2.0K tayangan

Diunggah oleh nibbi1

Published at HYDRO 2009 Progress-Potential-Plans, Lyon France

Published at HYDRO 2009 Progress-Potential-Plans, Lyon France

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- ETL 1110-2-542 Thermal Studies of Mass Concrete Structures
- Ansys Step to Step
- Concrete Dams- Seismic Analysis, Design and Re Tri Fitting
- Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of RCC Dams
- Slope Layer Method for the construction of RCC Dams
- fink truss
- Dynardo Analysis of Dams Using ANSYS
- ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC STUCTURES IN ANSYS
- Earth and Rock Fill Dams.PDF
- Design of Concrete Gravity Dam
- Thermal Analysis Rcc Dams
- CADAM User Manual V1.4.3
- Ansys Tutorial
- Concrete Gravity Dam
- Earthquak Analysis in Ansys
- Gravity Dam
- Hydraulic Design of Small Hydro Plants
- Canal Syphon Programme
- Ansys Tutorial
- Object Based Shear Walls

Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Lyon, France

a feasibility level approach

N. A. Khan U. Latif

Engineer (SED) Engineer

National Engineering Services National Engineering Services

Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd. Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd.

NESPAK House Building # 17, F-6 Markaz

Lahore, Pakistan Islamabad, Pakistan

Introduction

At feasibility stage of a hydropower project, site specific data is usually unavailable and various parameters are

to be conservatively assumed. This presents difficulties in initiating an optimum design of the dam. This paper

provides guidelines to carry out structural design studies when the project is at its initial stages. The

implementation of these guidelines to Dasu Hydropower Project is briefly described here for illustration.

Different methodologies for structural analyses and inference to respective codes are also discussed. The

feasibility studies at Dasu were carried out to a thorough standard, easily adequate to demonstrate the viability

of the works proposed. Though detailed studies involving linear and non-linear analyses is imperative for the

design of dams, these may not be economical in the early stages of the project.

1. Dam Features

Dasu Dam is essentially run-of-river project to be constructed about 75 km downstream of Diamer Basha

damsite with the sole purpose of hydropower generation. The project is a part of Pakistan Water and Power

Development Authority’s - Vision 2025. Feasibility studies were carried out by joint venture consultants

NESPAK (Pak), ACE (Pak), MWH (USA), CPE (Switzerland) in association with Binnie & Partners

(Overseas). The objective of the feasibility structural design studies was to provide structural configurations of

the roller-compacted concrete gravity dam and appurtenant structures that result in safe and economically viable

solution. A maximum height of 233m, base width of 213.5m and dam crest length of 584m involving high

volumes of RCC (approximately 4.2 MCM) makes Dasu dam one of the remarkable structures to be built in

future.

2. Proposed Design

Based on hydropower requirements, geotechnical and hydraulic studies, it was proposed that 233m high RCC

gravity dam shall be constructed at Dasu. The design of an RCC dam balances the use of available materials,

the selection of structural features and the proposed methods of construction. Sound rock foundations as

encountered at Dasu damsite are considered the most suitable for RCC gravity dams. Favourable rock

characteristics including high bearing capacity, good shear strength, low permeability and a high degree of

resistance to erosion also governed the choice of an underground power system. The detailed layout of project is

presented in Figure 1.

The structural design studies for Dasu dam were divided into following sections:

Stability analysis of the RCC gravity dam at Dasu was carried out to determine an optimum dam profile

satisfying overall stability including safety against sliding, overturning and uplift. Pseudo-static, pseudo-

dynamic and dynamic methods of analyses were undertaken to determine the dam’s stability under seismic

loadings. In addition, parametric analyses for the sliding stability of dam were performed at the dam-foundation

interface and at the concrete lift joints.

Software CADAM was used for stability analysis. CADAM is designed for use with gravity dams and is based

on rigid body equilibrium and beam theory. Analysis assumptions and various loading conditions were based on

USACE engineering manuals EM 1110-2-2200, 1995 – “Gravity Dam Design” and EM 1110-2-2100, 2005 –

“Stability Analysis of Concrete Structures”. Pseudo-static analysis treats earthquake loads as an inertial force

applied statically to the structure. The loadings are of two types: inertia force due to the horizontal acceleration

of the dam and hydrodynamic forces resulting from the reaction of the reservoir water against the dam. Pseudo-

Section 21 HYDRO 2009

Paper 14 Progress - Potential - Plans

Lyon, France

dynamic analysis is conceptually similar except that it considers dynamic amplification of the inertia forces

along the height of the dam. The oscillatory nature of the amplified inertia forces is however, not considered.

[4]

Sliding Safety Factor Vertical

Design

Earthquake in Comments

Code Usual Unusual Extreme

Stability

USACE 2.0 1.7 1.3 No No site specific ground motion

With site specific ground

USACE 2.0 1.5 1.1 No

motion

USBR 3.0 2.0 >1.0 Yes Rock to foundation contact

Any plane of weakness in

USBR 4.0 2.7 1.3 Yes

foundation

FERC 3.0 2.0 1.3* ** With Cohesion

1.5 (worst

FERC 1.3 (PMF) 1.3* ** Without Cohesion

static case)

*Seismic acceptance based on post-earthquake analysis only (FERC).

**Pseudo-static method not accepted. Dynamic methods required to determine level of damage for post-earthquake evaluation (FERC).

by different codes are given in Table 1. Overturning

stability criteria was based on the load resultant

remaining in the middle 1/3rd of the base for the usual

case and remaining in the middle ½ for unusual

cases. Extreme case results were deemed acceptable

provided the resultant remained within the base. A

special sensitivity analyses was also performed to

check the sliding stability of the shortest monolith

having peak spectral acceleration. In addition, sliding

stability was determined for the case if passive

resistance of rock disappears. The movement of sub-

horizontal rock shear joints beneath the dam was also

checked in stability analysis.

Section 21 HYDRO 2009

Paper 14 Progress - Potential - Plans

Lyon, France

Table 2: Typical Sliding Stability Results and Safety Factors

Criteria Result -Psuedo Dynamic Analysis

Min.

Flotation Flotation

Minimum Sliding Sliding Safety Base Pressure

Load Case Reservoir Level Earthquake Safety Crack

Uplift Safety Factors Safety Factors (MPa)

Factor Length

Relief Factor

(m)

Shear

FRL MRL OBE MCE Ø only

Friction

Usual FRL - - - 67% 1.50 3.00 1.30 2.22 3.14 1.84 2.90 3.76 0

Unusual (1) - MRL - - 67% 1.30 2.00 1.20 2.09 2.97 1.58 2.94 3.53 0

Unusual (2) FRL - OBE - 67% 1.30 2.00 1.20 1.65 2.33 0.91 3.84 3.76 0

Unusual (3) - - OBE - - 1.30 2.00 1.20 7.51 10.15 5.60 0.24 - 0

Unusual (4) FRL - - - 50% 1.30 2.00 1.20 2.11 3.02 1.51 2.90 3.25 0

Unusual (5) FRL - - - 25% 1.30 2.00 1.20 1.93 2.85 1.16 2.90 2.70 0

Unusual (6) FRL - - - 0% 1.30 2.00 1.20 1.75 2.67 0.76 2.90 2.30 0

Extreme FRL - - MCE 67% 1.00 1.10 1.10 1.16 1.58 0.00 5.35 3.76 24.02

Post-Seismic

with pre-seismic

FRL - - - 67% 1.50 2.00 1.20 2.22 3.14 1.84 2.90 3.76 0

uplift (OBE)

with Modified

FRL - - - 0% 1.00 1.30 1.10 1.67 2.48 0.59 2.88 2.16 58.51

uplift (MCE)

Linear elastic finite element analyses were carried out for the dam to determine the magnitude and distribution

of associated stresses and deformational states under static and dynamic loadings. Software SAP2000 version-

11 was used for 2D modeling of the dam body and the rock foundation considering dam-water-foundation

interaction and seismic loadings, using design response spectra for MCE and OBE. 4500 plane strain elements

were modeled for the stress analyses. SAP2000 determines total dynamic response using a modal combination

method. Response spectrum analyses determined absolute maximum values of dynamic response. These

absolute maximum values were converted into actual response using manually configured worksheets which

were later used to determine modified stresses and sliding safety factors.

Under dynamic loadings, 30% compressive strength increase and 50% tensile strength increase was assumed for

mass concrete as per ACI 207.5R-99. Based on this, selected allowable stresses for mass concrete in

compression were 6.3 MPa for usual and 8.19 MPa for unusual and extreme cases. For mass concrete in tension,

allowable stresses of 1.05 MPa were used for usual and 1.58 MPa for unusual and extreme load cases.

The primary purpose of the finite element analysis is stress evaluation. The finite element analysis provides

more stress details for evaluation compared to rigid body stability. It also provides more realistic frequency

based response to earthquake motions. Although finite element method is used more for stress analysis and

evaluation, the stability of the structure can also be evaluated. The resultant force and shear at any plane can be

computed using stress integration. For static FEM analysis, resultant forces should be the same as for rigid body

stability as static equilibrium should be satisfied for both methods. For dynamic FEM analysis using response

spectrum methods, stability evaluation can be considered to be a good estimate. In reality, the peak stresses

along the plane of integration may not occur at the same time step. The steps to obtain resultant forces for

stability evaluation at various elevations are presented below:

i. Import of nodal stress values from software to spreadsheet for all the load cases.

ii. Calculation of normal stresses and shear stresses for static load cases.

iii. Modification of response spectrum results for seismic load cases to positive and negative stresses by

judgment based on the dam behaviour.

iv. Calculation of uplift pressures at respective selected layers of the model.

v. Calculation of total vertical stresses by summing up adjusted seismic stresses, usual stresses due to static

load cases and uplift pressures.

vi. Calculation of individual forces developed in each elements of the layer under consideration and summing

up these forces to determine total vertical force developed in that layer.

vii. Calculation of the total moment for a particular layer by multiplying the vertical forces of each element of

that layer with its respective moment arm.

Section 21 HYDRO 2009

Paper 14 Progress - Potential - Plans

Lyon, France

viii. Determination of location of resultant by dividing the total moment of the selected layer with the total

vertical force calculated in step- vi.

ix. Determination of un-cracked length along the selected layer using formulae given below.

x. Determination of total horizontal force along the selected layer using the procedure discussed in step-i.

xi. Calculation of sliding safety factor.

The formulae used in these calculations are given below:

n

F 22i Ai Ui

i 1

n

H 12i Ai

i 1

n

M 22i Ai ei

i 1

M

e

F

F tan cL

FOS s

H

where,

σ22i = Vertical stress in any element i Figure 3: Typical Stress-Stability Analysis

σ21i = Shear stress in any element i (Extreme Load case)

Ui = Uplift pressure in any element i

F = Sum of all vertical forces acting on a plane

H = Sum of all horizontal forces acting on a plane

Ø = Angle of internal friction

c = Cohesion

e = Location of resultant

L = Length of base in compression for a unit strip of dam equals to 3X

X = Location of resultant form the downstream face of the dam

Thermal cracking is a concern for mass concrete structures and is undesirable in mass concrete dams. When

cement combines with water, an exothermic chemical reaction takes place resulting in a temperature rise of the

concrete mass. Subsequent differential cooling between different areas of the mass concrete or overall cooling

combined with significant foundation restraint can produce considerable thermally induced stresses. The peak

temperature is reached a few days after placement, whereas the cooling process usually takes several weeks,

months or even years until a stable state is reached. It is important that the cooling process is controlled to

minimize the potential for thermally induced cracking.

Dasu dam is situated at high altitude and the mean monthly temperature varies from 2.2°C in winter to 45.6°C

in summer. This difference is large and will present challenges in controlling temperature during construction.

For these feasibility studies, a preliminary thermal analysis was carried out to estimate maximum temperatures

that would be anticipated within the dam body. This gives an insight into possible crack patterns and

determination of block sizes and location of joints for construction.

The thermal analysis adopted for Dasu was a three step process involving data collection, finite element

analysis and mass and surface cracking analysis. The thermal properties were assumed based on data obtained

on similar projects as no material testing was carried out at this stage. A summary of these values is given in

Table 3.

At Dasu dam, MSC.MARC® - version 2005 programme was used to solve the thermo-mechanical and heat

transfer problems encountered. The main body of the dam was modeled using 540 plane strain elements. Non-

linear incremental structural analysis was performed on a time step of 1 month for duration of 10 years after

completion of dam construction. Dynamic transient analysis procedure was also utilized in which MSC.MARC

Section 21 HYDRO 2009

Paper 14 Progress - Potential - Plans

Lyon, France

divides the analysis duration into various increments according to the convergence requirements. The results

obtained from this feasibility level analysis are described as follows.

Table 3: RCC and Rock Foundation properties used in Thermal analysis [2]

Properties RCC Foundation

Modulus of Elasticity, (MPa) 20,000 20,000

Poisson’s Ratio 0.20 0.25

Unit Weight, (kg/m3) 2600 2900

Co-efficient of Thermal Expansion, (per °C) 9 ×10-6 4 ×10-6

Thermal Conductivity, (W/m°C) 2.7 2.7

Specific Heat, (kJ/kg°C) 115 80

Creep Strain Rate, (per MPa) 10 ×10-6 -

The output of the thermal gradient analysis are nodal values i.e. the temperature is given at every node at every

increment. These temperature values were subsequently used for thermal stress analysis. The maximum

temperature observed in the dam body was 46°C with a constant temperature of 24°C attained 4 years after

construction. The plot of temperature contours 10 years after construction is shown in Figure 4.

The Software presented strain values at nodal points which were converted into stresses and then compared with

allowable stress limits. High tensile stresses were caused near the base of dam due to foundation restraint

coupled with the noticeable temperature change. Compressive stresses also developed due to differential

temperatures but these are not of concern in these crack analysis studies.

The number of cracks and their spacing were determined in longitudinal and transverse directions. Thermal

strain values were compared with limiting values as provided by USACE ETL 1110-2-542 (1997). These

studies revealed that transverse joints can be accepted at fairly wide spacings, however, based on RCC

placement rates, block widths were kept variable between 20 to 25 m. The final selection depends on

contractor’s expertise and construction methodologies. A longitudinal gallery was proposed parallel to the dam

axis which will be used for future monitoring, drainage and grouting. A second, lower longitudinal gallery will

also be constructed just above the foundation. A longitudinal joint will be constructed between these two

galleries by impressing a slot vertically through RCC lifts using pneumatically driven steel plates and a geo-grid

inserted at the bottom of the respective lift.

Concrete dams crack at points of least resistance and greatest restraint. Vertical transverse cracks do not affect

the stability of RCC gravity dam. The problem associated with such cracks is the potential for seepage. For

Section 21 HYDRO 2009

Paper 14 Progress - Potential - Plans

Lyon, France

Dasu, it was noted that the potential for cracking increased near the base of the dam due to restraint effect and

so special measures would be taken during construction to minimize this. Post cooling is possible but expensive

for such large structures and therefore the focus will be more on temperature control during concrete placement

using such measures as incorporating flaked ice in the mix and the pre-cooling of aggregates before mixing.

Effective curing during construction will also be required.

The power generation system at Dasu will be constructed underground. Its components include power tunnels,

powerhouse complex, draft tube and tailrace tunnels. The feasibility level structural designs of these structures

involved determination of adequate thickness for concrete and steel linings to resist all internal and external

loading.

Structural models were developed in SAP2000 for control sections of power house, intake structure, penstock,

tailrace tunnel and diversion tunnel. Interaction among rock mass, surrounding concrete and steel lining in

penstock was modeled and underground openings were subjected to relevant internal and external pressures

based on criteria set forth in USACE EM 1110-2-2901, 1997 – “Tunnels and Shafts in Rocks”. The load sharing

by the materials depends on the moduli of elasticity, Poisson’s ratios and shear and flexural thickness of all

elements.

Rock modulus of deformation was taken as 8.3 GPa whereas reduced moduli equal to 3.5 GPa was assumed due

to the disturbance effects in the periphery of excavated opening. Eight power tunnels were proposed in the Dasu

project each having a dedicated penstock. The power tunnels consisted of two portions a) square tunnel of size

8.5 m × 8.5 m provided before the vertical gate shaft b) circular tunnel of diameter 8.5 m provided after the gate

structure.

The penstocks layout was such that they run in close vicinity of underground structures and any possible

leakage from penstock will be detrimental for electrical installations. Structural dimensions of the linings for the

penstocks were established to resist the internal design pressures. Structural analysis was carried out for

different loads and it was observed that the internal pressure carried by concrete lining is 1229.5 kN/m2 while

that carried by steel lining is 910.1 kN/m2. Steel lining was analysed for resistance to external water pressure

assuming that whole load is to be carried by steel lining alone. Curves based on Jacobsen’s equations developed

by E.T. Moore were used to determine critical buckling pressure for 40mm thick steel lining. Stiffeners were

not considered in this analysis. Critical buckling pressure was determined to be 967 kN/m2 and the applied

external water pressure was 655 kN/m2.

Analysis of underground powerhouse requires input from electrical and mechanical, geological and structural

engineers to evolve an optimized design. Lining and rock support elements are less affected by seismic waves

but any structural member present inside the cavern experience seismic shears since the natural time period

differs from the period of earthquake. This was considered in the design of crane supports and machine

foundations in the powerhouse complex.

Four D-shaped, long tailrace tunnels of size 10m by 12.5m were proposed for Dasu project to convey

discharges emerging from powerhouse through draft tubes and surge tanks, back to the river. As the 2.6 km

long tunnels cross Khoshe fault, so fissured and jointed rocks are expected in the surrounding of the tunnel.

Therefore, concrete lining was proposed for preventing the rock pieces from falling in the tunnel in addition to

resisting the hydrostatic pressure.

3. Conclusions

At feasibility stage, the main emphasis is laid on determining the optimum dam profile which is safe against all

anticipated loads and at minimum cost. Each dam is a prototype and special methodologies have to be

established for analyzing the structural integrity at the expense of huge resources. A number of conservative

assumptions are generally inherent at this stage. As the project progresses, refinements are incorporated based

on site specific data and material properties. RCC gravity dams behave similar to conventional concrete dams

and plenty of design techniques are available in literature.

At Dasu, all efforts were made to establish sufficiently accurate methodology for analyzing various structures

with minimum allocated resources. The results achieved from this feasibility study satisfy the basic principles of

stability and economy and hold a good precedence for future works.

Section 21 HYDRO 2009

Paper 14 Progress - Potential - Plans

Lyon, France

References

[1] American Concrete Institute 207.5R-99 “Roller Compacted Mass Concrete” Reported by ACI Committee

207.

[2] Berga, Jofre and Chonggang “Roller Compacted Concrete Dams”, Proceedings of the 4th international

symposium on RCC Dams, 2003.

[3] “Gravity Dam Design”, EM 1110-2-2200, US Army Corps of Engineers, 1995.

[4] Leclerc M. et-al, CADAM User’s Manual version 1.4.3. École Polytechnique de Montréal, 2001.

[5] “Non linear Incremental Structural Analysis of Massive Concrete Structures”, EM 1110-2-536, US Army

Corps of Engineers, 1994”.

[6] “Stability Analysis of Concrete Structures”, EM 1110-2-2100, US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE),

2005.

[7] “Thermal Studies of Mass Concrete”, EM 1110-2-542, US Army Corps of Engineers, 1997.

[8] “Tunnels and Shafts in Rock”, EM 1110- 2-2901, US Army Corps of Engineers, 1997

The Authors

Nabeel A. Khan graduated in Civil Engineering from University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Pakistan. He is

currently employed as Structural Engineer in National Engineering Services Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd. and has worked on the

feasibility studies of Dasu Hydropower Project. He has also been involved in the detailed design of different small

hydropower projects and industrial units in Pakistan.

U.Latif also graduated in Civil Engineering from University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Pakistan and is

working as Structural Engineer in NESPAK (Pvt.) Ltd. and has co-worked at the feasibility studies of Dasu Hydropower

Project. He was involved in carrying out the stability and stress analyses of the dam. Currently he is involved in the design of

high rise building structures.

- ETL 1110-2-542 Thermal Studies of Mass Concrete StructuresDiunggah olehdyc123
- Ansys Step to StepDiunggah olehNono_geotec
- Concrete Dams- Seismic Analysis, Design and Re Tri FittingDiunggah olehGeorge Cristian Iordache
- Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of RCC DamsDiunggah olehNabeel Khan
- Slope Layer Method for the construction of RCC DamsDiunggah olehnibbi1
- fink trussDiunggah olehJommel Gonzales
- Dynardo Analysis of Dams Using ANSYSDiunggah olehArmin Ademovic
- ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC STUCTURES IN ANSYSDiunggah olehAdil Javed Chaudhary
- Earth and Rock Fill Dams.PDFDiunggah olehchakfarmer
- Design of Concrete Gravity DamDiunggah olehAdil Javed Chaudhary
- Thermal Analysis Rcc DamsDiunggah olehAttilio Siviero
- CADAM User Manual V1.4.3Diunggah olehVishal Rathod
- Ansys TutorialDiunggah olehborchec
- Concrete Gravity DamDiunggah olehsugijo
- Earthquak Analysis in AnsysDiunggah olehIgor Gjorgjiev
- Gravity DamDiunggah olehDevesh Kumar
- Hydraulic Design of Small Hydro PlantsDiunggah olehmassi99
- Canal Syphon ProgrammeDiunggah olehchitransh2002
- Ansys TutorialDiunggah olehSureshv Suri
- Object Based Shear WallsDiunggah olehpencilstructure
- UFC 3-310-02A Structural Design Criteria for Buildings (03!01!2005)Diunggah olehBob Vines
- Diaphragms and Shear WallsDiunggah olehCarl Kohler
- Shear WallDiunggah olehriz2010
- SAP Manual HandbookDiunggah olehDennyza
- Handout 111Diunggah olehgendadeyu552625
- Shear WallDiunggah olehsanthu256
- Concrete Shear Wall Frame InteractionsDiunggah olehrobersasmita
- ansysDiunggah olehjndn
- Japan Construction Information On Recent Concrete Structure _2007-2009.pdfDiunggah olehmyke_0101

- PL2303 User Installation ManualDiunggah olehHardi Rahman
- 9781784391324_Apache_ZooKeeper_Essentials_Sample_ChapterDiunggah olehPackt Publishing
- vt82c693aDiunggah olehМилован Мартиновић
- Articles_Cpk PpkDiunggah olehvijay2101
- APP016 (Claddding Works PNAP 59)Diunggah olehTerry Wan
- Ferco Arc LrDiunggah olehSiddarth Madan
- DesignBuckConverter0803.pptDiunggah olehValentin Plyusnin
- Information Technology Infrastructure LibraryDiunggah olehSudipta Das
- Settlement in BridgesDiunggah olehrajivkannan
- BA-921Diunggah olehJason Cecile
- Topical Study Green RooftopDiunggah olehUzey Zaib
- 88540543-Batch-Control-IsA-9-21-2010Diunggah olehtroity
- Silq Series 1000Diunggah olehJohn
- TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONDiunggah olehRajeev Lochan Swain
- Smart Academy an IoT approach A survey on IoT in educationDiunggah olehIJARTET
- Optical Flat and InterferometryDiunggah olehsreehari
- Oil and Gas Roundtable Members 29-5-15Diunggah olehQuang Huy Trần
- Tower Tray oil and gas industryDiunggah olehHeet Patel
- Modern Workplace White PaperDiunggah olehCath
- Digital Booklet - Release the PanicDiunggah olehNikita Gerasimchuk
- IRJET-Analytical Investigation of Beam-Column Joint Retrofitted with CFRPDiunggah olehIRJET Journal
- Policy Service Request FormDiunggah olehRavindra Shinde
- The Production of CompostDiunggah olehchennai1st
- Geometric Structure of High-dimensional Data and Dimensionality Reduction WangDiunggah olehFabiánPL
- G_4852_Micro_R_161109Diunggah olehNest Necture
- VTU 1st year basic electronics Transducer notes PDFDiunggah olehSUSHANTH K J
- Formula Erbs c 1 0.OfficialDiunggah olehchristian007gmail
- Datasheet IC 4017Diunggah olehTri Kusbianto
- Lean MaintenanceDiunggah olehrodocamp
- EUG2LGPr3-6-SoundingRocketsDiunggah olehaprilswapnil