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Galgotias College of Engineering & Technology.

Concept Note: Innovative Use of White Cement.

Submitted by:
Saurabh Singh (2nd Year)

November, 2013

In Todays world white cement is being used in numerous places. As we all know, Birla is a one of the
major company for white cement production. At present, the major conventional usages which the companies
are using are: Cement wash, Marble laying, as a grout for flooring and dado, various plaster finishes, In-situ
terrazzo flooring etc. White cement is also being used as a raw material for many products like Cementitious
Putty, Cement Paint, Paver/designer tiles etc. Some of the basic innovative use of white cement can be in grass
reinforced panel, precast panels, landscaping, ornamental article, sculpture, motifs, water fountains,
benches, desks, etc. But now, I am going to present an Innovative idea which will surely make a significant
change in the use of white cement. It is cheap, conventional as well as Eco-friendly. If any cement production
company put their interest in this field and takes this idea, we guess, it will surely enhance the use of white
cement manifolds than it is being used now. My Idea for Innovative use of White Cement is as follow:

Building a Better (Cleaner) World in the 21st Century

Self-cleaning buildings and pollution-reducing roadways: These may sound like futuristic ideas, but

they are realities of some of todays concrete. Recently introduced formulations of white cement are able to
neutralize pollution. Harmful smog can be turned into harmless compounds and washed away. Anything made
out of concrete is a potential application, because these cements are used in the same manner as regular Portland
cements. These products provide value through unique architectural and environmental performance
Proprietary technology (based on particles of titanium dioxide nanoparticles) is what makes this cement
special. The technology can be applied to white cement and it works like any other Portland cement: it can be
used in all varieties of concrete, including plaster. Presumably, applications for mortar might be beneficial, too,
although the mortar has a smaller surface area. The only difference is that it is capable of breaking down smog
or other pollution that has attached itself to the concrete substrate, in a process known as photo-catalysis. As
sunlight hits the surface, most organic and some inorganic pollutants are neutralized. They would otherwise lead
to discolored concrete surfaces.
The titanium-based catalyst is not spent as it breaks down pollution, but continues to work. Typical
products are oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, nitrate, and sulfate. Because rain washes away the pollution from
the concrete surface, buildings stay cleaner and do not require chemical applications that are potentially harmful
to the environment. Maintenance costs are reduced. This is true even for buildings in highly polluted locations
one noted application is the Air France headquarters at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle International Airport
near Paris, a white concrete building that has remained white. Another is the Church of the Year 2000 in
Rome. The new material has used a compound containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles as a white pigment
which has the capability to eat the surrounding smog.

Church of the Year 2000 in Rome.

Air France headquarters at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris

Air France headquarters at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris

Clean buildings are great: A perhaps even more astounding environmental benefit is the potential for

cleaner air. Concrete products that are exposed to sunlight throughout their life, like precast building panels,
pavers, and roof tiles, are especially suited to manufacture with photocatalytic cement. For instance, city streets
made with special pavers are capable of reducing the pollution at its sourcewhere it comes out of the tailpipe.
The need for pavements is ubiquitous. As our population increases, more roads are needed to get people
and goods from place to place. Unfortunately, with this added traffic comes a higher concentration of air
pollution. To reduce our current and future levels of air pollution, more attention is being given to the use of
photocatalytic concrete in pavements.
The internal combustion engine is used everywhere in the United States, from cars to trains to jets.
These engines produce the power required to travel, but also emit pollution. The primary pollution from fossil
fuel combustion is carbon dioxide (CO2), but other gasses are formed, such as NOx and SOx, that can lead to
acid rain, smog, and respiratory issues. According to the EPA, 34% of the national NOx emissions come from
vehicles on roads.
Photocatalytic white cement contains titanium dioxide nanoparticles that act as the catalyst for the
natural breakdown of NOx into nitrates in sunlight. This occurs at the cement surface of the concrete, where
the nitrates can be easily washed away. Without the catalyst, the NOx will breakdown in the atmosphere,
creating photochemical smog and ground level ozone. With an abundant surface area and proximity to a major
source of air pollution, the use of photocatalytic white cement in buildings is a logical concept.
A study conducted in the Netherlands used photocatalytic concrete pavers on a section of a busy
roadway and monitored the air quality 0.5 m (19.5 in.) to 1.5 m (58.5 in.) above the pavement in both a control
area with normal pavers and the test section. It was found that the NOx levels were reduced by 25 to 45 percent.
The Missouri Department of Transportation, with consultation from the CP Tech Center and the
FHWA, is currently preparing for a trial section of photocatalytic pavement in the St. Louis area. The St. Louis
area is designated a non-attainment area with regards to particulate matter with a moderate concern for groundlevel ozone, both being primary components of photochemical smog. The use of photocatalytic pavements or
pavement-related structures is being discussed to bring the region down to attainment levels. The photocatalytic
cement is being evaluated in comparison to typical local Type I cement for strength, permeability, deicer scaling
resistance, air void system, and compatibility with admixtures and curing compounds. So far, the differences
between the control mixture and photocatalytic mixture have been statistically negligible.
Ultimately, the photocatalytic concrete will be tested on a roadway. The current concept for the design is
a two-lift pavement, with the photocatalytic portion being a 2-inch bonded overlay on-top of an 8-inch nonphotocatalytic concrete base. The air quality and, possibly, the run-off water quality will be monitored. The
ultimate goal is to assess the effectiveness of photocatalytic concrete for use in pavements, barrier walls, sound
walls, or other pavement-related structures.
Self-cleaning and mechanical properties of White Cement get enhanced by addition of
commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) and BET were used to characterize TiO2 nanoparticles. Increasing the amount of TiO2 nanoparticles in
modified white cement, self-cleaning property of the samples increased. The mechanical properties of TiO2modified and unmodified cement samples, such as time of setting of hydraulic cement, compressive strength of
hydraulic cement mortar and flexural strength of hydraulic cement mortar were examined. The results indicated

that addition of TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 1.0% improved compressive and
flexural strength and decreased its setting time.

How TiO2 UV Photo-catalytic Oxidation (PCO) Works

Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is achieved when we combine UV light rays with a TiO2 nanoparticles coated
filter. TiO2 refers to Titanium Oxide. This process creates hydroxyl radicals and super-oxide ions, which are
highly reactive electrons.
These highly reactive electrons aggressively combine with other elements in the air, such as bacteria and
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), which include harmful pollutants such as formaldehyde, ammonia and
many other common contaminates released by building materials and household cleaners generally found in the

Once bound together, the chemical reaction takes place between the super-charged ion and the pollutant,
effectively "oxidizing" (or burning) the pollutant. This breaks the pollutant down into harmless carbon dioxide
and water molecules, making the air more purified.

I think these are the some basic areas which a proposal should satisfy:

Scientific merit and feasibility: Proposal must be innovative, feasible and should have a clear and
coherent work plan that demonstrates a high probability of achieving its objectives.

Industrial sector relevance and support: The proposal must identify how the industries are in a
position to exploit their ideas for significant impact.

Environmental Issue: Addressing an issue of national importance which concerns some environment
related problems, would be appreciated.
I think my proposal satisfies all of the above mentioned points.

Thank You.