disinfectant we use has
a special kind of an ability to retain in the water and continue the disinfection process to a
considerable extent which is known as the residual power. The disinfectant we use,
Chlorine undergoes certain reactions that decays it. At first the Chlorine is required for the
initial demand which is caused with the presence of inorganic material as iron and
manganese.

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50

Then the organic materials will require Chlorine and after that, the residual Chlorine is
found. Hence it is very important that the breaking point of Chlorine, at which the
residuals are to be found, is estimated so that the decisions can be made on distribution of
safe drinking water.

6. MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS OF WATER


6.1.

INTRODUCTION

The source water may have been contaminated with coliform bacteria which is present in
human and warm blooded animal waste. Faecal coliform is being used as an indicator to
find any faecal contamination which will cause the presence of many pathogenic
microorganisms. Hence identification of faecal coliform is a very important step in
designing a water treatment facility since they cause many illnesses as infections of many
kinds (such as in lungs, ears, etc.), hepatitis, typhoid, etc.

6.2.

OBJECTIVES

Examination of given sample of water for total and faecal coliform bacteria using
the multiple tube fermentation technique
Comment on water quality based on the guidelines for drinking water

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6.3.

METHODOLOGY

1. Preparation of 5 culture tubes containing 10 ml double strength MacConkey


Broth, 10 culture tubes of 100 ml single strength MacConkey Broth and 30
culture tubes containing 5ml BGB medium was done after sterilizing all the
tubes.
2. Five 10 ml sample tubes prepared first using the water taken from the selected
location.
3. Five 10 ml culture tubes containing MacConkey Broth each with 1 ml of sample
were inoculated.
4. 1 ml of sample was added to the dilution bottle contain 9 ml dilution water and
mixed thoroughly. The remaining five 10 ml culture tubes containing MacConkey
Broth were inoculated with 1 ml of this diluted sample.
5. Kept all 15 culture tubes at 370C for 2 days and examined the tubes for gas
collected in the inverted Durham tubes and for colour change (Presumptive test).
6. All the positive culture tubes were taken and inoculated the two BGB culture
tubes with each positive sample.
7. One set of sample was incubated at 37 0C and the other set at 440C for 48 hours
(Confirmatory test).

6.4.

OBSERVATIONS

Presumptive test
Dilution factor
1 ml
0.1 ml
0.01 ml

Shaded area
5
2
2

Open area
5
3
1

Confirmatory test
Shaded area
37 C
44 C
1 ml
5
4
0.1 ml
3
2
0.01 ml
2
0
6.5.
CALCULATIONS

Dilution factor

Open area
37 C
44 C
4
4
2
2
2
0

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The provided table for MPN index and 95% confidence limits was used for composing
following table.

Area

Shaded
Area

Open
Area

Total/Faec
al

Test
Presumptive
Test
Conformity
Test

Total
Faecal

Presumptive
Test
Conformity
Test

Faecal coliform

Total
Faecal

95%
Confidence
Limits
Lower Upper

Positive
Combinations

MPN
Index/100ml

5,2,2

90

40

250

5,3,2
4,2,0

140
22

60
9

360
56

5,3,1

110

40

300

4,2,2
4,2,0

26
22

12
9

63
56

= 22 x 10
= 220 / 100 ml

6.6.

DISCUSSION

Human and animal waste being the main source of bacteria in water enters the water
bodies through seepage, run off and etc. contaminates the water. In this test we monitor the
quality of available water for internal quality control and quality assurance of the process,
monitor the environmental effects, etc.
For various uses, the recommendations are as follows

Drinking 0
Contact sports 150
Non-contact sports 1000

*in faecal coliform per 100 ml

According to the above data, water from Bolgoda Lake does not suitable for drinking
without proper treatment.

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7. CONCLUSION
Following is a series of things we should be considering, that are gathered from above
tests.

Cyanobacteria are present in water


Seasonal changes in water quality parameters is possible
Pollution at upstream may cause major problem in future
Faecal contamination is present

Considering all the above factors, we may propose that the water intake for the drinking
water treatment facility from Bolgoda Lake is not suitable.
Other factors to be considered are

Salinity in water is high and it may be difficult to process


Since cyanobacteria are present, further evaluations may be needed to find out its
effects
Legal actions against the upstream pollution
Steps to disinfect due to faecal contamination

Hence, it is not suitable to use water for drinking with simple treatment

8. REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

http://global.britannica.com/science
www.algaebase.org
http://www.microbelibrary.org/library
http://blooms.uwcfl.org/what-are-habs/#Toxins
http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring
http://water.me.vccs.edu
lecture notes provided

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