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and video

Traditional applications

in robotics and control

Object Recognition

and television

E.g., ad insertion

used in many fields

Todays Overview

degree of abstraction from image

problems and techniques

and applications

Segmentation and recognition because of

potential utility for analyzing images

gathered in the laboratory or the field

optical flow

Segmentation, recovering 3d structure from

motion

applications

abstract categories

Recognition, classification, localization

3

Image Segmentation

A Motivating Example

Dual of edge detection

in human visual perception

recognition

Early work in image processing and clustering

Many approaches

Graph-based

perceptually distinct regions

Mean shift

5

Important Characteristics

G=(V,E) with vertices corresponding to pixels

and edges connecting neighboring pixels

Efficiency

Run in time essentially linear in the number of

image pixels

With low constant factors

4-connected or 8-conneted

Understandable output

difference between connected pixels

A segmentation, S, is a partition of V such

that each CS is connected

E.g., Canny edge operator and step edge plus noise

Perceptually important

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Motivating Example

inadequate

Graph-based representation

Nodes corresponding to pixels, edge weights are

intensity difference between connected pixels

A and B is less than differences

within C

constant regions are

inadequate

Cheapest way to connect all pixels into single

component or region

A

Selection criterion

Fixed threshold

Threshold based on neighborhood

subparts

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Component Measure

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constructing MST

maximum edge weight in its MST

Int(C) = max eMST(C,E) w(e)

merged when adding an edge

connected by edges of at most that weight

lowest to highest weight

minimum edge weight connecting them

Dif(C1,C2) = min v C , v C w((vi,vj))

i 1 j 2

further filter added edges

weight ordered

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12

What appears to be a slight change

Make Dif be quantile instead of min

of merging based on one low cost edge

Why the algorithm stops growing these

Ratio of capacity to demand between nodes

weight MST edges of A and of B

Weight of edges between B and C large wrt max

weight MST edge of B (but not of C)

NP hard and approximated in various ways

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k=300

320 components

larger than 10

k=200

323 components

larger than 10

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Monochrome Example

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affinity (or cost) matrices

weight wij

Affinity if larger when vertices more related

Cost if larger when vertices less related

W is large, avoid constructing explicitly

For images affinities tend to be near zero except

for pixels that are nearby

E.g., decrease exponentially with distance

W is sparse

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Normalized Cuts

cost cuts

been proposed

cut graph in two parts

cut(A,B)

cut(A,B)

+

Ncut(A,B) =

assoc(A,V)

assoc(B,V)

components

iA,jB wij

And assoc(A,V) = j iA wij

components

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integer programming problem, minimize

yT (D-W)y

yT D y

Subject to the constraint that yi{1,b}

and yTD1=0

Instead simply solve continuous (real-valued)

version relaxation method

This corresponds to finding second smallest

eigenvector of

(D-W)yi = i Dyi

D is the degree matrix (diagonal)

D(i,i) = j wij

Often resolution reduce images, e.g, 100x100

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Spectral Methods

Eigenvectors of affinity and normalized

affinity matrices

Widely used outside computer vision for

graph-based clustering

Link structure of web pages, citation structure

of scientific papers

Often directed rather than undirected graphs

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Segmentation

Graph-based techniques such as the ones

illustrated here have been most widely used

and successful

Techniques based on Markov Random Field

(MRF) models have underlying statistical

model

Relatively widespread use for medical image

segmentation problems

method is simple local iterative update

procedure called Mean Shift

Segmentation, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and

Machine Intelligence ,vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 888-905, 2000.

Based Image Segmentation, International Journal of

Computer Vision, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 167-181, 2004.

toward feature space analysis, IEEE Transactions on

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 4,

pp. 603-619, 2002.

25

Recognition

26

Specific objects

properties of the objects

been focused on recognizing specific objects in

images

Comparing sparse features extracted from

images: SIFT-based matching

Generic categories

More recently focus has been on generic

categories of objects rather than specific

individuals

E.g., faces, cars, motorbikes, etc.

27

Hausdorff Distance

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Set of points, P, some distance

DP(x) = minyP x - y

Classical definition

Directed distance (not symmetric)

h(A,B) = maxaA minbB a-b

Distance (symmetry)

DP(x) = miny (x - y + 1P(y) )

transform of B

Maximize over selected values of DT

2 1 2 3

1 0 1 2

1 0 1 2

2 1 2 3

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Hausdorff Matching

Hausdorff Matching

Best match

address robustness to outliers

given space of transformations

Good matches

distance

Often specify as fraction f rather than rank

space defines a distance

1,1,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,4,5,12,14,15

transformations that cannot be good

.25

.5

.75

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1.0

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transformation space

search heuristic

Bound on how good answer

could be in unexplored region

translation in x and y

faster than linearly with translation

out

majority of transformations

for transform at center of each cell

If larger than cell half-width, rule out cell

computing distance at cell center

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in the image

Visual e.g., bike

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Recognition Cues

Appearance

E.g., corners without preserving angle

entire object

locations vary within category (n x n covariance)

Geometry

E.g., face has eyes above nose above mouth

(1960-80) later ones on appearance

(1985-95), more recently using both

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of features are difficult and error prone

Model consists of parts arranged

in deformable configuration

is present without more context

for each part

Deformation cost function

for each connected pair of parts

by springs

Wiggle around until fits no feature detection

Abandoned due to computational difficulty

39

at specific configuration

configurations of parts

L=(l1, , lm)

Where li over discrete

configuration space

fits prior spatial model

for pair of parts i,j

40

No error-prone local

feature detection step

7 nodes

9 edges

(out of 21)

PM(I|l1)

Tractability depends on

graph structure

E.g., for trees

41

PM(I|l2)

42

Graphical Models

Feature based

Local feature detection

(threshold likelihood)

Matching techniques

that handle missing and

extra features

Probabilistic model

Collection of random variables with explicit

dependencies between certain pairs

Single estimation

Determine feature

responses (likelihood)

Dynamic programming

techniques to combine

with spatial model (prior)

causality

Markov random field (MRF)

Reachability corresponds to

(conditional) independence

E.g., case of star graph

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Kinematic structure of

animate objects

considered most eliminated implicitly

Dynamic programming for efficiency

2D image of joint

Spatial configuration for

pair of parts

appearance

Model error, min cost match not always best

Relative orientation,

position and scale

(foreshortening)

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Efficiently generate sample configurations

faster) than using feature detection

Optimization approach [CFH05,FPZ05] for

star or k-fan vs. feature detection for full joint

Gaussian [FPZ03]

Single class, equal ROC error

Used by best 2D human pose

detection techniques, e.g. [RFZ05]

47

Airplane

Motorbike

Faces

Cars

90.2%

92.5%

96.4%

90.3%

Est.-Star [FPZ05]

93.6%

97.3%

90.3%

87.7%

Est.-Fan [CFH05]

93.3%

97.0%

98.2%

92.2%

48

models under weakly supervised regime

models to generate possible parts

instances of the class, no location information

two initial patches compute likelihoods

but requires extensive supervision

fixed k

positive training images

produce initial model

relying on feature detection

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Detection Examples

Black borders illustrate reference parts

Ellipses illustrate spatial uncertainty with

respect to reference parts

Motorbike 2-fan

51

D.P. Huttenlocher, G.A. Klanderman, W.A. Rucklidge,

Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance, IEEE

Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine

Intelligence ,vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 850-863, 1993.

D.G. Lowe, Object recognition from local scale-invariant

features, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattenr

Recognition, pp. 1150-1157, 1999.

D. Crandall, P. Felzenszwalb and D. Huttenlocher, Spatial

priors for part-based recognition using statistical models,

IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattenr

Recognition, pp. 10-17, 2005.

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